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SECTION 2 ANALYSIS OF PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

This section presents each Program Activity in greater detail vis--vis results expected and results achieved. For each Program Activity, the plans associated with the priorities and strategies discussed in Section 1 are presented at the Program Sub-Activity level. The table below is a cross-walk that shows where each plan associated with CSC's priorities and strategies is situated within the Program Activity Architecture (PAA).


CSC Strategic
Priority
Strategies Plans PAA: Related Sub-Activity49

Safe transition of offenders into the community

Enhance supervision and monitoring tools for higher-risk offenders in the community

Community Supervision

Case Management

Electronic Monitoring

Case Management

Partnerships

Case Management

Employment Continuum

CORCAN

Community Programs

Program Development and Delivery

Adapt the assessment process at reception (intake) for shorter sentences

Offender Intake Assessment

Case Management

Security Classification Tools (for women offenders)

Case Management

Amend case management and programming approaches to provide timely and purposeful interventions for shorter sentences

Targeted Interventions

Program Development and Delivery

Violence Prevention Program for Women Offenders

Program Development and Delivery

Enhance the role of Community Correctional Centres (CCCs) in managing the transition to the community

Role of Community Correctional Centres

Case Management



CSC Strategic
Priority
Strategies Plans PAA: Related Sub-Activity

Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions

Develop and implement measures to reduce violence in institutions

Strategic Intelligence

Security

Develop and implement additional measures to reduce illicit drugs in institutions

Drug Interdiction

Security

Strategic Plan

Security

Enhance staff safety

Front-line Roles and Responsibilities

Security

Assaultive Behaviour

Security

Staff Safety

Security

Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Mtis and Inuit offenders

Develop and implement culturally appropriate interventions

Aboriginal Correctional Programs

Program Development and Delivery

Population Management

Case Management

Aboriginal Reintegration

Case Management

Address CSC internal systemic barriers and develop cultural competence

Systemic Barriers

Case Management

Aboriginal Employee Representation

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

CSC Cultural Competence

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Improve the continuum of care for Aboriginal women offenders

Assessment

Case Management

Programming

Program Development and Delivery

Interventions

Case Management

Knowledge

Case Management

Enhance collaboration

Internal Collaboration

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Horizontal Collaboration

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Aboriginal Community Engagement

Case Management



CSC Strategic
Priority
Strategies Plans PAA: Related Sub-Activity

Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders

Implement Community Mental Health Initiative

Refer to Section 2.1.2

Health Services

Strengthened management practices

Clarify roles and responsibilities

Succession Management

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Operational Responsibilities

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Program Evaluation

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Enhance the values and ethics program and results

Values and Ethics Unit

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

National Values and Ethics Program

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

National Informal Conflict Management System (ICMS)

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Strengthened Independent Audit Function

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Improve internal communications

Strategy and Action Plan

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

New Products, Tools and Services

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Cross-Sectional Staff Survey

CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

Enhance the management of infrastructure needs and address facility rust-out

Investment Strategy Development

Accommodation Services

An Updated Comprehensive Capital Plan

Accommodation Services


2.1 Care and Custody Program Activity

Description of Program Activity: Administering a sentence through reasonable, safe and humane custody.

CSC is mandated to provide custody to offenders in a secure and safe environment while preparing them for eventual release. As CSC institutions are, by necessity, isolated from society, CSC provides for many of the day-to-day needs of offenders in custody. The Care and Custody Program Activity includes a wide range of activities that address health and safety issues, including providing basics such as food, clothing and mental and physical health care. It also addresses security within (as well as outside) the walls of institutions, including secure facilities, drug interdiction, and appropriate control practices to prevent incidents such as an escape or an assault on staff or inmates.

The Care and Custody Program Activity is comprised of the following key Sub-Activities: Security, Health Services, and Accommodation Services.50

Expected Result: Reasonable, safe, secure and humane custody.

For fiscal year 2006-07, the corporate priorities associated with the Care and Custody Program Activity were:

  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders; and
  • Strengthened management practices.

The total planned and actual spending, and human resource allocations, related to this Program Activity were:

2006-07 Total Financial Resources ($ millions)


Planned Spending Authorities Actual Spending

1,228.1

1,418.8

1,397.9


2006-07 Total Human Resources (full-time equivalents)


Planned

Actual

Difference

10,406

10,454

(48)


2.1.1 Security Sub- Activity

Planned Spending for 2006-07: $581.4 million

Actual Spending for 2006-07: $790.6 million

Expected Result: The safety, security and rights of staff, offenders and the public are safeguarded.

CSC must ensure the safety of staff, offenders and visitors in institutions. This is achieved through preventing violence (including assaults by inmates), intercepting illicit drugs, and enhancing safety and security measures.

2.1.1.1 Plans and Results

Enhance Strategic Intelligence

Maximizing the use of technology for timely, accurate, and confidential information sharing is crucial to mitigating safety and security risks in institutions.

SINet software was installed in institutions to allow encrypted exchange of information among Security Intelligence Officers (SIOs). This allows SIOs to send documents and exchange e-mails in real time that contain 'Protected C' information,51 both between two SIOs and by setting up a forum for input from more than two SIOs.

This exchange helps interrupt inmate plans to get drugs into an institution and prevents escapes or disturbances that would endanger those within the correctional environment or community. When shared with community law enforcement partners, the information obtained may also assist in preventing or solving criminal activity in the community.

Develop and Implement a Strategic Plan

Preventing the introduction of drugs into an institution has been an ongoing challenge for all modern correctional systems, including CSC. While keeping drugs out of institutions is a high priority, a strategy is needed that recognizes efforts are also required in the areas of treatment, enforcement and harm reduction when drugs do get inside or when legitimate medications are abused.

An overall Strategic Plan was drafted, identifying strategies for communication, training, programs and other future actions CSC can pursue to create drug-free institutions and mitigate harm when drugs are available. The first stage of the Plan is to enhance CSC's interdiction efforts to prevent drugs from entering the institution. Other elements of the Plan will be introduced as resources are realigned or additional resources are identified.

Strengthening CSC's Drug Interdiction Plan

Building on the experiences to date, and the recommendations of the Audit of Drug Interdiction Activities,52 an enhanced drug interdiction plan was developed and implemented, which included increased use of drug dogs and ion scanning technology as well as enhanced searching within the institution.

Clarifying Front-line Roles and Responsibilities

Over time, the offender population changes, the labour market changes, and CSC accumulates additional correctional experience and knowledge. Maximizing the effectiveness of CSC's human resources requires periodic review.

Following a review of its 20-year-old staff deployment model, CSC developed a more effective means of deploying staff, which will enhance the safety of the public, staff and inmates. A national and regional implementation team was established to ensure the development of new security staff deployment standards. As well, the team developed an implementation strategy that was approved in February 2007. Institutional managers initiated a local planning and consultation process to prepare for implementation of the new standards and operating practices in 2007-08. Implementation began in September 2007.

Enhance Staff Safety

In order for staff to be able to perform their duties, and make optimum use of the new deployment strategy, they need safe environments in which to work.

CSC is enhancing the physical safety of staff with measures such as the provision of protective equipment, specialized training for Correctional Officers (e.g., gang identification and management) and by reviewing measures such as access to OC spray53 and firearms.

