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 SECTION 1 - OVERVIEW

Stockwell Day

1.1 Minister's Message

As Canada's Minister of Public Safety, I am pleased to present to Parliament the Departmental Performance Report for Correctional Service Canada (CSC) for the period ending on March 31, 2007.

The Public Safety Portfolio is responsible for public safety activities that help ensure the safety of Canadians - policing and law enforcement, corrections and conditional release of federal offenders, emergency management, national security, crime prevention and the protection of Canada's borders.

The Portfolio consists of Public Safety Canada, five agencies - the Canada Border Services Agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, the Correctional Service of Canada, the National Parole Board and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police - as well as three review bodies.

The Correctional Service of Canada's 2006-2007 Report on Plans and Priorities identified four strategic priorities, which directly contribute to public safety:

  • Safe transition of offenders into the community;
  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Mtis and Inuit offenders; and
  • Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders.

In addition, CSC has placed, and continues to place, a high priority on strengthening its management practices to improve the way it delivers on the above priorities, and more generally, on all aspects of its mandate. CSC has also committed to achieving tangible results in each of these areas, despite serious challenges due to a changing offender population and escalating costs.

The Government is committed to strengthening our criminal justice system so that we are better able to protect society, particularly against serious violent and sexual offenders. CSC has a key role to play in this regard and must contribute to the successful rehabilitation and reintegration of eligible offenders back into our communities.

I invite you to explore the content of this report and, if you have inquiries, to consult the list of CSC contacts. You can also obtain more information on CSC's website at: www.csc-scc.gc.ca.

__________________________________________

The Honourable Stockwell Day, P.C., M.P.

Minister of Public Safety

 

1.2 Commissioner's Message

In recent years, CSC has experienced serious challenges in delivering on our mandate and sustaining our contribution to public safety, due to the changing offender profile and escalating costs. In response, we have reviewed and adjusted funding and expenditure patterns to reallocate resources to the most urgent requirements.

In November 2006, in order to stay within our allocated budget, we introduced a series of temporary measures to reduce CSC's expenditures. The measures remained in effect until the end of the fiscal year and included such items as suspending non-essential training and equipment purchases, travel and staffing actions. As a result of the expenditure reductions a number of plans outlined in CSC's 2006-2007 Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) were delayed. We also had to adjust our performance expectations to focus on sustaining our contribution to public safety.

In response to these funding pressures, the spring 2007 Federal Budget provided interim funding for CSC and announced an independent review of CSC. The funding provided $102 million in interim operating funding and $133 million in interim capital funding (accrual basis) over two years. This funding enabled CSC to begin to address some of our most urgent requirements.

In April 2007, Public Safety Minister Stockwell Day launched an independent review of federal corrections, which included an examination of our operational priorities, strategies and plans. The review will be completed by the end of October 2007. CSC has welcomed this review, and I am confident that it will help set the stage for the important decisions that will need to be taken about CSC's future direction and resource levels.

This Departmental Performance Report is an account of the results we achieved against planned performance expectations as set out in CSC's 2006-07 RPP. Thanks to the ongoing efforts of our highly dedicated, professional staff, CSC continues to make significant contributions to keeping Canada's communities safe.

__________________________________________

Keith Coulter

Commissioner, Correctional Service of Canada

1.3 Management Representation Statement

I submit for tabling in Parliament, the 2006-2007 Departmental Performance Report for the Correctional Service of Canada.

This document has been prepared based on the reporting principles contained in the Guide to the Preparation of Part III of the 2006-2007 Estimates: Reports on Plans and Priorities and Departmental Performance Reports.

  1. It adheres to the specific reporting requirements outlined in the Treasury Board Secretariat guidelines;
  2. It is based on the department's approved Strategic Outcome and Program Activity Architecture that were approved by the Treasury Board;
  3. It presents consistent, comprehensive, balanced and reliable information;
  4. It provides a basis of accountability for the results achieved with the resources and authorities entrusted to it; and
  5. It reports finances based on approved numbers from the Estimates and the Public Accounts of Canada.

__________________________________________

Keith Coulter

Commissioner, Correctional Service of Canada

1.4 Program Activity Architecture

The Program Activity Architecture (PAA) of a federal department or agency identifies the organization's strategic outcome(s), and describes the activities supporting these outcomes and how the organization is structured to manage them. It establishes activities and sub-activities, and groups them appropriately, so that the organization can tie priorities, plans and day-to-day operations to resourcing levels and better demonstrate results and value-for-money.

In all CSC activities, and all decisions that staff make, public safety is the paramount consideration. This is captured in CSC's single Strategic Outcome, which states "offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian communities." 1Three program activities support this Strategic Outcome: Care and Custody, Rehabilitation and Case Management, and CORCAN. Corporate Services--i.e., finance, human resources and similar functions at CSC--support all three Program Activities and resources attributable to Corporate Services have been allocated throughout the PAA.

CSC's PAA is depicted in the following chart. It presents the Strategic Outcome, the three Program Activities, their respective Sub-Activities, and, for each Sub-Activity, outlines the key results, outputs and performance indicators.

