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Horizontal Initiatives

Skills and Employment


Name of Horizontal Initiative: Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership

Name of Lead Department(s): Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Lead Department Program Activity: Skills and Employment

Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative: October 3, 2003

End Date of the Horizontal Initiative: March 31, 2012

Total Federal Funding Allocation (start to end date): $290.0M

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership (ASEP) initiative is a nationally managed skills development program designed to promote maximum employment for Aboriginal people on major economic opportunities through a collaborative partnership approach. The ASEP program supports multi-year training and employment strategies that are developed and managed by formalized partnerships to train individuals for targeted jobs.

Formalized partnerships including the private sector and Aboriginal organizations, and others such as the provincial governments and training institutions, are responsible for jointly developing and managing comprehensive, multi-year skills development (training-to-employment) plans leading directly to targeted jobs. The plan must have a commitment from the employers to provide at least 50 long-term jobs for Aboriginal people. The partnership must also make a significant financial contribution to the training plan (at least 50%) and must develop a governance model that will manage and oversee the activities of the project.

The Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnership (ASEP) program was launched as an $85M initiative in 2003-2009 that was expanded in 2007 with an additional $105M, and extended to 2012. Canada’s Economic Action Plan under Budget 2009 announced an additional $100M investment over three years beginning in 2009-2010.

Shared Outcome(s): Long term sustainable employment for Aboriginal people.

Governance Structure(s): ASEP is a national, project based program that uses a collaborative model. Formalized partnerships develop and manage multi-year training and employment plans, over the life of the project. The partnership must develop a governance model and form a non-profit society for the sole purpose of implementing the multi-year ASEP contribution agreement.

ASEP projects are received through a request for proposals process and are assessed through a multi-departmental assessment process. ASEP proponents receive direct support through a multi-year contribution agreement negotiated by HRSDC based on the project training-to-employment plan. ASEP proponents are responsible for interim and final financial and performance reports.

($ millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity (PA) Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) Planned Spending for
2009-10
Actual Spending for
2009-10
Expected Results for
2009-10
Results Achieved in
2009-10
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Labour Market Aboriginal Skills and Employment Partnerships $290.0M $47.3M $33.3M Aboriginal clients served: 7,500

Interventions completed: 6,500

Clients employed following an ASEP intervention: 3,000
Aboriginal clients served: 7,534 plus 3870 (for projects funded under EAP)

Clients employed following an ASEP intervention:
4,165 plus 2,153 (for projects funded under EAP)
* Program area has indicated the revised figures below represent the expected results and results achieved for 2009-10 only as opposed to the duration of the program.
Aboriginal clients served: 2,653
Clients Employed: 1,134
2,731 Aboriginal clients were served
1,027 individuals were employed and 14 new partnerships were created
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada   ASEP $0M $2.3M $2.3M
Natural Resources Canada   ASEP $0.2M in kind n/a n/a
Western Economic Diversification   ASEP (no funding in 09/10)      
Total $290.0M $49.6M $35.6M    

Comments on Variances: A minimum six month implementation phase and start up-phase is anticipated to establish an ASEP project, the partnership and the appropriate mechanisms to implement and manage the project. The time required to develop projects varies with respect to the complexity of the partnership, the local economy and industry/sectoral fluctuations. Multi-year projects run three to five years on average. Since the start of the program three requests for proposals (RFP) were undertaken resulting in projects at various stages in their multi-year cycles. Program spending increases during the middle of the projects’ funding cycle following the initial intake and project development phase, and generally tapers off toward the end. Because the projects involve multi-year training for employment, factors such as fluctuations in the economy result in year-over-year variances and adjustments in spending.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): n/a

Contact information:

Catherine Adam, Director General
Aboriginal Affairs Directorate
(819) 997-8551
Catherine.adam@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca
Place du Portage, Phase IV
140 Promenade du Portage
Gatineau, Québec



Name of Horizontal Initiative: Temporary Foreign Worker Program

Name of Lead Department(s): Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Lead Department Program Activity: Skills and Employment

Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative: June 13, 2007*

End Date of the Horizontal Initiative: Ongoing

Total Federal Funding Allocation (start to end date): (this is an ongoing initiative)

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The Temporary Foreign Worker Program enables Canadian employers to hire foreign workers on a temporary basis to meet immediate skills and labour needs when Canadians are not available. The Program is jointly managed by Citizenship and Immigration Canada and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada. The Temporary Foreign Worker Program includes program streams such as the Seasonal Agricultural Workers Program, the Live-in-Caregiver Program, the Pilot Project for Occupations Requiring Lower Levels of Formal Training and Labour Market Opinion (LMO) exempt streams.

In the province of Quebec, the Temporary Foreign Worker Program is administered under the auspices of the Canada-Quebec Immigration Accord.

For more information on the program, please consult:
http://www.hrsdc.gc.ca/en/workplaceskills/foreign_workers/index.shtml

Shared Outcome(s):

  • Employers’ temporary human resource needs are addressed.
  • Temporary Foreign Worker's rights and protections are respected.
  • Temporary labour market needs are addressed.
  • Temporary migration that is consistent with federal, provincial and territorial regulations, standards and international obligations.
  • Migration that significantly benefits Canada’s economic, social, and cultural development.

Governance Structure(s):

  • Human Resources and Skills Development Canada is responsible for providing a Labour Market Opinion to Citizenship and Immigration Canada and employers indicating if the employment of the temporary foreign worker is likely to have a positive, negative or neutral impact on the labour market in Canada and processes Labour Market Opinion applications to support the work permit application process.
  • Citizenship and Immigration Canada is responsible for assessing work permit applications and issuing work permits and visas to temporary foreign workers.
  • Each Department is responsible for the design and management of those elements of the program under its Minister's responsibility.
($ millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity (PA) Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) Planned Spending for
2009-10
Actual Spending for
2009-10
Expected Results for
2009-10
Results Achieved in
2009-10
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Skills and Employment and Internal Services program activities Temporary Foreign Worker Program Ongoing $32.6M $35.5M Program enhancements, including strengthened worker protection, program integrity measures, and more responsive and efficient processes

Strengthen requirement relating to employer efforts to recruit Canadians

Implement joint employer monitoring and compliance measures

Expand and improve availability of on-line Labour Market Opinion application forms

Sector/occupation-based Labour Market Opinion processing

Development and implementation of information sharing agreements with Provinces/Territories to assist in the administration and enforcement of legislation and assist HRSDC in administering the Labour Market Opinions

In partnership with Citizenship and Immigration Canada, develop and participate in Temporary Foreign Workers (F/P/T) Working groups

Participate with Citizenship and Immigration Canada in the negotiation and implementation of Fed-Prov Temporary Foreign Worker Annexes

Joint evaluation of the program
Pre-publication of regulatory amendments designed to improve the integrity of the TFWP and better protect workers.