The draft implementation protocol for stab-resistant vests has been completed and will be sent to the field for consultation. Procurement of additional vests is underway. Additionally:

  • Ballistics vests were distributed to all medium and maximum security sites;
  • Correctional officers and most Primary Workers (who work in women's institutions) were issued hand-cuffs, keys and pouches;
  • Training on gangs was delivered in two CSC regions, and specialized interviewing skills for Security Intelligence Officers was delivered in one region;
  • Pilot projects are currently underway in two maximum security institutions to determine the effectiveness of equipment that would allow for the use of OC spray in large areas; and
  • A three-year implementation plan for replacing all CSC firearms (side-arms, gas guns, shotguns and rifles) was approved, and procurement of the side-arms has commenced.

Reporting Assaultive Behaviour

By nature, correctional environments can be high-tension environments. This tension is sometimes discharged in a variety of negative behaviours such as spitting, throwing bodily fluids and wastes, verbal assaults and threats, and physical assaults and injuries.

Understanding the actual level of risk in CSC's institutions is important for choosing the best preventative interventions and for providing staff, their families, and the community with a balanced and realistic understanding of the correctional work environment.

CSC is working with union representatives on improving reporting of assaultive behaviour against staff in an effort to implement a more consistent approach for dealing with unacceptable behaviour in institutions and provide safe working environments.

The definition of "assault", for purposes of data collection and for staff leave-of-absence, has been expanded to include such activity as spitting, throwing of bodily fluids, and persistent or severe verbal threats.

2.1.1.2 Key Performance and Other Indicators

As per CSC's Program Activity Architecture, the key performance indicator for the Security Sub-Activity is the number/rate of security incidents by type. Statistics on major security incidents in institutions were presented in Section 1.6, and are presented in more detail in the following table.

Major Institutional Incidents Details54


  02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Major Disturbance

4

8

1

0

2

Murder - Staff

0

0

0

0

0

Murder - Inmate

2

8

3

3

3

Hostage Taking/Forcible Confinement

3

1

2

5

2

Suicide

12

11

9

10

10

Assault on Staff

0

0

1

6

2

Assault on Inmate

51

43

31

39

40

Inmate Fight

11

7

6

5

12

Attempted Murder

2

0

0

0

1

Escapees from Maximum

0

0

0

0

0

Escapees from Medium

0

1

1

0

0

Escapees from Minimum

48

54

31

26

37

Escapees from Multi-Level

0

1

1

0

0

Escapees from Escort (Max)

0

0

0

0

0

Escapees from Escort (Med)

0

0

0

0

0

Escapees from Escort (Min)

0

0

0

0

0

Escapees from Escort (Multi)

0

1

0

0

0

Major Institutional
Incidents Total

year

133

135

86

92

109

3-year average

141.7

133.0

118.0

104.3

95.7

Institutional Flowthrough

year

18588

18532

18623

19039

19490

3-year average

18628

18567

18581

18731

19051

Rate

year

0.7%

0.7%

0.5%

0.5%

0.6%

3-year average

0.8%

0.7%

0.6%

0.6%

0.5%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (July 31, 2007). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

The data illustrates that, although the number of offenders flowing through the institutions has increased in the last five years, the number of incidents has declined slightly, and the rate of major incidents has remained relatively stable. This suggests that efforts at managing the changing offender profile have had some limited success and should improve further given the recent measures taken.

The following table shows the number and rate of incidents in the community.

Community Incidents55


  2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

Murder

9

4

12*

7

7

Attempted Murder

5

8

4

2

5

Sexual Assault

21

14

15

15

26

Major Assault

72

61

59

42

13

Hostage Takings

0

1

2

0

1

Unlawful Confinement

4

4

1

3

3

Armed Robbery

30

62

60

64

51

Robbery

68

62

34

48

64

Other

29

19

21

19

16

Total

year

238

235

208

200

186

3-year average

234

229

227

214

198

Community Flowthrough

year

16382

16168

16156

16368

16399

3-year average

16656

16387

16235

16231

16308

Incident Rate

year

1.5%

1.5%

1.3%

1.2%

1.1%

3-year average

1.4%

1.4%

1.4%

1.3%

1.2%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (June 30, 2007). Community Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

* Includes the murder of a CSC Staff member.

The number and rate of incidents in the community has declined in the last five years, as has the number of offenders in the community under supervision. There has been a dramatic decline in major assaults but at the same time an increase in sexual assaults and robberies in recent years.

CSC faces particular challenges from offenders released on Statutory Release, which mandates release after an inmate has served two-thirds of their sentence. Less than sixty percent of Statutory Release supervision periods are completed without revocation56 and seventy-five percent of violent re-offending in the community by federal offenders is committed by offenders on Statutory Release.

2.1.2 Health Services Sub-Activity

Planned Spending for 2006-07: $144.5 million

Actual Spending for 2006-07: $156.7 million

Expected Result: Offenders are provided with essential health care (including mental health care) in accordance with professionally accepted standards.

The Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA) requires that CSC provide every inmate with essential health care and with reasonable access to non-essential mental health care in accordance with professionally accepted standards. This improves their participation in correctional programs and reduces their public health and safety risk.

2.1.2.1 Plans and Results

Implement the Community Mental Health Initiative

CSC is observing an increase in the mental health needs of offenders coming into the federal system. Offenders are entering with an increased number of prior mental health diagnoses and problems such as addictions. In response, CSC developed a multi-year, multi-faceted Mental Health Strategy starting in 2005-06.

The initiative's goal is to ensure that inmates requiring mental health services receive the appropriate preparation for reintegration, and can transition to the community mental health system at the appropriate time with continuity of support.

In 2006-07, the second year of five-year funding for this initiative:

  • An evaluation plan and a measurement strategy were developed;
  • The initial two-day national mental health training package was developed and piloted. As well, a version of the training focusing on women's mental health was prepared and delivered to women's halfway house staff;
  • Approximately 50% of newly created clinical positions were filled or candidates identified. (The remainder of the positions are expected to be staffed by Fall 2007. Although it had been anticipated that 90% of these positions would be hired by March 2007, there were significant staffing delays due to difficulties associated with the creation of new positions and establishing their classifications); and
  • Over 40 regional service contract proposals have been approved, of which approximately 25 are currently in place. They provide services and support to offenders with mental disorders under CSC jurisdiction in the community.

Apart from the Community Mental Health Initiative, CSC undertook some preliminary work in other areas of the Mental Health Strategy, for which, until late in the fiscal year, it had not received funding. Examples include:

  • The Regional Reception and Assessment Centre (RRAC) in the Pacific Region reached the half-way mark in a pilot project involving mental health screening and assessment of offenders at intake; and
  • Following the preliminary data from the RRAC, the Computerized Mental Health Intake Screening System was developed. This system, incorporating computerized testing technology, is a cost-effective alternative to the resource-intensive model used in the pilot project at RRAC to screen and assess offenders for mental health problems. The system facilitates the gathering of data regarding the prevalence of mental disorders in the inmate population that enables better planning.

2.1.2.2 Key Performance and Other Indicators

CSC's Program Activity Architecture identifies the key performance indicators for the Health Services Sub-Activity: Medical intake assessments completed and services provided according to professional standard.

With respect to health intake assessments, all offenders admitted to a CSC institution receive a health intake assessment within 48 hours of admission to assess their current state of health and prescribe treatment as necessary.