PAA

Note: An amended PAA was approved by Treasury Board in June 2007 and will be implemented in CSC's 2008-09 RPP.

1.5 Strategic Context

Operating Environment 2

The Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) is an agency within the Public Safety Portfolio. The portfolio brings together key federal agencies dedicated to public safety, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the National Parole Board, the Canada Border Services Agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, and three review bodies, including the Office of the Correctional Investigator.

CSC contributes to public safety through the custody and reintegration of eligible offenders. More specifically, CSC is responsible for administering court-imposed sentences for offenders sentenced to two years or more. This includes both the custodial and community supervision components of an offender's sentence. CSC also administers post-sentence supervision of offenders with Long Term Supervision Orders (LTSOs) for periods of up to ten years. 3

At the end of the 2006-07 fiscal year, CSC was responsible for approximately 13,200 federally incarcerated offenders and 8,000 offenders in the community. Over the course of the year, including all admissions and releases, CSC managed 19,500 different incarcerated offenders and 14,000 different supervised offenders in the community. 4

FEDERALLY MANAGED FACILITIES

  • 58 institutions
  • 16 community correctional centres
  • 71 parole offices
  • 4 Aboriginal healing lodges

CSC has a presence from coast to coast--from large urban centres with their increasingly diverse populations, to remote Inuit communities across the North. CSC manages institutions, treatment centres, Aboriginal healing lodges, community correctional centres and parole offices. In addition, CSC has five regional headquarters that provide management and administrative support and serve as the delivery arms of CSC's programs and services. CSC also manages an addictions research centre, a correctional management learning centre, regional staff colleges and a national headquarters (NHQ).

CORCAN, a Special Operating Agency of CSC, provides work and employability skills training to offenders in institutions in order to enhance job readiness upon their release to communities, and to increase the likelihood of successful reintegration. CORCAN also offers support services at 37 community-based employment locations across Canada to assist offenders on conditional release in securing employment. CORCAN's services are provided through partnership contracts internally (CSC and CORCAN) as well as externally with other government organizations, Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs), and private enterprises.

Approximately 72% of CSC's 2006-07 Annual Reference Level5 was dedicated to the provision of care and custody of offenders in institutions and in communities, which includes such fixed and semi-fixed costs as security systems, salaries for correctional staff, facilities maintenance and food. The remaining 28% was allocated to rehabilitation and case management services.6

WORKFORCE

  • Approximately 14,500 employees, of whom 87% work in institutions and communities

CSC employs approximately 14,500 staff7 across the country and strives to maintain a workforce that reflects Canadian society. Slightly more than 5% are from visible minority groups, approximately 4% are persons with disabilities, and approximately 7% are Aboriginal.8 These rates are at or above the labour market availability9 of workers in these operational groups for the types of employment offered by CSC. Just under 45% of CSC staff are women.

Two occupational groups, for the most part exclusive to CSC, represent over half of all staff employed in operational units. The CX, or correctional officer group, comprises 43% of staff, while another 14% of staff are in the WP category, that is, the group that includes parole and program officers who work in the institutions and in the community. The remainder of CSC's workforce reflects the variety of other skills required to operate institutions and community offices--from health professionals, to electricians, to food service staff--as well as staff providing corporate and administrative functions at the local, regional and national levels. All staff work together to ensure that the institutions operate in a secure and safe fashion and that offenders are properly supervised on release.

Challenges

The offender population continues to change, presenting significant security and reintegration challenges for CSC. In recent years, the offender population has been increasingly characterized by offenders with extensive histories of violence and violent crimes, previous youth and adult convictions, affiliations with gangs and organized crime, serious substance abuse histories and problems, serious mental health disorders, higher rates of infection with Hepatitis C and HIV and a disproportionate representation of Aboriginal people. Among other things, between 1997 and 2005 changes to the offender population profile have included: 10

  • More extensive histories of involvement with the court system--roughly 9 out of 10 offenders now have previous criminal convictions;
  • More extensive histories of violence and violent offences, with far more assessed as violence-prone, hostile, impulsive and aggressive on admission;
  • An increase of more than 100% in the proportion of offenders who are classified as maximum security on admission--13% are now classified at this level on admission;
  • An increase of 33% in the proportion of offenders with gang and/or organized crime affiliations--one in six men and one in ten women offenders, now have known affiliations;
  • An increase of 14% in the proportion of offenders serving sentences for homicide--it now stands at more than one in four male offenders;
  • An increase of 71% in the percentage of male offenders and 100% increase in women offenders identified at admission as having very serious mental health problems--12% of male and 25% of women offenders are now so identified;
  • An increasing prevalence of learning disabilities as well as offenders with low functioning capacities;
  • An increasing prevalence of substance abuse--about four out of five offenders now arrive at a federal institution with a serious substance abuse problem, with one out of two having committed their crime under the influence of drugs, alcohol or other intoxicants; and
  • An increasing rate of infectious diseases--inmates now have a 7 to 10 times higher rate of HIV than the general Canadian population, and approximately a 30 times higher rate of Hepatitis C.