Provided list of federal and provincial initiatives to encourage employers to hire unemployed Canadians and permanent residents.

Eliminated the option to extend a Labour Market Opinion (LMO).

Established a validity period of a maximum of 6 months from date of issue for an LMO.

Conducted 241 Employer Compliance Reviews under the Expedited LMO Pilot Project, resulting in 30 denials of service.

Launched a post-LMO employer monitoring initiative and delivered training.

Developed online employer authentication and accounts for the March 2011 web service release.

Conducted review of the NOC C & D (Low Skill) pilot project.

Implemented a facilitated process for the primary and secondary workforce for the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics.

Developed new policies for:
  • Live-in Caregiver Program
  • self-employed professionals and technicians
  • agricultural sector harmonization
  • standardized wage methodology and process.


Established regular exchange of information/data via signed Letters of Understanding with provincial signatories.

Participated in Temporary Foreign Workers (F/P/T) Working groups with Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador.

Negotiated Temporary Foreign Worker Annex to Immigration Agreement in British Columbia

Began negotiations on an occupation-specific process with the Government of Quebec.

Developed plan and RFP for TFWP joint evaluation in 2010-2011.
Citizenship and Immigration Canada Temporary Resident Program Temporary Foreign Worker Program Ongoing $33.2M $31.7M Program enhancements including strengthened worker protection, program integrity measures

Develop joint employer monitoring and compliance measures

Federal/Provincial information–sharing Memoranda of Understanding

Negotiate and implement Temporary Foreign Worker Annexes to Federal-Provincial Immigration Agreements in partnership with HRSDC

Conduct a joint formative evaluation.
Pre-publication of regulatory amendments designed to improve the integrity of the TFWP and better protect workers.

Operational planning begun for proposed regulation implementation in 2011 including monitoring and compliance measures.

Began negotiations for information-sharing agreements with provinces.

Participated in Temporary Foreign Workers (F/P/T) Working groups with Alberta, British Columbia, Saskatchewan, Manitoba, Ontario, Quebec and Newfoundland and Labrador.

Developed plan and Request For Proposal for TFWP joint evaluation in 2010-2011.
Total Ongoing $65.8M $67.2M    

Comments on Variances: The HRSDC variance of $2.9M is mainly due to addressing higher demands related to the 2010 Vancouver Winter Olympics, implementing greater rigour in the assessment of labour market opinions to ensure job offers made by employers to foreign nationals would not have an adverse effect on the Canadian labour market and enhancing program monitoring and integrity measures which included greater employer engagement.

The CIC variance of $1.5M is attributed to general operating lapses as well as delays in the review and subsequent implementation of a revised service delivery model for the regional TFW units and national headquarters.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): Not Applicable

Contact information:

Andrew Kenyon, Director General
Temporary Foreign Workers - Labour Market Information Directorate
Skills and Employment Branch
(819) 994-1021
andrew.kenyon@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca
Place du Portage, Phase IV
140 Promenade du Portage
Gatineau, Quebec

Note: * The June 2007 start date represents the latest authorities for the Temporary Foreign Worker program. The above planned spending figures are for Citizenship and Immigration Canada and HRSDC only. Figures exclude planned spending for other government departments such as DFAIT and PWGSC and therefore do not represent the full Government of Canada costs for the Temporary Foreign Worker Program.



Name of Horizontal Initiative: Youth Employment Strategy

Name of Lead Department(s): Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Lead Department Program Activity: Skills and Employment

Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative: March 18, 1999

End Date of the Horizontal Initiative: Ongoing (no fixed expiry date)

Total Federal Funding Allocation (start to end date): Ongoing

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The Youth Employment Strategy (YES) supports Canadian youth as they move into the world of work. The Strategy plays a role in developing Canada's workforce by providing young Canadians with access to programs and services to help them gain the skills, knowledge, career information and work experience they need to find and maintain employment and make a successful transition into the labour force.

The Youth Employment Strategy is designed to respond to labour market challenges facing youth, aged 15 to 30. The Strategy has three program streams: Skills Link, Career Focus and Summer Work Experience, which includes the Canada Summer Jobs initiative. Skills Link provides youth-at-risk with opportunities to develop skills they need to find work or return to school. Career Focus helps post-secondary graduates find work in their area of specialization. Summer Work Experience helps secondary and post-secondary graduates acquire career-related skills and financing for their education through summer jobs.

The Government of Canada's support to young Canadians is a shared responsibility and a partnership effort among many departments and organizations. Human Resources and Skills Development, along with 11 other federal government departments, work cooperatively with other levels of government, Aboriginal organizations, educational institutions, and private sector, not-for-profit and voluntary sector organizations to deliver Youth Employment Strategy initiatives.

Transfer payments made under the Youth Employment Strategy are predominantly in the form of contributions from participating departments for wage subsidies for participant youth; or for the development and delivery of youth support services. Such support services include client assessment, case management services and the provision of employability tools, which intend to help participants acquire needed skills. Transfer payments contribute directly to the program objectives by encouraging organizations to create meaningful, skill-enhancing, opportunities for youth.

For more information, please visit: http://www.youth.gc.ca.

Shared Outcome(s):

  • Youth clients will be served through work experiences or tailored interventions; and a portion of youth participants will return to school to further their education/skills development and/or become employed or self-employed.