With respect to the quality of health services, in 2006-07, all institutions completed a verification tool against four criteria. These criteria and the national compliance rates were as follows:

The institution ensures that:

  • Offenders have access to essential health care services by registered professionals 24 hours per day (98.1% compliance);
  • Appropriate procedures are in place for dealing with hunger strikes; (96.3% compliance);
  • Appropriate health-related procedures are followed prior to an inmate's transfer (98.1% compliance); and
  • A team of professionals provides quality mental health services to offenders in keeping with community standards (92.5% compliance).57

Areas of deficiency were noted and remedial actions identified.

Another means of testing CSC's performance against its commitment is to examine the complaints and grievances received from offenders concerning Health Services. Upheld grievances are those where the complainant's objections were deemed valid.

The rate of complaints and grievances have remained relatively stable despite an increase in the inmate population and growing public expectations for better health care services.

Upheld Inmate Health Care-Related Complaints and Grievances


  2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

Complaints

244

268

226

248

251

Institutional Level Grievances

31

40

32

27

37

Regional Level Grievances

6

17

16

24

17

National Level Grievances

4

15

4

9

13

Institutional Flowthrough

18588

18532

18623

19039

19490

Total

285

340

278

308

318

Rate

1.5%

1.8%

1.5%

1.6%

1.6%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (August 5, 2007). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

2.1.3 Accommodation Services Sub-Activity

Planned Spending for 2006-07: $392.1 million

Actual Spending for 2006-07: $345.6 million

Expected Result: Accommodation of offenders is safe, secure and humane

CSC manages offenders' sentences through reasonable, safe and humane custody. This includes the provision of safe, secure and humane accommodations.

2.1.3.1 Plans and Results

Providing appropriate accommodations is a challenge in a situation where the buildings receive constant and heavy use, must accommodate people in close quarters under varying degrees of control, sometimes over very long periods, and must facilitate a variety of services and purposes.

There are two plans associated with the Accommodation Services Sub-Activity:

Develop a Long-Term Investment Strategy

Correctional facilities are expensive to construct or modify. With changes in society at large come new challenges in protecting the public, delivering necessary programs and services, and taking advantage of the most current technology and correctional approaches. It is important, therefore, to identify long-term pressures and anticipate future needs accurately. Accordingly, CSC developed a long-term capital plan in order to meet the intentions of the Treasury Board policy on management of real property with the application of an Integrated Investment Strategy.

Update CSC's Comprehensive Capital Plan

To address short-to-medium term issues, in 2006-07, CSC tabled two versions of a capital plan within its National Capital, Accommodation and Operations Plan (NCAOP)--one within the existing reference levels and one requiring an increase to the capital reference levels. The capital plan was recognized as "a good transitional start toward the proposed Investment Planning Policy" in CSC's latest Management Accountability Framework assessment by TBS. CSC is awaiting formal TBS review of the NCAOP.

CSC continued, within existing capital reference levels, implementing its Long Term Capital Plan towards realizing its corporate priorities, including addressing both a changing offender population and infrastructure and facility rust-out.

Projects of note in 2006-07 include:

  • Achieving key milestones in major redevelopments at Springhill, Collins Bay and Cowansville institutions;
  • Completion of critical infrastructure replacement projects; and
  • The initiation of construction at Kent Institution and Saskatchewan Penitentiary of the first new maximum-security housing units in over 20 years.

Notwithstanding this progress, the next phase of major institutional redevelopments had to be delayed due to resource limitations.

As an interim strategy, CSC was successful in obtaining additional partial funding, as part of the 2007 Federal Budget,58 to initiate critical infrastructure replacements pending the results of the current independent Panel Review. The funding, provided over two fiscal years, will target the highest priority areas, including fire safety (equipment and training), electronic security systems, vehicle fleet, infrastructure maintenance, enhanced security measures and equipment, environmental protection (drinking water quality), as well as food and health equipment.

2.1.3.2 Key Performance and Other Indicators

As per the Program Activity Architecture, the key performance indicator for the Accommodation Services Sub-Activity is: Accommodations meet all legal and policy requirements.

As the following table shows, the number of upheld inmate complaints and grievances with regard to accommodations-related issues has declined over the past three years.

Upheld Accommodation-Related Complaints and Grievances


  2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

Complaints

150

160

181

145

115

Institutional Level Grievances

13

11

20

9

18

Regional Level Grievances

2

3

1

6

9

National Level Grievances

0

2

1

1

0

Institutional Flowthrough

18588

18532

18623

19039

19490

Total

165

176

203

161

142

Rate

0.9%

0.9%

1.1%

0.8%

0.7%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (August 5, 2007). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

The number of complaints and grievances has remained relatively stable over time, although there was a decline in complaints in 2006-07.

2.2 Rehabilitation and Case Management Program Activity

Description of Program Activity: Assisting in the safe rehabilitation and reintegration of offenders into communities.

Case management begins when offenders enter the correctional system, and continues for as long as they are under supervision, whether in an institution or in the community.

Case management is closely aligned with rehabilitation. Incarceration and supervision alone do not produce the long-term changes that many offenders require in order to lead productive, law-abiding lives in the community. Correctional interventions, which include programs in the institution and in the community, are necessary to help bring about positive changes in behaviour. These interventions are aimed at addressing problems that are directly related to offenders' criminal behaviour and that interfere with their ability to function as law-abiding members of society.

The Rehabilitation and Case Management Program Activity includes the following major Sub-Activities: Case Management, and Program Development and Delivery.59

Expected Result: Safe reintegration into the community when appropriate and consistent with the law.

For fiscal year 2006-07, the priorities associated with this Program Activity were:

  • Safe transition of offenders into the community; and
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Mtis and Inuit offenders.

The total planned spending and human resource allocations related to this Program Activity were:

2006-07 Total Financial Resources ($ million)


Planned Spending Authorities Actual Spending

487.5

501.6

470.4


2006-07 Total Human Resources (full-time equivalents)


Planned Actual Difference

4,008

3,917

91


2.2.1 Case Management Sub-Activity

Case management practices and policies are developed to ensure that offenders' sentences are managed based on informed decision-making that takes into consideration interventions, risk management and, most importantly, public safety. To achieve this, all offenders are assessed throughout their sentence, via a Correctional Plan developed upon admission and regularly updated, in order to ensure that staff can provide the necessary interventions at the appropriate times.

2.2.1.1 Plans and Results

Enhance Collaborative Community Supervision

CSC works with local police to ensure public safety while offenders are under supervision in the community. In this partnership, CSC explores opportunities for collaborative ventures to maximize mutual effectiveness.

Reporting Centres are police-operated locations where offenders report to confirm they are in compliance with probation or parole regulations. CSC planned to implement a Reporting Centre in each of its five regions. This plan was put on hold due to lack of funding. As well, a local evaluation of the Vancouver Reporting Centre, completed in August 2006, suggests that while reporting centres prove useful for offenders who have a positive release plan and for offenders transitioning from a halfway house setting, their efficacy is limited unless the offenders are first stabilized in terms of housing and community support.

Treasury Board provided dedicated funding for CSC to implement a Police-Parole Initiative embodied in the form of Community Corrections Liaison Officers (CCLOs). Arrangements have been made for 17 CCLOs to be located in parole offices across Canada . As of March 2007, CSC had 11 CCLOs via Interchange Canada agreements with various police forces. The CCLOs are currently deployed in parole offices across the country.

