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Minister's Message

Tony Clement - Minister of Industry

The past year has been a challenging one for the Canadian economy, as it has been for the economies of all industrialized countries. The global economic crisis put the fiscal and economic frameworks of all countries to the test. But Canada entered the recession with solid fundamentals — balanced budgets, decreasing debt and taxes, a strong financial sector and robust economic policies. Consequently, Canada is in a comparatively good position to effectively respond to this time of economic challenge.

The Industry Portfolio played a significant role in developing Canada’s resiliency and ability to weather the current crisis. Composed of 11 departments, agencies, Crown corporations and quasi-judicial bodies, the Portfolio includes major instruments in the Government of Canada’s tool kit for building a competitive economy.

In 2008–09, such measures included continued commitment to the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC), which invested just over $1 billion on its programs during fiscal 2008–09.

In January 2009, the government introduced Canada's Economic Action Plan, which contained stimulative measures to respond to the global recession. Industry Portfolio members played, and will continue to play, a central role in developing and implementing a significant number of these critical initiatives. These measures range from programs to upgrade research infrastructure at Canada's universities and colleges, to helping small businesses bring innovative products to market, to supporting major tourism events, to enhancing community and recreational facilities and other municipal infrastructure in Ontario. For more information, visit the Canada’s Economic Action Plan Web site.

As a country, we are emerging from the recession by creating a climate that encourages innovation, productivity and competitiveness — helping Canadian industry move to the forefront of the global knowledge economy. The Industry Portfolio members, and other federal departments and agencies are working in partnership so that Canada continues to enjoy a high standard of living and a prosperous future.

It is my pleasure to present NSERC’s Departmental Performance Report for 2008–09.

Tony Clement
Minister of Industry


Overview of the Agency

1.1 Summary Information

Raison d’être

The Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada (NSERC) works to make Canada a country of discoverers and innovators for the benefit of all Canadians. NSERC aims to maximize the value of public investments in R&D and to advance prosperity and quality of life in Canada by supporting the creation and transfer of knowledge in the natural sciences and engineering (NSE) and by ensuring that people are trained to discover, develop and use that knowledge.


NSERC is the primary federal agency investing in research and research training in the natural sciences and engineering disciplines. It is funded directly by Parliament and reports to it through the Minister of Industry.

Our mission is to invest in people, discovery and innovation to build a strong Canadian economy and to improve the quality of life for all Canadians. NSERC advances the government’s S&T priorities of building a stronger Canada, creating opportunities for young Canadians and investing in knowledge and creativity.

NSERC was created in 1978. Its legal mandate and functions are defined as follows: “The functions of the Council are to promote and assist research in the natural sciences and engineering, other than the health sciences; and advise the Minister in respect of such matters relating to such research as the Minister may refer to the Council for its consideration.” (Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council Act, 1976-77, c.24.)

NSERC’s business model includes: a competitive, peer reviewed evaluation system to ensure world class levels of excellence and value for money; a blend of targeted and broad-based programs to ensure that priority research topics are addressed as well as a broad spectrum of science areas; the training of the next generation of scientists and engineers; a suite of collaborative research programs that foster partnerships between industry and post-secondary institutions and that encourage knowledge transfer and commercialization; and appropriate and effective controls that are proven and recognized to ensure accountability.

The agency’s headquarters is located in the National Capital Region, where a majority of the staff are located. NSERC also has regional offices in Vancouver, Winnipeg, Mississauga, Montreal, and Moncton.

S&T Strategy

Through the Federal Science and Technology (S&T) Strategy, Mobilizing Science and Technology to Canada’s Advantage, the federal government has committed to maintaining Canada’s G-7 leadership in public sector R&D performance. The Strategy builds on existing strengths, focusing efforts in areas where Canada can achieve global excellence, to make a real impact on the lives of Canadians and in the marketplace.

The S&T Strategy emphasizes three Canadian advantages: an entrepreneurial advantage that translates knowledge into practical applications; a knowledge advantage that generates new ideas and builds research excellence; and a people advantage that increases and retains the highly skilled individuals that Canada needs to thrive in the global economy. Together these advantages resonate with the mandate of NSERC and its strategic positioning.

NSERC’s focus on people, discovery and innovation maps directly onto the strategy’s emphasis of building a People Advantage, a Knowledge Advantage and an Entrepreneurial Advantage. In broad terms, virtually all of NSERC’s funding relates to these advantages.

Clients and Partners

NSERC is the most important funder of the direct costs of research in the natural sciences and engineering in Canadian universities. NSERC provides nearly one-fifth of the more than $4 billion invested in R&D in the natural sciences and engineering in Canadian universities and colleges.