Governance Structure(s): The Youth Employment Strategy has in place an umbrella Results-based Management and Accountability Framework that represents a commitment among the eleven participating federal departments to undertake ongoing collection of common performance management data to ensure effective overall performance management of the program.

Oversight of the Youth Employment Strategy horizontal initiative is provided through a collaborative committee structure. Human Resources and Skills Development Canada is responsible for facilitating coordination among the departments and agencies funding Youth Employment Strategy activities. As lead of this horizontal initiative, HRSDC chairs and is responsible for the coordination and management of Youth Employment Strategy Interdepartmental Operations Committee and the Youth Employment Strategy Evaluation Sub-Committee. HRSDC is ultimately accountable for attaining the expected results for Youth Employment Strategy and has the ultimate decision making authority for issues related to the overall policy, design and implementation of Youth Employment Strategy.

Youth Employment Strategy initiatives are delivered nationally, regionally and locally using a variety of funding instruments, such as contribution agreements and some direct delivery methods. Transfer payments are provided primarily by participating departments through contribution agreements and service delivery agreements in support of participants’ remuneration and overhead costs.

Youth Protocols for joint planning mechanisms have been signed with Newfoundland and Labrador, Nova Scotia, Prince Edward Island, New Brunswick and Manitoba.

($ millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity (PA) Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) Planned Spending for
2009-10
Actual Spending for
2009-10
Expected Results for
2009-10
Results Achieved in
2009-10
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Labour Market Career Focus Ongoing $13.0M $10.1M HRSDC Career Focus

Clients Served: 400 – 500

Employed or Self-Employed: 300 – 350

Return to School: 10 – 30

Contribution Agreements: 80 – 110

Sectoral Youth Career Focus

Clients Served: N/A

Employed or Self-Employed: N/A

Return to School: N/A

Contribution agreements: N/A

Funds Leveraged: N/A
HRSDC Career Focus1

Clients Served: 498

Employed or Self-Employed: 195

Return to School: 28

Contribution agreements
254

Funds Leveraged $4,182, 582

Sectoral Youth Career Focus
Clients Served: 419

Employed or Self-Employed: N/A3

Return to School: N/A3

Contribution agreements: 13

Funds Leveraged: $2,067,622
Skills Link Ongoing $136.6M $132.3M Skills Link

Clients Served: 14,000 – 16,000

Employed or Self-Employed: 6,000 – 6,900

Return to School: 1,350 – 1,500

Contribution Agreements: 1,100 – 1,300

Funds Leveraged: N/A
Skills Link2

Clients Served: 16,151

Employed or Self-Employed: 5,113

Return to School: 2,062

Contribution agreements: 1,467

Funds Leveraged: 37,312,442
Summer Work Experience (Canada Summer Jobs) Ongoing $111.6M $109.6M Canada Summer Jobs

Clients Served: 30,000 – 35,000

Contribution Agreements:15,000 – 20,000
Canada Summer Jobs2

Clients Served:37,500

Contribution Agreements: 22,275
Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada   Career Focus Ongoing $1.1M $0.5M N/A Clients Served: 615

Employed or Self-Employed: 56

Return to School:06
Canadian International Development Agency   Career Focus Ongoing $6.4M $2.4M N/A Clients Served: 322

Employed or Self-Employed: N/A8

Return to School:N/A8
Canadian Heritage   Career Focus Ongoing $0.9M $1.0M N/A Clients Served: 88

Employed or Self-Employed: 32

Return to School: 6
Summer Work Experience Ongoing $8.0M $7.7M N/A Clients served: 1,642
Environment Canada   Career Focus Ongoing $3.3M $3.0M N/A Clients Served: 235

Employed or Self-Employed: 159

Return to School: 18
Industry Canada   Career Focus Ongoing $9.8M $8.4M N/A Clients Served: 1,14710

Employed or Self-Employed: N/A11

Return to School: N/A11
Summer Work Experience Ongoing $7.4M $5.7M N/A Clients Served: 78410
National Research Council   Career Focus Ongoing $5.4M $15.2M N/A Clients Served: 606

Employed or Self-Employed: 21013

Return to School: 1113
Natural Resources Canada   Career Focus Ongoing $0.6M $0.3M N/A Clients Served: 33

Employed or Self-Employed: 21

Return to School: 4
Indian and Northern Affairs Canada   Skills Link Ongoing $18.6M $17.5M N/A Clients Served: 30,121

Employed or Self-Employed: 150

Return to School: 217
Summer Work Experience Ongoing $8.0M $8.3M N/A Clients Served: 4,846
Parks Canada   Summer Work Experience Ongoing $2.0M $2.0M N/A Clients Served: 265
Total Career Focus Ongoing $40.5M $40.9M    
Total Skills Link Ongoing $156.2M $150.8M    
Total Summer Work Experience Ongoing $138.8M $133.3M    
Total Youth Employment Strategy Ongoing $335.4M $325.0M    

1 Does not include International Academic Mobility (IAM) budget. While IAM is a component within the Career Focus (CF) budget, the program is reported under the Learning Program Activity of the DPR.
2 These numbers are based on P-12 results as P-14 results were not available at the time of completing the DPR.
3 No results were available at the time of completing the 2009-10 DPR due to delayed start in programming.
4 Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada (AAFC) obtained its authority to re-start the CF program in early December 2009. As a result, AAFC was not able to spend its entire CF budget in 2009-10.
5 Results include projects that began in 2008-09 and ended in 2009-10 as well as projects that began in 2009-10 and will end in 2010-11.
6 Results include projects that began in 2008-09 and ended in 2009-10. Results for projects that began in 2009-10 and will end in 2010-11 will be reported in the 2010-11 DPR.
7 The International Youth Internship Program (IYIP) reprofiled $3.2M to subsequent programming years, bringing the annual budget for the 2010-14 fiscal years to $6.7M.
8 No results were available at the time of completing the 2009-10 DPR due to delayed start in programming.
9 At the time of completing the 2009-10 DPR, not all projects had submitted their final expenditures to Industry Canada (IC).
10 Results are not complete. Full IC results will be reported in the 2010-11 DPR.
11 No results were available at the time of completing the 2009-10 DPR.
12 Includes the additional $10M provided to National Research Council (NRC) in 2009-10 as part of Canada's Economic Action Plan. The total amount includes expenditures for new projects in 2009-10 as well as projects begun in 2008-09 and continuing in 2009-10.
13 Results are for 2008-09. Results for 2009-10 will be reported in the 2010-11 DPR.
14 In 2009-10, $35,000 from the Natural Resources Canada's grants and contributions budget was transferred to Canadian Heritage and $261,862 to NRC.
15 In 2009-10, INAC re-allocated $300,000 from their Skills Link program to their Summer Work Experience program and transferred $524,800 to HRSDC for the Kativik regional government organization.