CCLOs are involved in a number of activities, including:

  • Offender supervision interviews with Parole Officers when staff safety is a concern;
  • Tandem supervision with Parole Officers as required by policy for a specific group of recently released, higher-risk offenders;
  • Developing strategies for the release of higher-risk offenders in addition to ongoing monitoring and assessment of this group of offenders while in the community;
  • Assisting in the flow of information between Parole Officer and law enforcement officials for offenders of particular interest (e.g., gang members); and
  • Establishing links with other agencies and government departments to track parole violators who are Unlawfully at Large.

Jurisdictions with CCLOs have reported an increase in the level of intelligence-sharing and improved relationships between parole officers and the police.

Implementing Electronic Monitoring for High-Risk Offenders

In June 2006, CSC conducted a feasibility study in relation to an Electronic Monitoring Program (EMP). Subsequently, a number of procurement, legal, privacy, and information management and security issues came to light, delaying finalization of the project proposal.

Nevertheless, significant progress was made in resolving identified impediments, and work continues towards piloting the use of electronic monitoring technology with federal offenders. Although a formal pilot project has yet to been implemented, CSC has been responsible for the electronic monitoring of provincial offenders on parole in British Columbia after it assumed responsibility for parole supervision of these cases in April 2007.

Seven provincial offenders were subject to an electronic monitoring condition. Staff reported that the EMP was a very helpful tool in monitoring the offender's compliance with his curfew. They felt that the EMP could not replace the Parole Officer's ability to perform risk assessments through one-on-one contact, but was of particular assistance after hours.

Effective Partnerships

CSC recognizes the impact offenders have on communities and that offenders will remain in a community after their sentence ends. Therefore, CSC continues actively to promote partnerships with Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) to better understand the needs of each community and to connect offenders with resources to help continue the progress they make while under supervision.

One form of partnership is reflected in Community-based Residential Facilities (CRFs), which provide 24-hour supervision and accommodation for released offenders. In April 2007, revised standards for CRFs were implemented after having been developed in consultation with external partners, including local halfway house associations and NGOs (i.e., St. Leonard's Society, the Salvation Army, the Elizabeth Fry Society, the John Howard Society and l'Association des services de rhabilitation sociale du Qubec).

A working group, composed of members of the National Association Active in Criminal Justice (NAACJ) and CSC, was established to explore the development of a framework for collaboration, including on horizontal, operational and strategic capacity issues.

CSC meets regularly with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities to ensure community elected officials and representatives have input into strategic plans and to foster collaborative projects.

As well, CSC continues to meet regularly with the Community Reintegration Sub-committee of the national Citizens' Advisory Committee (CAC) to address community concerns and resolve issues. These meetings provide CAC members an opportunity to review and provide advice on new CSC policies or on changes to existing policies, while informing CSC about issues of importance to CAC.

Re-examine the Offender Intake Assessment

The Offender Intake Assessment (OIA) is a comprehensive assessment done at the start of the offender's sentence that informs the Correctional Plan against which the offender's progress is assessed. For short-term offenders, the time required to complete the OIA competes with the time available to participate in programs that would help change the offenders' behaviour.

The piloting of an accelerated OIA for short-term sentences ended in June 2007. Initial results indicate support for some aspects of the modified process; however, overall the initiative did not yield the desired result. Given these offenders' violent offence histories, and the consequent requirement for specialized and supplementary assessments, few short-term sentence offenders met the criteria for the accelerated process.

CSC further reviewed the intake assessment process to identify areas that could be streamlined or eliminated. A planned milestone, piloting the Dynamic Factor Identification and Analysis,60 had to be postponed to 2007-08 due to internal expenditure reduction measures at CSC.

Initial Security Classification Tool for Women Offenders

Many of the tools CSC uses are based on existing research done primarily on white male offenders. Increasingly, research is becoming available that allows tools to be developed specifically to assess the security dynamics relevant to women and Aboriginal offenders.

CSC engaged a contractor to create an initial security classification tool for women offenders. Based on stakeholder consultations in the Spring of 2006, additional steps were added to the contract and CSC adjusted the milestones for this project. A draft instrument was presented in March 2007, however it required significant adjustment. In order to ensure the development of an appropriate tool that will meet the needs of Aboriginal women, the contractor will consult with subject-matter experts and their input will inform scale development for this critical piece.

Because of the additional work, field-testing is expected to commence in the late Fall of 2007, with an anticipated completion date of late Spring 2008. Barring further required changes or adjustments, it is expected that implementation across sites will occur in 2009.

Examine the Role of Community Correctional Centres

Community Correctional Centres (CCCs) are residential facilities operated by CSC in communities across Canada. These 16 centres provide accommodation and 24-hour supervision for offenders.

In recent years, the need for increased resources and capacity in CCCs has been highlighted, primarily in response to changes in the type of offenders accommodated in these facilities. The most significant changes are the number of Statutory Release cases with a residency condition and the number of offenders on a Long Term Supervision Order with a residency condition. Both of these types of offenders are considered higher-risk cases requiring additional structure and supervision in the community. The need for a more relevant staffing model to address these needs is vital to the continued safe and successful operation of CCCs.

In response to these challenges, the National CCC Working Group, comprised of CCC Directors from each of CSC's five regions, developed a staffing model recommending additional resources for CCCs. Further consultation within the regions concluded that there was overall support for the staffing model.

Treasury Board approved temporary funding for fiscal year 2006-07 to support Parole Officers in CCCs (at a ratio of one to every eight offenders) and to double the level of coverage for Protective Services (i.e., Canadian Corps of Commissionaires).

Strengthen Aboriginal Community Development Officers (ACDOs)

Timing of parole eligibility and offender commitment are key factors in engaging communities in release planning for individual offenders. The ACDO works with both the offender and the Aboriginal community members to develop and sustain appropriate release plans.

In 2006-07, community release planning was initiated for 315 cases. Of these, 51 were presented to the National Parole Board and 191 were in progress at year-end. This is a decrease from 2005-06, attributable to normal fluctuations in human resource capacity. The small number of ACDO positions and the expertise required to work with communities meant that even short-term vacancies had an impact on the number of release plans completed.

ACDOs made 293 initial contacts with Aboriginal communities in 2006-07 to build relationships and raise awareness of the Section 84 provision.61 Pending the outcome of the CSC Panel Review, additional funding allocated over the next two years will serve to expand the number of ACDOs from 9 to 12.

It is important to note that Section 84 does not address the area of greatest need for community engagement--preparation for return of the majority of Aboriginal offenders who are released on Statutory Release. In 2006-07, 71.5% of Aboriginal releases (1,096 of 1,532) were on Statutory Release.

Address Aboriginal Population Management Issues

CSC faced three challenges: to expand Pathways Healing Units to all regions in both men's and women's institutions; to complete the implementation of the Healing Lodge Action Plan; and to develop a strategy to address the needs of Northern offenders, including the Inuit.

Results:

i) Expand Pathways healing units to all regions in both men's and women's institutions.

Pathways healing units operate on an Aboriginal, holistic, continuum of care model that treats the entire individual in an effort to get them, and keep them, on a path to successful living in their community.

CSC received funding in December 2005 to add one Pathways unit in each of the Pacific, Ontario and Atlantic Regions, and to one women offender institution. Following are the locations and opening dates of these units:

  • December 2005 - Mission Institution, Pacific Region;
  • March 2006 - Warkworth Institution, Ontario Region, and Dorchester Institution, Atlantic Region; and
  • September 2006 - Fraser Valley Institution, Pacific Region.