For a number of complex reasons, there has also been a trend towards shorter sentences, and for CSC this has meant an increase of 62% in the proportion of male offender admissions serving a sentence of less than three years.11 The result of this is an increasing polarization of the offender population, with roughly one in four male offenders and one in three women offenders serving sentences of three years or less, and roughly one in four male offenders and one in six women offenders serving life/indeterminate sentences--adding to the complexity of the management challenges in CSC's institutions.12

The trend lines for the changes in the composition of the offender population illustrate that CSC should expect this transformation to continue. Effective management of the more challenging and complex offender population requires greater resources, new training and equipment for staff, an increase in specialized services (e.g., mental health care for offenders) and more distinct and targeted interventions.

The additional expenditures required to address the changing offender population are exacerbated by the nature of CSC's operations. Close to ninety percent of CSC's expenditures are non-discretionary as prescribed by legislation (e.g., salaries, utilities, food, medical services).13 These expenditures are driven by factors beyond CSC's direct control (e.g., inflation, price fluctuations, and new employee contracts) and are escalating. For example, as the chart below illustrates, salary costs have increased from 54% to 66% over the past 11 years, because of inflation and new collective agreements with key operational staff. Such increases in non-discretionary costs leave very limited flexibility for policy and program modifications, or investments that could yield longer-term results.

4

Another major challenge is the basic maintenance requirements of CSC's institutions. CSC has one of the largest facility portfolios in the Government of Canada, consisting of a variety of institutions, community correctional centres and parole offices14 in communities across Canada. Together, these represent nearly 200 different sites. These facilities date from the early 1800s to the present, with most being over 40 years old. To compound this issue, significant portions of CSC's funding for capital and for Operations and Maintenance (O&M) are not adjusted to inflation, and as a result, CSC's capacity to carry out essential ongoing engineering and maintenance activities has been severely diminished.

In order to manage shortfalls in capital and O&M, CSC has routinely delayed basic maintenance in recent years. As a result, what were once routine maintenance items are now emergency maintenance issues. In addition, many older facilities require updated security equipment to continue to ensure the safety and security of staff, the public and offenders.

In this context, CSC has not been able to make the adjustments to its infrastructure that are needed to manage the current and projected offender population. With the offender population changing over recent years as described above, the reality is that there is now a multitude of sub-populations, such as gang members, offenders affiliated with organized crime, sex offenders, young offenders, violence-prone offenders, offenders with mental health problems, Aboriginal offenders, and a growing number of aged and infirm offenders--each with unique and distinct requirements. The risks and needs posed by these offenders often require separation from the rest of the inmate population, which is a significant challenge for older institutions as the original structures were built to accommodate a homogeneous inmate population. Today, for example, it is not possible for all inmates to share common outdoor, dining hall and programming spaces without threatening the safety and security of inmates and staff, but many institutions were designed and built for precisely this.

Because of the factors described above, CSC operations have been significantly impacted over the past ten years. More specifically, CSC is experiencing challenges in:

  • Managing different sub-populations in maximum and medium security institutions;
  • Consistently delivering timely, critical and effective programs and other interventions in institutions aimed at enhancing public safety by targeting the causes of criminal behaviour;
  • Effectively supervising and managing offenders requiring higher levels of contact and surveillance in the community;
  • Addressing safety concerns; and
  • Managing workload and stress, at all levels.

CSC has exhausted its ability to reallocate existing resources to meet these current and future challenges. In short, the changing offender profile and the escalating costs have placed CSC in an ever more challenging position, and a significant number of plans have had to be scaled back or suspended due to lack of funds.

Shortly after the 2007-08 Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) was finalized, the Government announced, in the Federal Budget, interim funding over the next two fiscal years to address CSC's most pressing needs, while it conducts an independent review of CSC's operational priorities, strategies and plans. Based on this review, the panel will provide the Minister of Public Safety with an independent assessment of CSC's contributions to public safety, and advice on how they might be strengthened. The panel's report is due in October 2007.

1.6 Departmental Performance

Given the challenges described above, in 2006-07 CSC implemented five priorities in order to sustain its public safety results:

  • Safe transition of offenders into the community;
  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Mtis and Inuit offenders;
  • Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders; and
  • Strengthened management practices.

In support of each priority, CSC developed a series of strategies and plans in order to ensure specific, concrete actions would be undertaken. Furthermore, CSC, for the first time, developed a series of long-term result commitments, aligned with its priorities and in support of its Strategic Outcome. These targets will ensure that CSC remains focussed on results that matter to Canadians and that its progress against its priorities, in the long term, is measurable and transparent.

The following is a summary of CSC's progress and results against each priority at the PAA Program Activity level, preceded by its planned and actual financial and human resources for 2006-07.