Comments on Variances: Due to delays in implementing Skills Link projects, as well the inability of some employers to fill all the positions for which they were approved for Canada Summer Jobs funding.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): Not Applicable

Contact information:

John Atherton, Director General
Active Employment Measures
Skills and Employment Branch
(819) 994-6916
john.atherton@hrsdc-rhdsc.gc.ca
Place du Portage, Phase IV
140 Promenade du Portage
Gatineau, Québec


Learning


Name of Horizontal Initiative: Canada Student Loans Program

Name of Lead Department(s): Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Lead Department Program Activity: Learning

Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative: September, 1964

End Date of the Horizontal Initiative: Ongoing

Total Federal Funding Allocation (start to end date): Ongoing

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The purpose of the Canada Student Loans Program is to:

  • promote accessibility to post-secondary education for individuals with demonstrated financial need by lowering financial barriers through the provision of loans and grants to students.

Information for the public on saving, planning and paying for post-secondary studies and specific information for Canada Student Loans Program clients (including information on learning opportunity selection, financial planning, and how to apply for, maintain and repay student loans) can be accessed at: www.canlearn.ca.

Shared Outcome(s): Maintain the Government’s commitment to accessible post-secondary education by:

  • lowering financial barriers to post-secondary education through the provision of financial assistance to eligible Canadians; and
  • ensuring a more manageable debt burden for student loan borrowers.

Governance Structure(s): The Government of Canada has entered into Integration Agreements with four provinces (Ontario, Saskatchewan, New Brunswick and Newfoundland and Labrador) in order to create a “one-student-one-loan” service approach. These four integrated provinces accounted for over 60 percent of the Canada Student Loans Program borrowers.

The administration of the current Program is the product of a co-operative effort between Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, Service Canada, Canada Revenue Agency, participating provinces and the Yukon Territory, a Service Provider, financial institutions and Public Works and Government Services Canada. These agents are responsible for conducting one or more activities during the loan lifecycle. Program documents and communications tools are typically prepared with the input and approval of both federal and participating provincial and territorial governments. Quebec, the Northwest Territories and Nunavut do not participate in the Canada Student Loans Program. These jurisdictions receive an alternative payment to assist in the cost of delivering a similar student financial assistance program.

Effective management of the Program and of relations with third-party agents is the primary responsibility of the Canada Student Loans Program. Program activities include, for example, defining the operational and financial processes for the delivery of the program by the service providers, comptrollership and client relations for escalated cases.

The application and needs assessment process is administered by provincial/territorial student assistance offices. The participating provinces and the Yukon Territory:

  • determine individual eligibility for loans and grants based on federal criteria;
  • assess students’ financial needs based on federal criteria;
  • issue loan certificates;
  • administer and deliver grants; and
  • designate educational institutions that students may attend with Canada Student Loans Program assistance.

While the Canada Student Loans Program provides the guidance and direction on how the Program is to be delivered, the Service Provider assumes responsibility for the administration of the loans once the loan agreement is signed and submitted for processing. The responsibilities of the Service Provider include:

  • verifying loan agreements;
  • managing the in-study interest-free period;
  • handling loan repayment; and
  • managing debt management activities, advising and counselling borrowers on debt management options.

Public Works and Government Services Canada is responsible for disbursing loans and grants to the borrowers and to Educational Institutions, for any funds directed to pay for tuition.

Canada Revenue Agency Non-Tax Collection Services is the agent responsible for debt collection. Delinquent guaranteed and risk-shared loans become debts to the Crown when the Government of Canada buys back the debt from financial institutions. Delinquent direct financed loans are returned to government after the Service Provider has attempted collection for a set period of time and the borrower has either not made payments on their loan or is unwilling to repay. These activities may also be conducted by private collection agencies under contract to Canada Revenue Agency. These private collection agencies must abide by Canada Revenue Agency collection guidelines when carrying out the recovery of Crown debts

($ millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity (PA) Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) Planned
Spending for
2009-
10
Actual
Spending for
2009-
10
Expected Results for
2009-
10
Results Achieved in
2009-
10
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Learning Canada Student Loans Program Ongoing Statutory funding 1,005.5M Loans Disbursed Under the Canada Student Financial Assistance Act $1.8B $1,158.0M Loans disbursed under the Canada Student Financial Assistance Act $2.1B Estimated number of Canadians to benefit from loans and non-repayable in study interest subsidies received (in the 2009 Loan Year beginning August 1, 2009) through the Canada Student Loans Program: 455,000a

Estimated number of Canadians to benefit from the Canada Student Grant Program (in the 2009 Loan Year beginning August 1, 2009): 245,000b
An estimated that 490,000 Canadians benefited from loans and non repayable in study interest subsidies received (in the 2009 Loan Year).

An estimated 275,703 Canadians benefited from the Canada Student Grant Program (in the 2009 Loan Year).
Public Works and Government Services Canada Receiver General Services           Not applicable
Canada Revenue Agency Accounts Receivable and Returns Compliance           Not applicable
Total          

Comments on Variances: The variance is mainly related to an increase in the Alternative Payments as a result of an increase in the Total Program Net Cost due to the implementation of the Canada Student Grants Program and Repayment Assistance Plan. The Alternative Payments made to non-participating jurisdictions are based on the net costs of the Federal Student Loan Program.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): Not Applicable

Contact information:

Marc LeBrun, Director General
Canada Student Loans Directorate
200 Montcalm Street
Gatineau, Quebec
Canada
K1A 0J9
(819) 997-6684
marc.lebrun@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca

a Please note that the number is estimated as loans awarded based on client eligibility and demonstrated need. The number of loans and the number of grants are not mutually exclusive as the same client can receive both.
b Please note that the number is estimated as grants awarded based on client eligibility and demonstrated need. The number of grants and the number of loans is not mutually exclusive as the same client can receive both.