There are now seven funded Pathways healing units providing a total capacity of 200 beds at medium security. However, on average, there are over 2,500 Aboriginal inmates across Canada. In response to growing demands for broader implementation, some transitional models have emerged. These models include "pre-Pathways" at maximum security and "post-Pathways" at minimum security. These transitional units have been funded through internal reallocations; however, there is a need to assess whether they have the capacity to maintain the integrity of the Pathways concept. A post-implementation review is scheduled in 2007-08. A formal evaluation will be completed for reporting to Treasury Board in 2008-09.

ii) Complete the implementation of the Healing Lodge Action Plan.

Healing Lodge occupancy rates have improved with implementation of the recommendations in the 2002 An Examination of Healing Lodges for Federal Offenders in Canada.62 Average occupancy in 2006-07 was 82.5%, compared to 71.3% in 2004-05 and 86.5% in 2005-06. Consultations with communities on a new organizational model for CSC-operated healing lodges were conducted in 2006-07 and the new model is scheduled for implementation in Fall 2007.

iii) Develop a strategy to address the needs of Northern offenders, including the Inuit.

The framework for development of a Northern Corrections Initiative along with an analysis of the Inuit offender population was completed early in 2006-07. Following consultation with Federal-Provincial-Territorial Heads of Corrections in December 2006, "corridors" have been established for liaison by the Atlantic Region with Newfoundland and Labrador ; by the Quebec Region with Nunavik; and by the Ontario Region with Nunavut . Further collaborative work with provincial/territorial governments will be undertaken in consultation with Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

Since September 2006, an Inuit Offender Officer has been employed with the Aboriginal Initiatives Directorate on a one-year Interchange Canada Agreement between CSC and the Pauktuutit Inuit National Organization. This individual has been working on Inuit community corrections development in the remote Arctic and the pursuit of meaningful partnerships with Inuit communities related to reintegration. In March 2007, a National Inuit Gathering of staff and Elders working with Inuit offenders met to discuss options and to make recommendations for updating the CSC Inuit Action Plan.

Aboriginal Community Engagement

Healing-based approaches implemented within the Aboriginal corrections continuum of care model are showing promise, and preliminary evaluations have identified the need for community maintenance programming and support to sustain positive results during offenders' transition back to their communities and beyond the end of their sentence.

However, the majority of Aboriginal communities today have difficulty supporting or sustaining offenders who return to their home communities. As a result, community engagement in correctional initiatives has been focused on raising awareness of healing-based approaches in corrections and engaging Aboriginal organizations and communities in individual release planning (through the work of the ACDOs). In the absence of broader community capacity, Elders have been and will continue to be instrumental in reconnecting offenders with their families and communities.

A Citizen Engagement Strategy was developed to ensure enhanced collaboration with partners, stakeholders and community members, and portfolio-specific plans were developed. Next steps include implementing action plans that include increasing the participation of Aboriginal communities. A presentation on the Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections was delivered to the Citizens Advisory Committee Annual General Meeting in September 2006, along with a session by an Aboriginal Elder on culture and traditions, to enhance awareness of the Aboriginal agenda and community engagement in implementing the Strategic Plan. Also, a new Citizens Advisory Committee (CAC) was established in Nunavut (Ontario Region).

Eliminate Systemic Barriers Impeding Aboriginal Offenders

A significant overarching accomplishment in 2006-07 was the amendment of Case Management policies to integrate Aboriginal social history throughout correctional planning and decision-making processes, from admission until sentence completion. This recognizes the unique social experience of Aboriginal people that should inform a continuum of assessment, planning, intervention, and reintegration efforts. Interventions founded on this should provide culturally appropriate and more effective results for Aboriginal offenders and communities.

Since barriers may be best perceived by those affected, processes have been established for consultations and feedback on Aboriginal offender complaints and grievances. At the third-level (national headquarters) grievance, all responses to grievances relating to Aboriginal-specific issues are reviewed by the Director General Aboriginal Initiatives to ensure any systemic barriers are identified and addressed appropriately.

Guidelines for the development of all correctional policies were revised in May 2006. The policy framework includes an explicit requirement for Aboriginal consultations throughout the policy development process, and for sign-off by the Director General Aboriginal Initiatives for all policies forwarded to the Commissioner for approval.

In institutions, the Independent Chairperson is the decision-maker when an offender is charged with an internal misconduct. In September 2006, a half-day interactive dialogue was conducted with Regional Senior Independent Chairpersons. Additional orientation and training needs for all Independent Chairpersons were identified, and will be further defined in 2007-08, following the completion of data analysis on the differences in the discipline process between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders.

Implement Interventions for Aboriginal Women

The Pathways initiative has been implemented at a second women's facility: Edmonton Institution for Women.63

In October 2007, CSC will again host a national Gathering of Elders and other staff who work directly with Aboriginal women at Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge. Expected outcomes include better collaboration between sites, increased knowledge of program and service delivery at Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge, and a greater understanding of each other's roles.

A contract has been awarded to New Directions, an organisation in Abbotsford, BC, to develop a structured assistance model, called Moving Forward , for women, including Aboriginal women, serving long sentences.

Implement Culturally Sensitive Classification and Assessment Tools for Women

In addition to tools for an initial security classification of offenders, a re-classification tool is used to reassess the security requirements presented by an offender after they have had time to make progress on their Correctional Plan.

CSC has implemented a gender-informed Security Reclassification Scale for Women (SRSW). An overrepresentation of Aboriginal women was included in the development and validation samples to ensure applicability to this group. Results of the validation studies reveal that the SRSW performs at least as well with Aboriginal women as with non-Aboriginal women.

The Dynamic Factors Identification and Analysis component of the offender intake assessment process, to be piloted in 2007-08, has been revised to incorporate some women-specific, ethno-cultural and Aboriginal-specific factors (e.g., unique cultural communication style, strong cultural identity).

Enhance CSC's Knowledge of Aboriginal Women and Effective Corrections for that Specific Population

CSC has completed an analysis of research on the needs of Aboriginal women in order to identify initiatives to address issues related to reintegration, health, employment and substance abuse.

The Research Branch has completed an evaluation of the Spirit of a Warrior program for Aboriginal women. The report will be released in the Fall 2007 and will be available on the CSC Internet site.

2.2.1.2 Key Performance and Other Indicators

Key performance indicators for the Case Management Sub-Activity, as per the Program Activity Architecture, are: Timely case preparation; completion of successful transfers; number of offenders successfully reintegrated into the community; and number of revocations with offence.64

The cornerstone of CSC's correctional model is a comprehensive assessment that leads to an integrated Correctional Plan. A Post-Sentence Community Assessment (PSCA) of the offender's support in the community informs that Plan.

To maximize the effectiveness of the Correctional Plan, particularly with sentences of four years or less, the Plan must be promptly and accurately completed if offenders are to obtain maximum benefit from their incarceration. The Plan is incomplete until the PSCA is received and the information incorporated.

The table below indicates that the case preparation process is functioning reasonably well. An increasing inmate population is putting some pressure on completing reports on time, and as a result, streamlining strategies are being examined to improve performance.