Nearly 12,000 university professors and more than 28,500 university students and postdoctoral fellows are supported by NSERC. (For a searchable database of all NSERC grant and scholarship recipients see NSERC funds are also used to support more than 3,500 university technicians and research associates. Most Canadian universities benefit from NSERC programs, as do a growing number of colleges. Fifteen hundred Canadian companies and some 50 federal and provincial government departments are partnering with NSERC. Detailed statistics on NSERC applications and awards can be found at:

Strategic Outcomes

In order to effectively pursue its mandate, NSERC aims to achieve the following three strategic outcomes.

  1. People: Highly skilled science and engineering professionals in Canada
  2. Discovery: High quality Canadian-based competitive research in the NSE
  3. Innovation: Productive use of new knowledge in the NSE in Canada

Program Activity Architecture

The chart below presents NSERC’s Program Activity Architecture (PAA) in effect in 2008-09.

NSERC’s Program Activity Architecture

  Strategic Outcomes  
Highly skilled science and engineering professionals in Canada
High quality Canadian-based competitive research in the natural sciences and engineering
Productive use of new knowledge in the natural sciences and engineering
  Program Activities  
Promote Science and Engineering Fund Basic Research Fund Research in Strategic Areas
Sub-Activities Sub-Activities Sub-Activities
  • PromoScience
  • Centres for Research in Youth, Science Teaching and Learning
  • Prizes
  • Discovery Grants
  • Special Research Opportunity Grants
  • General Support
  • Strategic Partnerships
  • Collaborative Health Research Projects
Support Students and Fellows Support for Research Equipment & Major Resources Fund University-Industry-Government Partnerships
Sub-Activities Sub-Activities Sub-Activities
  • Undergraduate Student Research Awards
  • NSERC Postgraduate Scholarships
  • Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships
  • Postdoctoral Fellowships
  • Industrial Research and Development Fellowships
  • Research Tools and Instruments
  • Major Resources Support Grants
  • Research Capacity Development in Small Universities
  • Collaborative Research and Development Grants
  • Research Partnership Agreements
  • Networks of Centres of Excellence*
Attract and Retain Faculty   Support Commercialization
Sub-Activities   Sub-Activities
  • Canada Research Chairs
  • Industrial Research Chairs
  • Chairs in Targeted Areas of Research
  • University Faculty Awards
  • Intellectual Property Mobilization
  • Idea to Innovation Program
  • College and Community Innovation Program

* Includes Centres of Excellence for Commercialization and Research (CECR), Business-Led Networks of Centres of Excellence (BL-NCE), and the Industrial R&D Internships (IRDI) program.

1.2 Summary of Performance

Financial Resources and Human Resources

2008-09 Financial Resources ($ millions)
Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
999.1 1,031.8 1,029.8


2008–09 Human Resources (FTEs)
Planned Actual Difference
349 352 3

Performance Summary

Given the nature of R&D support programs, the impact of NSERC’s investment in research and training in the NSE can only be fully assessed over the long term. Therefore, the expected results reported in NSERC’s Report on Plans and Priorities 2008-09 should be considered as planned results for the future. The performance information presented in this year’s DPR is a retrospective look at outcomes resulting from NSERC funding over the past decade, and in some cases even longer.

Strategic Outcome 1: People - Highly skilled science and engineering professionals in Canada
Expected Results
  • Student interest in research in the sciences, math and engineering is encouraged.
  • A supply of highly qualified people with leading-edge scientific and research skills for Canadian industry, government and universities.
  • Enhanced research capacity in science and engineering.
2008-09 Performance
  • More than 500,000 Canadian children are taking part annually in science activities supported by NSERC.1
  • The 28,000 students and fellows currently supported will enjoy a bright future as demonstrated by past award holder performance, with: more than 95% completing their degree, nearly two-thirds working as a research scientist or engineer, salaries that are 20% higher and unemployment rates that are less than one-half of those of the general population.2
  • Canada continues to attract hundreds of foreign scientists and engineers who see Canada as an attractive place to advance their R&D careers.3
Alignment to Government of Canada Outcomes: An innovative and knowledge-based economy.
(All program actvities under this Strategic Outcome are linked to an innovative and knowledge-based economy, please see note on NSERC links to government of Canada outcomes on p.8.)
Program Activity 2007-08
($ millions)
2008-09 ($ millions)
Promote Science and Engineering 4.4 6.3  6.3 6.3 4.7
Support Students and Fellows 137.9 146.2 146.2 157.8 151.4
Attract and Retain Faculty 148.0 167.7 167.7 169.3 152.8
Total 290.3 320.2  320.2 333.4 308.9

  1. Source: NSERC PromoScience final reports.
  2. Sources: NSERC student surveys and Statistics Canada.
  3. Source: NSERC award management information system.