Total Financial Resources for the Department ($ million)

Total Human Resources


Planned Spending 15 Total Authorities Actual Spending

1,715.6

1,930.4

1,865.5


for the Department (full-time equivalents)


Planned Actual Difference

14,829

14,803

(26)


CSC's Performance by Program Activity and Priority

In an effort to improve public reporting, CSC, in its 2006-07 RPP, developed and implemented a series of result commitments and measurement strategies for each of its strategic priorities. In view of the fiscal restraint measures introduced in November 2006, CSC adjusted its performance expectations to sustaining public safety results, as reflected in its 2007-08 RPP. CSC's performance is evaluated against these revised result commitments.


STRATEGIC OUTCOME:

Offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian communities

Program Activity 16 Priority Performance Status 17 Planned Spending
($ millions) 2006-07
Actual
Spending
($ millions)
2006-07

Care and Custody

Expected Result:

Reasonable, safe, secure and humane custody

Safety and Security in Institutions:

Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions.

Successfully Met

1,114.1

1,110.7

Mental Health:

Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders.

Successfully Met

Rehabilitation and Case Management

Expected Result:

Safe reintegration into the community when appropriate and consistent with the law

Community Transition:

Safe transition of offenders into the community.

Successfully Met

437.2

415.8

Aboriginal Offenders:

Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Mtis and Inuit offenders.

Successfully Met

Program Activity Priority Performance Status Planned Spending
($ millions)
2006-07
Actual
Spending
($ millions)
2006-07

CORCAN

Expected Result

Provision of work opportunities and employability skills to offenders

Community Transition:

Safe transition of offenders into the community.

N/A 18

0.0 19

-2.8

Corporate Management 20

Expected Result:

Direction and support so that offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian communities

Management:

Strengthen Management Practices.

Successfully Met

158.1

171.5

Sub-Total

 

1,709.4

1,695.2

Additional salary expenditures further to signed collective agreements

Current year impact

   

57.5

Previous years retro pay

   

112.8

Total

 

1,709.4

1,865.5


Below is a detailed presentation of the results achieved against each priority in support of its associated Program Activities and Strategic Outcome, as well as information on the strategies implemented to achieve those results. Information on specific plans associated with these strategies is presented in Section 2, at the Program Sub-Activity level.

Priority: Safety and Security in Institutions

One of CSC's fundamental responsibilities is to ensure that its institutions are safe for staff and offenders. Violence and illicit drugs are not tolerated. Offenders involved in violent incidents or found in possession of, or using, illicit drugs face disciplinary actions or criminal charges. Over the years, CSC has implemented a number of measures in an effort to reduce both violence and illicit drugs in institutions. To further improve results in this area, CSC implemented three strategies in 2006-07:

Develop and implement measures to reduce violence in institutions

The increasingly complex offender population presents significant new challenges requiring significant enhancements to security intelligence capacity. This increased capacity was aimed at enhancing CSC's ability to mitigate risks posed by offenders and contribute to providing a safer environment for their effective rehabilitation.

Develop and implement additional measures to reduce illicit drugs in institutions

As indicated earlier, the availability and use of illicit drugs are not compatible with secure environments and effective and safe reintegration. This strategy was aimed at curtailing the supply, use and impacts of drugs in institutions.

Enhance staff safety

This strategy was aimed at ensuring the protection of staff, which required ongoing adjustments to security and interventions to address the changing offender profile.

Safety and Security in Institutions: Results

Result Commitment 21

Preventing an increase in violent behaviour within institutions, as measured by the rate of major security incidents.

Preventing an increase in disrespectful and assaultive behaviour within institutions, as measured by:

  • The rate of assaults on staff;
  • The rate of assaults on offenders;
  • The rate of injuries to staff caused by offenders; and
  • The rate of injuries to offenders caused by offenders.

Preventing an increase in illicit drugs within institutions, as measured by the percentage of offenders testing positive during random urinalysis tests.

As the following chart indicates, there was a slight increase from 2005-06 in the rate of major security incidents in CSC institutions:

Major Institutional Incidents 22


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Major Incidents

year

133

135

86

92

109

3-year average

141.7

133.0

118.0

104.3

95.7

Institutional Flowthrough 23

year

18588

18532

18623

19039

19490

3-year average

18628

18567

18581

18731

19051

Rate

year

0.7%

0.7%

0.5%

0.5%

0.6%

3-year average

0.8%

0.7%

0.6%

0.6%

0.5%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (July 31, 2007). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

As for assaults, there has been a steady decline in the rate of assaults on staff by inmates over the last five years, as demonstrated by the 3-year moving average: 24

Staff Assaults (by Inmates)


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Staff Assaults

year

465

367

293

375

355

3-year average

478.7

446.7

375.0

345.0

341.0

Institutional Staff 25

year

11277

11480

11260

11247

11339

3-year average

10985

11267

11339

11329

11282

Rate

year

4.1%

3.2%

2.6%

3.3%

3.1%

3-year average

4.4%

4.0%

3.3%

3.0%

3.0%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

Given the more challenging offender profile, the increasing offender population and the relatively stable employee population, this is a significant achievement. On the other hand, the rate of assaults among inmates has not declined in recent years.