Timeliness of Completion of Correctional Plans
and Post-Sentence Community Assessments


  2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

% Correctional Plans Completed On-time

86%

93%

83%

81%

88%

% Post Sentence Community Assessments Completed On-time

92%

92%

90%

90%

93%


Source: Corporate Monitoring Tool (April 8, 2007).

Number of Successful Transfers to Lower Security Levels

Transfer to reduced security is associated with a reduction in the risk presented by an offender. A transfer is considered successful when the offender does not return to a higher security level for at least 120 days. Only transfers for programming or for security reclassification are included.


  2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

% Transfers to Lower Security Completed Successfully

94%

95%

94%

95%

94%


Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

2.2.2 Program Development and Delivery Sub-Activity

Planned Spending for 2006-07: $178.9 million

Actual Spending for 2006-07: $171.1 million

Expected Results: Access to programs designed to address offenders' identified needs and contribute to successful reintegration into the community.

Programs that address the needs of the federal offender population at the most appropriate time in the sentence are the most effective and contribute to their successful reintegration into the community

2.2.2.1 Plans and Results

Enhance Community Programs

The nature of some programs is that they are more effective when offered in the community.

Community programming has been substantially enhanced through the revision of the Counter-Point Program . A new program entitled Attitudes, Associates, and Alternatives (AAA), developed in 2006-07, is designed to address the needs of male offenders who experience reintegration difficulties in the community. Regional trainers and Correctional Program Officers from across the country received training. The AAA program is currently being delivered and implementation results are being analysed through monthly conference calls involving program staff, regional staff, and national managers.

CSC has continued to increase community program capacity by training, quality assuring, and certifying CSC and NGO staff in the delivery of the Community Maintenance Program. This generic competency program is the maintenance program for almost all categories of offenders, sustaining the gains they have made in earlier programs.

Implement Targeted Interventions, in Particular, for Violent Offenders

In 2006-07, CSC developed a Moderate Intensity Violence Prevention Program (MIVPP), the first program specifically to target the characteristics of the changing offender population. Offenders can enter the program at the start of different modules, making it possible for them to start the program at one site (e.g., an intake unit), and continue and complete the program at another site. This increases the likelihood of timely program access and completion for short-term offenders.

MIVPP is based on the Violence Prevention Program and is consistent with the Community Maintenance Program. Regional trainers and Correctional Program Officers from across the country were trained in 2006-07. The MIVPP is currently being delivered and implementation results are being analysed through regular conference calls involving program staff, regional staff, and national managers.

In 2006-07, CSC successfully implemented the piloting of correctional programs at intake units. An operational impact analysis demonstrated that some intake units lack the physical and human resource capacity to deliver correctional programs. However, at the institutions where correctional programs could be delivered, the preliminary results are very encouraging.

In 2006-07, CSC and NGO Parole Officers were trained65 to enhance their supervision activities by using a basic set of self-management, relapse prevention, and motivational skills that all CSC programs have in common. This training will help them to better monitor the risk factors and high-risk situations that can lead to recidivism, and intervene as needed.

Develop a Violence Prevention Program for Women Offenders

Consistent with CSC's findings in other areas, it was deemed necessary to develop a program specific to the needs of women who commit, or demonstrate a high risk of committing, violent offences. Ongoing consultation with experts has identified a requirement for additional time to develop and deliver the program. Completion is targeted for the end of 2007-08.

Enhance the delivery of Aboriginal Correctional Programs

Aboriginal Correctional Program delivery capacity was substantially enhanced through the training of CSC program staff in 2006-07, in the following program areas:

  • Aboriginal Family Violence Prevention (22 staff trained);
  • In Search of your Warrior (16 staff trained);
  • Basic Healing Program (25 staff trained); and
  • Aboriginal Offender Substance Abuse Program (27 staff trained).

Implement culturally sensitive programs for Aboriginal women

Spirit of a Warrior is a violence prevention program for Aboriginal women and is currently available at Edmonton Institution for Women and at the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge. This program is being revised by Native Counselling Services of Alberta to include substance abuse and gang affiliation as treatment targets.

Circles of Change has been implemented at Fraser Valley Institution, Edmonton Institution for Women, the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge, Grand Valley Institution and plans are being made for implementation at Joliette Institution and Nova Institution. This program targets social skills and relationships.

An Aboriginal Women's Maintenance Program has been developed by Native Counselling Services of Alberta. Field-testing at the Okimaw Ohci Healing Lodge and at the Winnipeg Parole Office started in August 2007.

2.2.2.2 Key Performance and Other Indicators

As per the Program Activity Architecture, key performance indicators for the Program Development and Delivery Sub-Activity are: Number/percentage of offenders completing programs in institutions and the community.

Programs serve as a critical vehicle in providing offenders with the skills they will require to find work, control their behaviour, make better choices, and overcome addictions in order to live a law-abiding life. Offenders are encouraged to complete and fully participate in a program to obtain the maximum benefit from it. However, factors such as a transfer to reduced security, or other risk management interventions, may interrupt completion of a program.

Offender Program Outcomes66 by Type of Program


  2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07

Violence Prevention Programs

All Outcomes

526

649

577

561

482

% Completions

67%

65%

62%

62%

65%

Sex Offender Programs

All Outcomes

1389

1370

1212

1121

1060

% Completions

67%

59%

59%

58%

63%

Substance Abuse Programs

All Outcomes

6060

5257

5051

5249

5458

% Completions

69%

63%

60%

62%

66%

Family Violence Prevention Programs

All Outcomes

1235

977

745

817

836

% Completions

84%

78%

68%

73%

74%

Living Skills Programs

All Outcomes

4366

3622

2996

2822

2534

% Completions

78%

76%

76%

78%

79%

Community Correctional Programs

All Outcomes

473

487

563

610

763

% Completions

64%

59%

64%

58%

55%

Special Needs Programs

All Outcomes

182

144

189

151

285

% Completions

54%

45%

52%

42%

53%

Women Offender Programs

All Outcomes

82

149

300

358

405

% Completions

77%

52%

39%

35%

28%

Aboriginal Initiative Programs

All Outcomes

263

267

289

220

304

% Completions

39%

49%

35%

37%

29%

Educational Programs

All Outcomes

11478

11917

11346

11134

10705

% Completions

27%

29%

30%

30%

31%

Personal Development

All Outcomes

2617

1425

615

499

280

% Completions

93%

89%

92%

74%

91%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (August 19, 2007).

2.3 CORCAN Program Activity

Description of Program Activity: Assisting in the safe reintegration of offenders by providing employment and employability skills.

Employment and employment-related skills are major factors in an offender's ability to pursue a crime-free life. Many offenders lack specific training or qualifications in a field of work but also lack the behavioural and planning skills needed to maintain work once they have marketable skills.

CORCAN is a Special Operating Agency of CSC, operating through a revolving fund. CORCAN contributes to the safe reintegration of offenders into Canadian society by providing employment and training opportunities to offenders incarcerated in federal penitentiaries and, for brief periods, to offenders after they are released into the community.67

For fiscal year 2006-07, the strategic priority associated with the CORCAN Program Activity was:

  • Safe transition of offenders into the community.

Expected Result: Provision of work opportunities and employability skills to offenders.

2006-07 Total Financial Resources ($ millions)


Planned Spending Authorities Actual Spending

0.0

10.0

-2.8


2006-07 Total Human Resources (full-time equivalents)


Planned Actual Difference

415

432

(17)


2.3.1 Plans and Results

The single plan under the CORCAN Program Sub-Activity is in support of CSC's strategic priority, "Safe transition of offenders into the community."