Social Development


Name of Horizontal Initiative: Federal Elder Abuse Initiative

Name of Lead Department(s): Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Lead Department Program Activity: Social Development

Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative: April 1, 2008

End Date of the Horizontal Initiative: March 31, 2011

Total Federal Funding Allocation (start to end date): $13,050,000

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement): The overarching objectives of the Federal Elder Abuse Initiative (FEAI) are to raise awareness of elder abuse throughout society, particularly among seniors, their families, and key professional groups, and to ensure the availability of appropriate information, resources and tools to address elder abuse.

Federal elder abuse activities are coordinated interdepartmentally and will involve the cooperation and collaboration of the Department of Justice Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police under the leadership of HRSDC.

The centrepiece of the FEAI is a public awareness campaign using various media. Generic information and resource materials for frontline workers (public health, medical, legal, police, and financial professionals, etc.) are developed to provide key professional groups with the information necessary to identify cases of elder abuse, access the appropriate resources, and take measures to provide assistance to victims.

Shared Outcome(s): To help seniors and others recognize the signs and symptoms of elder abuse and to provide information on what support is available.

Governance Structure(s): The Seniors and Pensions Policy Secretariat (SPPS) within HRSDC is the focal point for Government of Canada activities related to seniors.

The Elder Abuse Task Force within SPPS is leading a working group of officials from partner departments/agencies to coordinate the implementation of Government of Canada initiatives to raise awareness and to develop and disseminate tools and supports for frontline workers. Partner departments/agencies retain responsibility for planning, programming and budgeting their own resources to implement their activities.

The working group has developed a performance measurement framework, including a logic model, to identify the relationships between departmental/agency activities, outputs, and outcomes, and a suite of performance indicators to measure progress against outputs/outcomes. The working group will coordinate reporting and monitor performance and results over the course of the initiative.

The Interdepartmental Committee on Seniors will provide senior-level oversight and direction for the Federal Elder Abuse Initiative. The Committee will provide a forum to update federal departments on the progress and achievements of the initiative and to identify opportunities to align the initiative with other government initiatives and priorities.

($ millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity (PA) Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) Planned
Spending for
2009-
10
Actual
Spending for
2009-
10
Expected Results for
2009-
10
Results Achieved in
2009-
10
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Social Development   $10.22M $4.87M $3.84M 2009-2010 will see partner departments increase awareness about elder abuse through advertising and/or the involvement of key stakeholders on elder abuse. Implemented the Federal Elder Abuse Initiative in collaboration with partner departments and agencies, including a national public awareness campaign. The awareness campaign ran between June 15-29, 2009 and September 28 to October, 2009, using television, print and the internet. A post- campaign survey showed that 58% of poll respondents had heard or read advertising about elder abuse, surpassing the government advertising benchmark of 36% and demonstrating the success of the campaign.

6 new Federal Elder Abuse Initiative projects were approved to help national organizations develop, adapt and disseminate elder abuse materials to front-line workers.
Department of Justice     $1.41M $0.44M $0.163M   Released four pamphlets on elder fraud; released the results of public opinion research on awareness of elder abuse; funded regional Public Legal Education and Information (PLEI) organizations for elder abuse products
Public Health Agency of Canada     $1.42M $0.47M $0.445M   A. Events
  1. Support to the Ontario Network for the Prevention of Elder Abuse (ONPEA)’s first ever National Conference on Elder Abuse
  2. “World Elder Abuse Day (WEAD) In-A-Box Teen Edition”
B. Tool Creation:
  1. Directory of Services for Older Victims
  2. PHAC National Clearinghouse on Family Violence Series of three (3) E-Bulletins re FEAI public health initiatives
  3. Across the Generations (ATG) Education Program, including the “Seniors are Cool” video, to promote intergenerational awareness of elder abuse
  4. Neighbours, Friends and Families to promote awareness of elder abuse and support ordinary citizens in taking action
C. 6 Environmental Scans -- to raise awareness of existing Tools/ Approaches in Canada
  1. Elder Abuse & Neglect Training for Home Support Workers by Academic Facilities
  2. Elder Abuse in Canada: A Gender-Based Analysis
  3. Elder Care, Elder Abuse & Neglect: An International Review
  4. Promising Approaches for Addressing / Preventing Abuse of Older Adults in First Nations Communities
  5. Snapshot 2009: Promising Approaches in the Prevention of Abuse and Neglect of Older Adults in Community Settings in Canada
RCMP       Coming from internal allocations Coming from internal allocations To have better informed police officers that understand the elder abuse and are better prepared to work with their communities on the relevant senior issues. Launched an Elder Abuse site on the RCMP Internal National Crime Prevention Services website for front line officers. (July 2009)

Launched an Elder Abuse Tool Kit on RCMP Internal Website to enhance resources for front line officers including policy, legislation, funding sources, tools, fact sheets. (May 2010)

RCMP Publication made available to all 750 RCMP detachments and communities – Entitled – “Seniors Guidebook to Safety & Security

Developed and implemented a communication strategy to all RCMP Detachments to increase awareness of RCMP Elder Abuse Tool Box in conjunction with World Elder Abuse Awareness Day

Continued efforts to establish Police Network on Elder Abuse with other Canadian Police agencies
Total $13.05M $5.78M $4.44M    

Comments on Variances: There was initially a delay in the launching of the FEAI. Moreover, the fact that FEAI is a multiple-partnered initiative caused a delay in the implementation of several activities including the public awareness campaign, the evaluation project and the Call for Proposals.

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): Through a call for proposals process, national associations will be supported to develop information materials about elder abuse for their frontline professionals who regularly come in contact with older Canadians.