Inmate Assaults (by Inmates)


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Inmate Assaults

year

540

468

463

558

556

3-year average

530.7

506.0

490.3

496.3

525.7

Institutional Flowthrough

year

18588

18532

18623

19039

19490

3-year average

18628

18567

18581

18731

19051

Rate

year

2.9%

2.5%

2.5%

2.9%

2.9%

3-year average

2.8%

2.7%

2.6%

2.6%

2.8%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

Similarly, there has been a steady decline in the rate of staff injuries due to assaults by inmates since 2002-03. For the same period, the rate of inmate injuries due to assaults by inmates has remained relatively constant, although in absolute numbers, there has been a steady increase in inmate injuries due to assaults by inmates, over the last five years. 26

Staff Injuries due to Assaults by Inmates


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Staff Injuries

year

90

90

67

91

85

3-year average

95.3

91.3

82.3

82.7

81.0

Institutional Staff

year

11277

11480

11260

11247

11339

3-year average

10985

11267

11339

11329

11282

Rate

year

0.8%

0.8%

0.6%

0.8%

0.7%

3-year average

0.9%

0.8%

0.7%

0.7%

0.7%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

Inmate Injuries due to Assaults by Inmates


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Inmates Injuries

year

483

423

435

491

498

3-year average

483.7

457.3

447.0

449.7

474.7

Institutional Flowthrough

year

18588

18532

18623

19039

19490

3-year average

18628

18567

18581

18731

19051

Rate

year

2.6%

2.3%

2.3%

2.6%

2.6%

3-year average

2.6%

2.5%

2.4%

2.4%

2.5%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007). Institutional Flowthrough as of April 8, 2007.

The presence of any illicit drugs in institutions continues to be an ongoing concern. Despite the fact that the rate of offenders testing positive in urinalysis has steadily but marginally declined over the past five years, as reflected in the three-year moving average, the rate of positive test results has increased between 2005-06 and 2006-07 This, despite the fact that the offender refusal rate for urinalysis testing has been declining.

Random Urinalysis Test

Positive Results


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Positive results

year

762

765

728

764

837

3-year average

775

748

752

752

776

Samples tested

year

5793

5733

5932

6351

6737

3-year average

5778

5765

5819

6005

6340

Rate

year

13.2%

13.3%

12.3%

12.0%

12.4%

3-year average

13.4%

13.0%

12.9%

12.5%

12.2%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (April 8, 2007).

Random Urinalysis Test

Refusal Rate


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Refusals

year

929

835

802

893

802

3-year average

945

917

855

843

832

Samples requested

year

6822

6655

6829

7413

7759

3-year average

6815

6778

6769

6966

7334

Rate

year

13.6%

12.5%

11.7%

12.0%

10.3%

3-year average

13.9%

13.5%

12.6%

12.1%

11.3%


Source: Corporate Reporting System (April 8, 2007).

Priority: Mental Health

CSC provides a full-spectrum response to the broad and multi-dimensional mental health needs of offenders. CSC has developed an overarching Mental Health Strategy that has five 27 components. Late in 2006-07, the Government of Canada provided two-year funding for three components of CSC's Mental Health Strategy, namely: clinical screening and assessment, provision of primary mental health care in all CSC institutions, and consistent standards and approach in CSC mental health treatment. 28 Implementation in these areas began in 2007-08.

In addition, in 2006-07 CSC continued implementation of the one previously funded component of its Mental Health Strategy, namely, the Community Mental Health Initiative. 29 The goal of the Initiative is to ensure that inmates requiring mental health services receive the best possible preparation for reintegration, and can transition to the community mental health system at the appropriate time with continuity of support. The funds are to be used toward discharge planning; transitional care; specialized mental health staff working out of selected parole offices to provide support to offenders with mental health disorders in Community Correctional Centres (CCCs) and Community Residential Facilities (CRFs); annual mental health training for staff of selected parole offices, CCCs and CRFs; and funds for specialized services such as psychiatric and psychological interventions.

Mental Health: Results

Result Commitment 30

Improved correctional results for federal offenders with mental disorders, as measured by:

  • The percentage of federal offenders with mental disorders whose parole has been revoked, with or without a new conviction or charge, while under CSC supervision; 31
  • The percentage of federal offenders with mental disorders returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence; and
  • The percentage of federal offenders with mental disorders convicted of an offence within five years of the end of their sentence. 32

 

The following table shows the rate of offenders with identified mental health disorders whose parole has been revoked, while under CSC supervision, with or without a new conviction or charge. While the rate has been fluctuating over the past few years, the three-year moving average shows an overall increase since 2002-03 (from 52.1% to 56.1%).

Mental Health Cases

Revocation while on Supervision


    02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06 06-07

Revocations

year

286

398

464

498

616

3-year average

186

294

383

453

526

Release Flowthrough

year

517

695

806

936

1072

3-year average

358

528

673

812

938

Rate

year

55.3%

57.3%

57.6%

53.2%

57.5%

3-year average

52.1%

55.7%

56.9%

55.8%

56.1%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

The following table displays the percentage of federal offenders with a mental health disorder returning to federal custody within two years following the end of their sentence, due to a new offence. Apart from a sharp decline from 2000-01 to 2001-02, the three-year averages in the last four years show a steady increase in the rate of return to custody. This suggests that offenders may have more serious and longer-term mental health problems and/or that the community's capacity for support of mental health cases has been eroding.