Full Implementation of the Employment Continuum

The employment continuum, aimed at providing inmate employment assistance from intake to post-release, was implemented. CSC introduced a position of Manager of Employment and Employability to oversee this implementation.

A certification is issued when an offender completes an employment program. As part of the skills training component, over 6,400 third-party certifications were issued in 2006-07.

Obtaining vital documents, such as Birth Certificates and Social Insurance Numbers, continues to be a barrier to employment for some offenders. Many documents are provided by provincial authorities in provinces other than where the offender is currently incarcerated. CSC will continue to work with the various jurisdictions involved to seek solutions for obtaining these documents more easily. The Managers of Employment and Employability have reduced the number of inmates with unaddressed employment needs by 12% this year through revised practices.

The National Employment Skills program was delivered at 34 minimum, medium and multilevel (women) institutions. Over 300 inmates received certificates from the Conference Board of Canada for successful completion of the program.

With respect to Aboriginal offenders, pilot projects were completed in March 2007 at several women's and men's institutions on a new employment assessment tool, called Guiding Circles. This is a self-assessment process whereby participants are guided through an intervention to identify goals that will increase their employability and help determine a career path. A maximum of 10 participants per group spend six hours in group sessions and three hours individually defining their goals. Data analysis of the pilot will be completed by the end of October 2007. If the pilot is successful, it could potentially serve as a replacement for current employment assessments.

2.3.2 Key Indicators

Following are the key performance indicators,68 and results, for the CORCAN Sub-Activity:

1. The Number/percentage of inmates enrolled in employment training:

  • 4,151 men and 100 women inmates worked a total of 2.590 million hours in CORCAN shops--an increase of 9% from 2005-06;
  • 12,424 men and 538 women inmates worked in other assignments through Institutional Operations; and
  • 8,899 offenders stayed in one work assignment within CORCAN and CSC over 90 days (research indicates that a minimum of 90 days is required to maximize skill development).

The focus in 2006-07 remained on ensuring that employment training opportunities were provided to those inmates assessed at intake as having some or considerable need in this area. Despite CORCAN's efforts, 1070 (20%) of non-Aboriginal male offenders still had an employment gap at the end of the fiscal year--a result similar to 2005-06. The employment gap for Aboriginal male offenders was at 19%, virtually the same as for non-Aboriginal offenders.

The rate of non-Aboriginal women offenders with an employment gap increased from 16% in 2005-06 to 23% in 2006-07. However, for Aboriginal women offenders the rate decreased from 28% in 2005-06 to 22% in 2006-07.

While these results support CSC's objective of improving results with Aboriginal offenders, internal assessment is being done to determine what changes are necessary to improve results with all offenders.

2. Number of certificates earned:69

6,467 third-party certificates were earned in 2006-07: 1,234 by Aboriginal men, 4,631 by non-Aboriginal men, 223 by Aboriginal women, and 379 by non-Aboriginal women.

The majority of certificates were in Basic Food Safe, the Workplace Hazardous Materials Information System (WHMIS), Safe Start Pre-employment, First Aid, Construction Safety and Recognition, and the National Employability Skills Program.

3. Number of offenders receiving services at community employment centres:

A total of 3,201 offenders received services, of which 2,958 were men and 243 were women.

4. Number of offenders finding employment in the community for the very first time:

1,609 offenders (1,520 men and 89 women) found employment with the assistance of a CORCAN Community Employment Centre, on par with 2005-06.

2.4 Corporate Management: CSC's Management Improvement Agenda

While not formally part of CSC's Program Activity Architecture, CSC's management improvement agenda influences all Program Activities and Sub-Activities across the organization.

Enhanced focus on Aboriginal Employee Representation

CSC is the second-largest employer of Aboriginal people, after Indian and Northern Affairs Canada. Seven percent of CSC employees have self-declared as being of Aboriginal origin.70 However, given the disproportionate representation of Aboriginal people in the offender population, CSC must strive to ensure that its workforce is more representative of the offender population.

The implementation of a national strategy for recruiting, developing and retaining Aboriginal employees to meet CSC's business needs is part of the CSC Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management 2007-2010.71 Although some work has been done, implementation of the plan for increasing Aboriginal employee representation has not been completed on target due to the corporate necessity of curtailing CSC expenditures in 2006-07.

Develop Cultural Competence throughout CSC

As Canada becomes increasingly diverse, CSC staff need to become increasingly skilled in connecting with various cultures.

The deliverable as stated in the RPP--provide training and awareness sessions to all CSC policy developers regarding the impact of policy on Aboriginal offenders--was revised.

The focus in 2006-07 has been on needs analysis and content development to equip non-Aboriginal staff to work more effectively with Aboriginal offenders and communities.

The "Aboriginal Perspectives Training: First Nations, Inuit and Mtis Perceptions", developed in partnership with the National Parole Board, targets front-line Parole Officers as a first priority. Fifty staff were trained in the pilot sessions conducted in October 2006, 17 of whom participated in subsequent "train the trainer" sessions in December 2006. Based on the pilot, the training manual was revised and approved by the National Parole Board. CSC is currently at the national implementation stage. How and when this training will be delivered will be assessed within the framework of CSC's National Training Standards and operational priorities with respect to other training initiatives.

Integrate the Aboriginal Dimension

Traditionally, Aboriginal issues were dealt with by a separate branch within the CSC. However, in time it was recognized that in order to adequately address CSC's mandate concerning Aboriginal persons (both offenders and Aboriginal communities), it was necessary that all parts of the organization embrace a responsibility to integrate Aboriginal issues into what they are doing. To direct strategic growth, the Aboriginal Initiative Branch now falls under the Senior Deputy Commissioner.

The Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections published in October 2006 reflects the Senior Deputy Commissioner's leadership role in governance and strategic direction to advance the Aboriginal agenda in CSC, and articulates accountabilities for the integration of Aboriginal considerations at the national, regional and local levels.

A data collection framework identifying results and performance indicators relative to the first key objective on implementation of the Aboriginal continuum of care was completed in 2006. These requirements were incorporated into an "Offender Management System - Aboriginal Business Requirements" document to address the gaps in information on offender participation in Aboriginal-specific initiatives. Implementation of changes to the Offender Management System72 is scheduled for September 2007. This will provide the organization with more complex data on the dynamics and results concerning Aboriginal offenders.

Development of a Results-based Management and Accountability Framework for the remaining two key objectives--horizontal collaboration and cultural competency--will be completed in 2007-08.

Strengthen Horizontal Collaboration

The factors that bring Aboriginal persons into conflict with the law and the various initiatives to address the role and place of Aboriginal persons in Canadian society extend well beyond the walls, fences, and supervision of CSC. To maximize the effectiveness of government initiatives for Aboriginal persons, CSC must strengthen its plans for collaboration within the Public Safety Portfolio and across government and community organizations.

CSC's Horizontal Collaboration plan has been revised to an ongoing initiative, given the evolution of the relationship between the federal government and Aboriginal peoples.

CSC's Aboriginal Initiatives Directorate has been actively promoting linkages at the federal and provincial/territorial level to enhance their understanding of the mandate for Aboriginal corrections; to share what has been achieved; to bring issues to the federal table; and to identify opportunities for collaboration. A network of connections has been developed and consultations are underway to define partnerships and specific projects.