Contact information:

Dominique La Salle, Director General
Seniors and Pensions Policy Secretariat
Income Security and Social Development
Place Vanier, Tower B
355 North River Road
Ottawa ON
K1A OJ9
dominique.lasalle@hrsdc-rhdsc.gc.ca



Name of Horizontal Initiative: Homelessness Partnering Strategy

Name of Lead Department(s): Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Lead Department Program Activity: Social Development

Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative: April 1, 2009

End Date of the Horizontal Initiative: March 31, 2011

Total Federal Funding Allocation (start to end date): $269.6M over two years

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement):

The Homelessness Partnering Strategy makes strategic investments in community priorities and includes a planning process that encourages cooperation between governments, agencies and community-based organizations to find local solutions for homeless people and those at risk of becoming homeless. The Homelessness Partnering Strategy is designed to provide supports to 61 designated communities and some small, rural and Aboriginal communities to develop community-based measures that assist homeless individuals and families move toward self-sufficiency, thereby contributing to society and the economy. Although the responsibility for homelessness programs falls under Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, most Homelessness Partnering Strategy program components are delivered by regional staff, now part of Service Canada.

The Homelessness Partnering Strategy:

  • helps communities build on their successes and focuses on interventions to help prevent and break the cycle of homelessness;
  • achieves results for Canadians by focusing on attaining self-sufficiency and not just temporary measures;
  • requires that federal funding be targeted more at the development of transitional and supportive housing and at improving access to services that help homeless people become self-sufficient such as skills training, health and substance abuse treatment;
  • enhances the partnership approach with provinces and territories, communities and the private and voluntary sectors to strengthen capacity and build sustainability; and
  • carries out research to foster a better understanding of homelessness as well as collects and disseminates best practices to assist in designing the most effective responses.

The Homelessness Partnering Strategy has seven funding streams:

Regional funding streams administered by the Program Operations Branch (POB) and delivered by Service Canada:

  • Designated Communities;
  • Outreach Communities;
  • Aboriginal Communities;

National funding streams administered by the Homelessness Partnering Secretariat:

  • Federal Horizontal Pilot Projects (HPP);
  • Homelessness Knowledge Development (HKD);
  • Homeless Individuals and Families Information System (HIFIS); and
  • Surplus Federal Real Property for Homelessness Initiative (SFRPHI).

For more information, please visit the Homelessness Partnering Strategy website: www.homelessness.gc.ca

Shared Outcome(s): Income security, access to opportunities and well-being for individuals, families and communities.

Governance Structure(s):

The Homelessness Partnering Strategy community-based program is delivered via two models:

  • Community Entity model: Under this model, the Community Advisory Board recommends projects to the community entity (an incorporated organization) which is the decision-making body responsible for approving project proposals and determining the eligibility of projects. HRSDC is responsible for managing the contribution agreement and all related activities. The community, in consultation with Service Canada, has designated responsibility for program delivery to a specific local organization; and
  • Shared Delivery model: Under this model, the Community Advisory Board reviews project proposals and makes recommendations to HRSDC which manages the contribution agreement and all related activities. Both Service Canada and the community work in partnership to support funding priorities, resulting in a joint selection and decision-making process. The Minister approves the project proposals.

In Quebec, the Homelessness Partnering Strategy is delivered under a formal Canada-Quebec Agreement, in collaboration with the Province of Quebec.

The Homelessness Partnering Strategy recognizes that the prevention and reduction of homelessness requires collaboration among all levels of government, particularly the federal and provincial/territorial governments. Provinces and territories are being invited to enter into bilateral arrangements with the federal government to support community efforts to address homelessness. The intent is to offer provinces and territories the opportunity to participate in community planning and priority-setting at the outset. This will support the alignment of federal, provincial and territorial investments to enhance linkages between social services and housing as well as to address the operational sustainability of community projects. This partnering approach will ensure that all of the necessary tools and supports are in place for homeless people to secure housing and supports that effectively meet their needs and for those at-risk of homelessness to attain housing stability.

The Surplus Federal Real Property for Homelessness Initiative (SFRPHI) provides surplus federal property to community organizations, the not-for-profit sector, and other levels of government for projects to alleviate and prevent homelessness. The SFRPHI is a Homelessness Partnering Strategy program co-managed by Public Works and Government Services Canada and Human Resources and Skills Development Canada, with advice and support from Canada Mortgage and Housing Corporation.

($ millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity (PA) Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) Planned
Spending for
2009-
10
Actual
Spending for
2009-
10
Expected Results for
2009-
10
Results Achieved in
2009-
10
Human Resources and Skills Development Canada Social Development Homelessness Partnering Strategy regionally- delivered projects $219.2M $109.6M $97.49M Homelessness Partnering Strategy regionally- delivered projects have demonstrated cost-matching with other partners.

Increased availability and access for homeless people, to a range of services and facilities along the continuum (i.e., emergency, transitional and supportive housing).
For every dollar invested by the HPS in regionally-delivered projects, the amount invested in communities by external partners was $2.27.

74.3% of HPS investments in regionally-delivered projects were targeted to longer-term transitional and supportive housing and services, exceeding the 65% target.
    Federal Horizontal Pilot Projects $5.2M $2.6M $1.44M Horizontal pilot projects - Implementation of projects with key departments such as Justice Canada, Health Canada, Public Health Agency of Canada, Correctional Service Canada, and Urban Aboriginal Strategy. The Department launched six new horizontal pilot projects with other federal departments and agencies to address factors that may lead to homelessness such as incarceration, employment, mental health, family violence, and immigration.

Furthermore, seven previous horizontal pilot projects with other federal departments and agencies were extended into 2009-2010 for six months in order to strengthen the project evaluations and achieve more robust results.
    Homelessness Knowledge Development $3.7M $1.85M $1.24M Increased knowledge (e.g., best practices, research findings) exchanged among community service providers, researchers, and all levels of government working on issues of homelessness. Allocated funding to 3 successful applicants for projects on lessons learned from community homeless counts.