Mental Health Cases

Return to Federal Custody for New Offence within 2 Years post- Warrant Expiry Date (WED)


    00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05

Re-Admission

year

4

7

20

32

33

3-year average

1

4

10

20

28

Offenders Reaching WED

year

21

113

189

231

267

3-year average

8

45

108

178

229

Rate

year

19.0%

6.2%

10.6%

13.9%

12.4%

3-year average

17.4%

8.1%

9.6%

11.1%

12.4%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

The provision of mental health services is a legislative requirement and a corporate priority for CSC. When mental health needs are addressed through assessment and treatment, public safety and the safety of CSC's institutions are enhanced.

In May 2006, the Standing Senate Committee on Social Affairs, Science and Technology released its report on mental health, mental illness, and addiction, titled Out of the Shadows at Last.33 The report made 118 recommendations, of which 11 relate directly to CSC. The Committee's primary goal for federal offenders is to raise the standard of mental health care within correctional institutions (and in post-release settings) to be equivalent to that available to members of the general public. This goal is reflected in CSC's Mental Health Strategy, which also incorporates many of the Committee's recommendations.34

Recognizing the need to improve the quality of mental, as well as physical, health services provided to inmates, CSC announced, in 2006-07, a new governance structure for CSC Health Services, which came into effect in August 2007. The Health Services branch was promoted to a sector, headed by a dedicated Assistant Commissioner, and organized to include Clinical Services; Public Health; Mental Health; Planning, Policy, and Quality Improvement.

Priority: Community Transition

CSC's ultimate goal is to enhance public safety through reduced re-offending. There are serious challenges in this regard. Reoffending is a major problem as about thirty-six percent of federal offenders will be convicted of a new crime within two years of completing their sentence, the majority receiving some type of provincial sentence (i.e., less than two years).35 That said, the majority of offenders will one day return to the community and CSC must focus on preparing offenders for a safe transition. In 2006-07, CSC implemented four strategies in support of this priority:

Enhance supervision and monitoring tools for higher-risk offenders in the community

This strategy was aimed at fostering closer supervision for certain groups of offenders and the provision of targeted programs and services, in partnership with community organizations, provincial and territorial jurisdictions, and police services, in order to enhance the potential of offenders for safe reintegration. Targeted groups of offenders included those with a propensity for violence, those on statutory release with or without a residency condition, those under a Long Term Supervision Order, and offenders with a significant mental health disorder.

Adapt the assessment process at reception (intake) for shorter sentences

This strategy was designed to adapt the intake assessment process for offenders with shorter sentences, in particular for those with a propensity for violence, so that a correctional plan can be rapidly established and the offenders' criminogenic factors addressed in a timely fashion.

Amend case management and programming approaches to provide timely and purposeful interventions for shorter sentences

The purpose of this strategy was to amend the case management approach for offenders serving shorter sentences. Timely and appropriate interventions are critical to safe reintegration into the community.

Enhance the role of Community Correctional Centres (CCCs) in managing the transition to the community

Throughout 2006-07, CSC conducted a comprehensive analysis of the role and capacity of CCCs in addressing the needs and risks presented by the changing offender profile, and in particular, higher-needs offenders.

Community Transition: Results

Result Commitment 36

Preventing an escalation in violent re-offending 37 by federal offenders returning to the community, as measured by:

  • The percentage of federal offenders in communities convicted 38 of a violent offence while under CSC supervision;
  • The percentage of federal offenders convicted of a violent offence and returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence; and
  • The percentage of federal offenders convicted of a violent offence within five years of the end of their sentence.

 

As the following table demonstrates, since 2003-04, there has been a steady but marginal decline in the rate of violent convictions of offenders under CSC supervision in the community.

Re-Offending with a Violent Conviction while on Supervision 39


    01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05 05-06

Violent Convictions

year

249

250

246

232

192

3-year average

266

262

248

243

223

Release Flowthrough

year

16611

16382

16168

16156

16368

3-year average

16870

16656

16387

16235

16231

Rate

year

1.5%

1.5%

1.5%

1.4%

1.2%

3-year average

1.6%

1.6%

1.5%

1.5%

1.4%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

Although CSC has achieved a small decline in the violent re-offending while under supervision, there has been an increase in violent re-offending post-warrant expiry. This underscores the need to ensure that supervised offenders receive the skills and motivation that will enable them to live as law-abiding citizens in the vulnerable years following the end of their supervision period. It also points to the need for increased collaboration with community partners to ensure continuity of support upon sentence completion to prevent recidivism.