In May 2006, the Government announced a healing-based resolution framework whose current focus is the completion of a compensation settlement agreement for former students of Indian residential schools. CSC is working with Indian Residential Schools Resolution Canada (IRSRC), Health Canada and Service Canada to ensure that former students who are incarcerated are aware of their rights and have every opportunity to participate in the court-supervised settlement process. CSC is also represented on a Community Impacts Working Group co-chaired by IRSRC and the Aboriginal Healing Foundation to prepare for implementation of the Agreement. Further information on the resolution framework can be found at: www.irsr-rqpi.gc.ca

Communication of court-approved notifications for the first phase of the settlement process was completed in July 2006, including information for inmates on accessing the Help Desk and support services available to former residents.

Develop an Overall Succession Management Framework for Operational Managers

An effective, representative workforce is one of four priorities identified in the Strategic Plan for Human Resource Management 2007-2010.73 CSC's employees, although somewhat younger than the average age in the federal public service, are nevertheless aging. Just over 45% of all CSC employees are currently 45 years or older and nearly 30% of all CSC employees are aged 50 and over.74 Key to addressing the increase in departures is a robust succession-planning framework.

The development of the succession management framework was postponed due to expenditure reduction measures in 2006-07. A succession planning framework for the EX (executive-level) group and EX feeder groups will be established by the end of March 2008.

Clarify and Strengthen Roles and Responsibilities

Roles and responsibilities in the area of human resources management have been clarified and strengthened at both functional and line levels. In addition to the work accomplished in 2006-07, CSC plans to continue the work in this area in 2007-08, by implementing a roles and responsibilities framework for all human resources disciplines.

Clarify Program Evaluation

According to TBS's 2006-07 MAF assessment report of CSC, the organization was found to comply with TBS Evaluation policy, including in the areas of relevance, utilization of multiple lines of evidence, cost effectiveness and neutrality. Report writing was noted to be clear and concise.

TBS is currently reviewing the Evaluation policy, and the renewed policy is expected to be released in April 2008. In the interim, CSC has also been moving toward more strategic and risk-based evaluations. All proposed evaluation projects for the next three fiscal years were subjected to a strategic and risk-based analysis, as reflected in CSC's 2007-2010 Evaluation Plan.

Strengthen Values and Ethics Processes

Although CSC articulates principles and values in its policy and day-to-day activities, such as the use of value-based analysis in the selection of its staff, sustaining a values-based ethical workplace poses additional challenges. In a correctional environment, staff are constantly surrounded by challenges to pro-social values and are working with offenders whose behaviour is discordant with their own values.

Providing strategic direction for a coordinated ethics program at CSC; implementing a national Values and Ethics Program; and collecting baseline data to establish targets for future improvement are three strategic thrusts for a strengthened Values and Ethics approach within CSC. In addition, existing programs, such as Internal Disclosure, have been integrated under the one umbrella.

CSC has developed an ethics-training package. CSC has also incorporated values and ethics commitments in performance agreements. Fifty focus sessions on values and ethics were conducted in November and December 2006, involving 40 operational units and over 400 staff. The data has been compiled and is being used as a basis for developing a comprehensive multi-year ethics strategy.

CSC has collaborated with bargaining agents to begin addressing issues arising from the 2005 Public Service Employee Survey.75 It has co-developed a one-year action plan to address issues in three areas of concern: Harassment; Grievances; and Respect, Trust and Accountability.

CSC has already taken concrete actions against the action plan. For instance, CSC has:

  • Taken steps to increase training and awareness of harassment for all CSC employees by identifying high-risk sites requiring training, and developing competency profiles for anti-Harassment coordinators;
  • Clarified roles, responsibilities and accountabilities of managers, supervisors, employees and unions with respect to harassment and grievance matters; and
  • Implemented systemic mechanisms (e.g., standing items at labour-management meetings) to monitor harassment and grievance processes and trends.

In line with TBS' recommendations in its 2006-07 MAF assessment, CSC will continue to address issues reflected in the 2005 Public Service Employee Survey, including maintaining its internal disclosure mechanisms; fostering a culture of respect and integrity; increasing employee recognition and participation in decision-making; establishing an informal conflict management system; and addressing the representation, separation and promotion of Employment Equity groups.76

Implement a National Informal Conflict Management System (ICMS)

As result of the Public Service Modernization Act, all government departments are required to implement an ICMS. Work is underway to develop the system, in consultation with the unions, regional managers and human resources advisors. Selected questions from the 2005 Public Service Employee Survey were used to establish a baseline to monitor and track progress in order to set targets for improvements. The next steps are to complete staffing of regional ICMS practitioners and to finalize the policy framework and RMAF77 for CSC's ICMS.

Strengthened Independent Audit Function

In April 2006, an Audit Committee with three external members was established, which played a critical role in strengthening CSC's internal audit function. The Committee's accomplishments in 2006-07 include:

  • The development of a Charter and an implementation strategy to meet the requirements of TBS's Policy on Internal Audit (2006);78
  • The review and approval of audit plans, audit reports and related management action plans; and
  • The implementation of a systematic follow-up process which informs Audit Committee members of progress in addressing recommendations for all audits approved as of 2006-07.

Communications

A large measure of the success of previously mentioned initiatives is ensuring that those impacted are aware of both the goals and the actions of the organization. The following plans were aimed at improving internal communication at CSC:

  • Implement an overall strategy and action plan based on the consultative process;
  • Develop new products, tools and services; and
  • Survey a cross-section of staff to determine where advances have been made and to identify areas for further improvement.

Performance agreements for the executive committee managers now include commitments to make demonstrable internal communications improvements. To support this leadership commitment, a number of actions were taken.

In 2006-07, a strategic framework and action plan was developed based on input from national and regional consultations conducted during the Winter of 2006. The action plan has been implemented and will be updated annually based on mid-year and year-end reporting.

The first phase of Intranet (CSC's internal internet communication system) revitalization plans was achieved, including the creation of a weekly News@Work e-bulletin that summarizes important announcements from throughout the week. The Intranet was also redesigned in order to facilitate navigation, and portals of information were developed to improve information retrieval.

A new strategic direction was taken for Let's Talk , CSC's corporate magazine, to reflect CSC's five priorities.

A staff survey has been completed to benchmark the effectiveness of CSC's internal communications. A follow-up survey will be conducted by the end of 2007-08 to gauge the improvement in internal communications.

Other internal communications initiatives include:

  • An Internal Communications Advisory Committee was established and will meet regularly to review and address internal communications issues and activities;
  • A training module has been developed that will educate employees on how to better communicate with staff and colleagues through effective internal communications practices, tools, and resources; and
  • A manager's toolkit is in development to provide CSC managers with one-stop information to assist them in their daily operations and in communicating effectively with staff and colleagues.

Regions and sectors continue to report progress in a number of areas, including:

  • Establishing new, and improving existing, print and electronic publications (including newsletters, toolkits, calendars and InfoNet sites);
  • Increasing the frequency and improving the efficacy of face-to-face meetings, teleconferences, and training sessions; and
  • Promoting employee recognition.

Not surprisingly, with this communications effort, the 2006 MAF assessment rated CSC as strong in its integration of various strategic plans (e.g., Aboriginal offenders, Women offenders, Information Management/Technology, mental health, etc), which indicates effective collaboration across teams and regions.