Extended the Memorandum of Understanding with Citizenship and Immigration Canada (CIC)/Metropolis to release a joint Call for Proposals (CFP) on the issue of immigration and homelessness, and released the CFP with CIC-Metropolis by the end of the fiscal year.
    Urban Aboriginal Strategy / Homelessness Partnering Strategy $35.5M* $17.75M* $17.64M* Better coordination and complementarity among Government of Canada policies and programs to address Aboriginal homelessness and other related issues. Under the HPS, the Aboriginal Communities funding stream supports community partners with the aim of ensuring services meet the acute and unique homelessness-related needs of Aboriginal people off-reserve, whether in cities or rural areas. As both the HPS and Urban Aboriginal Strategy (UAS) are community-based programs, informal collaboration occurs at the community level.

Horizontal collaboration also occurs at the national level in an effort to increase efficiencies and maximize results for Aboriginal persons who are homeless or at risk of homelessness. Under the HPS, the Horizontal Pilot Projects (HPP) funding stream supports horizontal work with other relevant federal programs and policies whose outcomes affect or are affected by homelessness.

As of June 6, 2010, the HPS and UAS have collaborated on three HPPs that are focused on various homelessness-related challenges facing urban Aboriginal people.

*Note that figures are based only on projects delivered through the HPS Aboriginal Funding Stream.
PWGSC   Surplus Federal Real Property for Homelessness Initiative Funding administered by PWGSC
$6.0M
Funding administered by PWGSC
$3.0M
$3.71M (administered by PWGSC) Enhanced capacity of communities to provide facilities to homeless individuals and families A total of 65 housing units were created. Of these, 92% were longer-term housing units, and 6% were supportive and transitional housing units. In addition, one property was transferred and will be the site of a shelter.

All properties in St. John's, Gander, Ucluelet and Oskana were transferred to an eligible recipient. Significant progress was made in advancing projects in Ottawa and Montreal.

Developed a regional toolkit for partners and stakeholders interested in proposing a SFRPHI project.

Developed an on-line database of available properties that Canadians can browse and apply for over the Internet.
Total $269.6 M $134.8M $121.5M    

Comments on Variances:

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): Not Applicable

Contact information:

Barbara Lawless, Director General
Homelessness Partnering Strategy
Place du Portage, Phase II
165 Hotel-de-Ville St.
Gatineau QC
(819) 994-4748
barbara.lawless@hrsdc-rhdcc.gc.ca



Name of Horizontal Initiative: Federal/Provincial/Territorial National Child Benefit Program Initiative

Name of Lead Department(s): Human Resources and Skills Development Canada

Lead Department Program Activity: Income Security

Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative: 1998

End Date of the Horizontal Initiative: Ongoing

Total Federal Funding Allocation (start to end date): Statutory

Description of the Horizontal Initiative (including funding agreement):

Through the Federal-Provincial/Territorial (F/P/T) National Child Benefit initiative, the Government of Canada is working with provincial and territorial governments1 to provide income support, as well as benefits and services, for low-income families with children. The initiative also includes a First Nations component.

The Government of Canada contributes to the National Child Benefit initiative through a supplement to its Canada Child Tax Benefit called the National Child Benefit Supplement. In addition to the base benefit of the Canada Child Tax Benefit, which is targeted to both low- and middle-income families, the National Child Benefit Supplement provides extra income support to low-income families with children. Federal spending on the Canada Child Tax Benefit, including the National Child Benefit Supplement, is tracked by the Canada Revenue Agency, which is responsible for its delivery.

Shared Outcome(s):

The Federal- Provincial/Territorial National Child Benefit initiative has three goals:

  • Help prevent and reduce the depth of child poverty;
  • Promote attachment to the labour market by ensuring that families will always be better off as a result of working; and
  • Reduce overlap and duplication by harmonizing program objectives and benefits and simplifying administration.

Annual F/P/T National Child Benefit Progress Reports include information on the level of spending by all jurisdictions. There is a data collection process to which all participating jurisdictions contribute in order to present comparable information on National Child Benefit-related programs and services for low-income families with children. The data submitted by each jurisdiction is reviewed jointly to ensure consistency in reporting. To obtain the most recent Progress Report or for further information, please visit the F/P/T National Child Benefit website: www.nationalchildbenefit.ca.

Federal Spending:

In 2009-2010, total annual federal support delivered through the Canada Child Tax Benefit, including the National Child Benefit Supplement, is projected to reach $9.96 billion, including a projected $3.69 billion through the National Child Benefit Supplement.

Provincial and territorial and First Nations Spending:

Under the National Child Benefit initiative, provinces, territories and First Nations provide benefits and services that further the goals of the initiative. The National Child Benefit Progress Report: 2007, reports that in 2006-2007, provinces, territories, and First Nations spent $833.6 million in programs and services in key areas such as child/day care initiatives, child benefits and earned income supplements, early childhood services and children-at-risk services, supplementary health benefits, and youth initiatives. Under the First Nations National Child Benefit Reinvestment initiative, the savings derived from reducing the amount of income assistance adjustments can be reinvested in projects aimed at lessening child poverty. The $833.6 million in spending outlined above includes reinvestments by First Nations in programs and services which were estimated to be $52.7 million in 2006-2007 and $54.8 million in 2007-2008.

Indicators and Impacts:

The National Child Benefit Progress Report: 2007 includes an analysis of both societal level indicators, which measure areas such as low income and labour force attachment and do not infer that any changes are the result of the initiative, and direct outcome indicators, which measure only those changes that are directly attributed to the National Child Benefit initiative.

With respect to societal level indicators, the report shows that the proportion of families with children living in low income has declined significantly since the mid-1900s, decreasing from 17.6 percent in 1996 to 10.5 percent in 2005, based on Statistics Canada's post-tax low-income cut-offs. During this period, the number of children living in low income decreased from 1,304,000 in 1996 to 787,894 in 2005, a decrease of approximately 516,106 children. With respect to direct outcome indicators, the report estimates that in 2005, as a direct result of the National Child Benefit initiative2:

  • 171,100 children in 78,800 families were prevented from living below Market Basket Measure (MBM) low-income thresholds, a reduction of 13.7 percent. This means that in 2005, there were 13.7 percent fewer families with children living in low income than there would have been without the National Child Benefit. These families saw their average disposable income increase by an estimated $2,400, or 9.5 percent.
  • For those families with children who remained in low income, the National Child Benefit improved their disposable income by an average of $2,200 (13.0 percent). This means that the low-income gap (the additional amount of income needed by low-income families to reach the low-income line) was reduced by 21.9 percent in 2005.