Return to Federal Custody with Violent Conviction within 2 years post-WED


    00-01 01-02 02-03 03-04 04-05

Re-Admission
for violent offence

year

233

222

242

233

271

3-year average

228

221

232

232

249

Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence

year

4636

4690

4634

4523

4543

3-year average

4529

4576

4653

4616

4567

Rate

year

5.0%

4.7%

5.2%

5.2%

6.0%

3-year average

5.0%

4.8%

5.0%

5.0%

5.4%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

Return to Federal Custody with Violent Conviction within 5 years post-WED


    97-98 98-99 99-00 00-01 01-02

Re-Admission
for violent offence

year

462

456

377

438

412

3-year average

469

462

432

424

409

Offenders Reaching WED
for any type of offence

year

4650

4550

4401

4636

4690

3-year average

4734

4648

4534

4529

4576

Rate

year

9.9%

10.0%

8.6%

9.4%

8.8%

3-year average

9.9%

9.9%

9.5%

9.4%

8.9%


Source: Offender Management System (April 8, 2007).

While not identified in CSC's result commitments, the rate of non-violent re-offending both under supervision and under post-warrant expiry is also of concern to CSC. Data on this is presented in Section 4 of this report.

Research shows that society is best protected when an offender is gradually reintegrated into society through supervised release, rather than released at the end of sentence with no controls--no supervision or constraints; no opportunity to revoke the release on indication of problematic behaviour; and no opportunity to reassess and intervene in a manner that would reduce the potential for re-offending.40 In light of this, and the general trend in recent years toward lower rates of recidivism while under CSC supervision compared to after sentence completion, CSC must continue to invest in refining its case management processes.

Priority: Aboriginal Offenders

CSC is committed to addressing the needs of Aboriginal offenders --who are over-represented in the federal correctional system -- through enhancing its capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Mtis and Inuit offenders. Throughout 2006-07, CSC implemented four strategies aimed at narrowing the gap in terms of correctional results between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. These were:

Develop and implement culturally appropriate interventions

The intent of this strategy was to address the specific criminogenic needs of Aboriginal offenders through the development and implementation of actions at both the national and regional levels based on the continuum of care model.41

Address CSC internal systemic barriers and develop cultural competence

This strategy was aimed at making CSC more capable of addressing the specific needs of Aboriginal offenders by making the organization more aware and representative of Aboriginal cultures.

Improve the continuum of care for Aboriginal women offenders

This strategy was aimed at improving correctional results through initiatives that would enhance the continuum of care for Aboriginal women offenders.

Enhance collaboration

This strategy was aimed at enhancing horizontal collaboration with the objective of closing the gap in the "life chances" of Aboriginal offenders. It also endeavoured to position CSC to take advantage of partnerships and opportunities among governmental and Non- Governmental Organizations to support Aboriginal offenders in communities, including those returning to urban areas.

Aboriginal Offenders: Results 42

Result Commitment 43

Preventing the gap between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal correctional results from widening, as measured by:

  • The percentage of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal federal offenders convicted of, or charged with, violent or non-violent offences in communities while under CSC supervision;
  • The percentage of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal federal offenders convicted of a violent or non-violent offence and returning to federal custody within two years of the end of their sentence; and
  • The percentage of Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal federal offenders convicted of violent or non-violent offences within five years of the end of their sentence.

 

The following tables show the gaps in correctional results between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. More detailed statistical information is presented in Section 4 of this report.

Convictions while on supervision


Return to federal custody for new conviction within 2 years post-WED

Return to federal custody for new conviction within 5 years post-WED

As evidenced by the above performance results, a considerable gap still remains with respect to reoffending, both while the offenders are under CSC supervision in the community, and following the completion of their sentence. As such, reducing recidivism among Aboriginal Offenders will continue to be a priority for CSC.

In an effort to address this issue, CSC's Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections 2006-2011 44 was completed in October 2006. The Strategic Plan builds on the learning from Aboriginal engagement in correctional program and service delivery since 2000-01. It responds to the needs and aspirations of Aboriginal people within existing correctional legislation, and provides the framework to enhance capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Mtis and Inuit offenders.

CSC is at a critical juncture in developing the infrastructure to move forward on this priority. Greater investment and focus on full implementation of the Strategic Plan, in particular the Aboriginal continuum of care, is needed in order to influence the rates of re-incarceration and reoffending. However, given infrastructure needs and other pressures throughout the organization, there are limited options for reallocation of resources to support such implementation. Only once the continuum of care is fully implemented will it be possible to assess the full potential and effectiveness of Aboriginal-specific approaches in addressing the needs of Aboriginal offenders, their communities and their neighbourhoods.

A June 2006 Statistics Canada report, Victimization and Offending among the Aboriginal Population in Canada, 45 suggests that social disruption, particularly on-reserve, will remain a significant challenge for many Aboriginal communities. Social marginalization, particularly in large urban centres, will also continue to be a barrier to addressing disparities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal Canadians, including offenders. The reality is that the majority of Aboriginal offenders are returning to communities that face major challenges in supporting or sustaining them.

Launching the new five-year Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections is a critical step forward in CSC's efforts. At the same time, it is also part of a larger attempt to reduce recidivism in federal offenders as a whole.

Priority: Strengthened Management Practices

CSC recognizes that its success in achieving correctional results over the coming years in its priority areas depends on developing strong management practices.

Four strategies were developed for 2006-07 in pursuit of this priority:

Clarify roles and responsibilities

This strategy is aimed at fostering strong teamwork that is based on a clear understanding of the roles and responsibilities across boundaries and disciplines within CSC. Defining roles and responsibilities also reinforces accountability for results, increases transparency and addresses ambiguities and potential overlaps within different parts of the organization, ensuring greater cost efficiency.

Enhance the values and ethics program and results

CSC committed to a strengthened values and ethics program that responds to the nature of the correctional environment and the Values and Ethics Code for the Public Service, in order to create a stronger values-based workplace. This strategy was aimed at developing and implementing integrated plans that build on existing programs to ensure that values and ethics are more fully incorporated into decision-making practices and understood by employees at all levels within CSC.

Improve internal communications

This strategy was aimed at building greater capacity for effective internal communications between and across all levels of the organization. The goal was to develop a strategic framework and action plan and the appropriate products, services and tools to support and enhance CSC's internal communications capacity.

Enhance the management of infrastructure needs and address facility rust-out

This strategy was aimed at developing a comprehensive investment strategy that rigorously examines CSC's infrastructure needs and population management requirements associated with the changing offender profile as well as increases in construction and maintenance costs.

Strengthened Management Practices: Results

CSC committed to the following target and measurement strategy for 2006-07:

Result Commitment

A stronger contribution to public safety in priority areas, as measured by:

  • Achievement of targeted operational results in priority areas, as defined in previous sections;
  • Improvements in management practices as reflected in Management Accountability Framework assessments by the Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS) and responses to employee surveys. 46

 

The Management Accountability Framework (MAF) sets out the Treasury Board's expectations of senior public service managers for good public service management. The MAF is structured around 10 key elements that collectively define "management" and establish the expectations for good management of a department or agency. 47

TBS's Management Accountability Framework assessment for 2006-07 was generally positive. TBS noted particular improvement in the areas of:

  • Effectiveness of financial management and control; and
  • Effectiveness of Corporate Risk Management.

Progress was also noted in the areas of:

  • Values and Ethics;
  • Development and implementation of a long-term resourcing strategy; and
  • Strengthened leadership with the National Parole Board.

TBS indicated that CSC should continue to work on those three areas; more specifically, that CSC should:

  • Implement the Year One action items of the Human Resources Strategic Plan, the National Values and Ethics Strategy, and the Informal Conflict Management System; and
  • Fully implement the new Shared Services Partnership with the National Parole Board.

1.7 Link to the Government of Canada Outcome Areas 48

A "whole-of-government" framework groups all federal departments' Strategic Outcomes and Program Activities into 13 long-term benefits to Canadians--referred to as "Government of Canada Outcomes"--in three broad sectors: social, economic, and international.

Through three Program Activities-- Care and Custody, Rehabilitation and Case Management and CORCAN --CSC contributes directly and indirectly to the social affairs sector, under the Government of Canada Outcome, "Safe and Secure Communities".


Government of Canada Outcome CSC's Direct Contribution CSC's Indirect Contribution

Canada's Social Affairs

Safe and Secure Communities

  • Decreased levels of crime and victimization by offenders through the delivery of programs and services that reduce recidivism;
  • Enhanced community capacity to deliver programs and services that meet the needs of at-risk populations, through partnerships and formal arrangements with the voluntary sector; and
  • Enhanced intelligence gathering and information-sharing capacity, both internally and with criminal justice partners, has allowed for a more cooperative response to ensuring security and safety in institutions and communities.
  • Maintain safe and secure communities;
  • Reduced social costs of crime.

CSC's third Program Activity, CORCAN, also contributes to the economic sector, under the Government of Canada Outcome, "Income Security and Employment for Canadians."


Government of Canada Outcome CSC's Direct Contribution CSC's Indirect Contribution

Canada's Economic Affairs

Income Security and Employment for Canadians

  • Provision of work opportunities and employability skills to offenders, through work and training in institutions and support in finding employment when released to the community.
  • A larger, more productive Canadian workforce.

In addition, CSC contributes to the Government's cross-cutting theme on Aboriginal peoples, in the following ways:


Directly

Indirectly

  • Aboriginal community capacity development and engagement in the development and delivery of correctional services for Aboriginal offenders;
  • Improved health status of Aboriginal offenders;
  • Culturally appropriate accommodation options for safe transition to communities;
  • Enhanced participation in education programs; and
  • Development of employment and employability skills.
  • Improved life chances for individual Aboriginal offenders.
  • Healthier and more economically viable Aboriginal communities.
  • Enhanced Aboriginal relationship with the Government of Canada.

CSC makes an important, but more indirect, contribution to other Government of Canada Outcomes, notably, "Healthy Canadians", via infectious diseases surveillance and control within federal institutions; provision of harm reduction programs that reduce the impact of high-risk behaviour; and interdiction procedures that reduce the amount of illicit drugs getting into institutions.