In addition, in June 2005, F/P/T governments released a synthesis report of a comprehensive evaluation of the first three years of the National Child Benefit initiative (1998-1999, 1999-2000, and 2000-2001). The evaluation compiled evidence from a number of studies and showed that the National Child Benefit initiative is meeting its goals. In addition, another evaluation is underway. Results are expected to be published in 2011.

For a complete discussion of indicators, please see Chapters 4 and 5 of the National Child Benefit Progress Report: 2007. For a discussion of evaluation results, please see the Evaluation of the National Child Benefit Initiative: Synthesis Report. These reports are available free of charge on the National Child Benefit website, at: http://www.nationalchildbenefit.ca

Governance Structure(s):

The National Child Benefit initiative Governance and Accountability Framework outlines the key characteristics of the F/P/T partnership: cooperation, openness, flexibility, evolution and accountability. As a co-operative effort among governments, the National Child Benefit initiative combines the strengths of a national program with the flexibility of provincial and territorial initiatives designed to meet the specific needs and conditions within each jurisdiction.

With respect to accountability, under the Governance and Accountability Framework, F/P/T Ministers Responsible for Social Services have committed to sharing data on reinvestment initiatives and reviewing results and outcomes achieved in order to identify best practices. F/P/T governments have also agreed to report annually to the public with a primary focus on the performance of the initiative. To date, nine annual progress reports have been published, as well as a synthesis report on a comprehensive evaluation of the first three years of the initiative.

The Federal Role:

Under the National Child Benefit initiative, the Government of Canada provides additional income support to low-income families with children via the National Child Benefit Supplement component of the Canada Child Tax Benefit. Canada Revenue Agency administers and delivers these benefits to families.

Human Resources and Skills Development Canada is responsible for policy development with respect to the F/P/T National Child Benefit initiative, and the Minister of Human Resources and Skills Development represents the Government of Canada in this F/P/T initiative.

The Canada Child Tax Benefit (including the National Child Benefit Supplement) is a tax benefit, and is administered by Canada Revenue Agency. Indian and Northern Affairs Canada is responsible for the First Nations National Child Benefit Reinvestment initiative. Citizenship and Immigration Canada administers the Resettlement Assistance Program, funded under the National Child Benefit and provides income support to child refugees.

The Provincial and Territorial Role:

Under the National Child Benefit initiative, provinces, territories and First Nations provide benefits and services that further the goals of the initiative. The initiative is designed so that provinces, territories and First Nations have the flexibility to develop and deliver programs and services that best meet the needs and priorities of their communities. As part of this flexibility, provinces and territories may adjust social assistance or child benefit payments by the full or partial amount of the National Child Benefit Supplement. This approach has resulted in families on social assistance being no worse off in terms of their level of benefits, while providing additional funds for new or enhanced provincial and territorial programs benefiting low-income families with children.

It is important to note that, as the National Child Benefit initiative has matured, the majority of provinces and territories no longer recover increases to the National Child Benefit Supplement. This means that the vast majority of children living in low-income families, including those on social assistance, are currently receiving some or all of the National Child Benefit Supplement.

Under the NCB initiative, provincial and territorial governments, along with First Nations, have committed to re-allocating available social assistance funds into benefits and services for children in low-income families that further the goals of the initiative. Jurisdictions have focused reinvestments primarily in key areas:

  • Child Benefits and Earned Income Supplements;
  • Child Care;
  • Early Childhood Services and Children-at-Risk Services;
  • Supplementary Health Benefits;
  • Youth Initiatives; and
  • Other Benefits and Services;

First Nations Role:

The federal government is responsible for ensuring programs for First Nations children on reserve are comparable to those available to other Canadian children. Under the National Child Benefit initiative, First Nations have the flexibility to reinvest savings from adjustments to social assistance into programs and services tailored to meet the needs and priorities of individual communities. Some 500 First Nations participate in the National Child Benefit and implement their own programs.

($ millions)
Federal Partners Federal Partner Program Activity (PA) Names of Programs for Federal Partners Total Allocation (from Start to End Date) Planned
Spending for
2009-
10
Actual
Spending for
2009-
10
Expected Results for
2009-
10
Results Achieved in
2009-
10
Canada Revenue Agency3 Administers the National Child Benefit Supplement and delivers income benefits directly to low income families a. National Child Benefit Supplement On-going $3.69B Not available Continued progress on the goals of the National Child Benefit initiative, as described in the “Shared Outcomes”, above. Results achieved in 2005 (latest year of publicly available results) are described in “Indicators and Impacts”, above. (The F/P/T NCB Progress Report 2007 estimates that in 2005, as a direct result of the National Child Benefit initiative: 171,100 children in 78,800 families were prevented from living below Market-Basket Measure (MBM) low-income thresholds, a reduction of 13.7 percent. These families saw their average disposable income increase by an estimated $2,400, or 9.5 percent.
Total          

Comments on Variances: N/A

Results to be achieved by non-federal partners (if applicable): Not Applicable

Contact information:

Franois Weldon, Acting/Director General
Social Policy Directorate
Strategic Policy and Research Branch
HRSDC
(819) 994-3184

2 The Government of Quebec has stated that it agrees with the basic principles of the National Child Benefit. Quebec chose not to participate in the initiative because it wanted to assume control over income support for children in Quebec; however, it has adopted a similar approach to the National Child Benefit. Throughout this text, references to joint federal, provincial and territorial positions do not include Quebec.
3 Based on a simulation analysis of the income benefits component of the NCB initiative: both the federal NCB Supplement and P/T reinvestments and investments in income benefits.
vi While Human Resources and Skills Development Canada is responsible for policy development with respect to the National Child Benefit initiative, the Canada Child Tax Benefit (including the National Child Benefit Supplement) is a tax measure, and is administered by Canada Revenue Agency. In addition, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada and Citizenship and Immigration Canada have roles in reinvestments and investments.