Strategic Outcome 2: Discovery - High quality Canadian-based competitive research in the natural sciences and engineering
Expected Results
  • The discovery, innovation and training capability of university researchers in the natural sciences and engineering (NSE) is enhanced.
  • The discovery, innovation and training capability of university researchers in the NSE is supported by the access to research equipment and major regional or national research facilities.
2008-09 Performance
  • Supported nearly 12,000 of the most creative and productive Canadian university professors which produced an increasing share of world knowledge (4.4% in 2007) of high quality. 1
  • Canada ranks in the top 10 countries of the world in the number of scientific publications and the quality of those publications. Canada is also the most productive of the G8 countries in scientific output per capita. 2
  • Canada leads the G8 in higher education R&D investment as a % of GDP. 3
  • Strong NSERC support for research equipment in 2008-09, combined with Canada Foundation for Innovation funding, will ensure that Canadian university labs continue to enjoy world class facilities.
Alignment to Government of Canada Outcomes: An innovative and knowledge-based economy.
(All program actvities under this Strategic Outcome are linked to an innovative and knowledge-based economy, please see note on NSERC links to government of Canada outcomes on p.8.)
Program Activity 2007-08
($ millions)
2008-09 ($ millions)
Fund Basic Research 454.3 379.4 379.4 381.3 375.6
Support for Research Equipment and Major Resources N/A 41.5 41.5 54.4 76.5
Total 454.3 420.9 420.9 435.7 452.1

  1. Source: NSERC and Observatoire des Sciences et des Technologies.
  2. Source: Observatoire des Sciences et des Technologies.
  3. Source: OECD : Main Science and Technology Indicators 2008/2.

Strategic Outcome 3: Innovation: Productive use of new knowledge in the natural sciences and engineering
Expected Results
  • Research and training in targeted and emerging areas of national importance is accelerated.
  • Mutually beneficial collaborations between the private sector and researchers in universities, resulting in industrial or economic benefits to Canada.
  • The transfer of knowledge and technology residing in Canadian universities and colleges to the user sector is facilitated.
2008-09 Performance
  • NSERC partnered with 1,500 Canadian firms to transfer knowledge created in the university sector to private firms that create economic wealth.
  • Industrial partner contributions of more than $100 million.
  • Dedicating virtually all of Strategic Partnerships program funding to government priority areas established in the S&T Strategy.
  • Initiating the formation of university spin-off companies who employ tens of thousands of Canadians and have nearly $4 billion in sales.1
  • Engage in successful knowledge transfer from universities to Canadian industry resulting in increased number of spin-off companies and licensing revenues. 2
Alignment to Government of Canada Outcomes: An innovative and knowledge-based economy.
(All program actvities under this Strategic Outcome are linked to an innovative and knowledge-based economy, please see note on NSERC links to government of Canada outcomes below.)
Program Activity 2007-08
($ millions)
2008-09 ($ millions)
Fund Research in Strategic Areas 75.4 104.5 104.5 116.6 84.3
Fund University-Industry-Government Partnerships 181.8 101.1 139.5 131.7 168.9
Support Commercialization 10.7 11.5 14.0 14.4 15.6
Total 267.9 217.1 258.0 262.7 268.8

  1. Source: NSERC database of spin-off companies.
  2. Source: Statistics Canada.

NSERC Links to Government of Canada Outcomes

NSERC investments contribute significantly to many of the Government of Canada’s  strategic outcomes. NSERC has chosen to link all of its program activities to the Government of Canada outcome: an innovative and knowledge-based economy which is most directly related to our mandate and activities. Because NSERC funds research and training leading to a wide-range of economic and societal impacts in virtually every sector, many of NSERC’s long-term outcomes are also directly linked to other important Government of Canada outcomes, such as strong economic growth, income security and employment for Canadians, a clean and healthy environment, healthy Canadians with access to quality health care, and safe and secure communities. For simplicity, the “innovative and knowledge based economy” outcome is by far the most appropriate for NSERC to use in linking resources and results.

Operational Priorities
Priority Type Status Linkages to
Strategic Outcome

Foster a People Advantage

  • Innovative training environments. NSERC is considering a new program (CREATE) to encourage greater numbers of Canadian institutions to provide innovative and internationally competitive research and training environments for outstanding students and postdoctoral fellows.
  • Private sector experience. Over the next three years, NSERC intends to double the number of scholarships for students working with industry.
  • International experience. The three granting agencies are working jointly to identify means to enhance the internationalisation of research training to foster highly qualified graduates that are globally connected and competitive.

Successfully Met

NSERC announced $32 million over six years for 20 projects to help science graduates expand their professional and personal skills so they can make a successful transition from the classroom to the workplace. The funding is being provided under the new Collaborative Research and Training Experience(CREATE) Program which gives science graduates the enhanced skills set they need for careers in industry, government or academia.  

The first awards for the Industrial R&D Internship (IRDI) were made in 2008-09. The program introduces graduate students and postdoctoral fellows to practical business problems and provides them with the opportunity to apply their expertise to address the needs of participating businesses.

NSERC launched two new programs to enhance international student experience. The Canada Graduate Scholarships – Michael Smith Foreign Study Supplements (CGS-MSFSS) Program supported high-calibre Canadian graduate students in building global linkages and international networks at research institutions outside of Canada. In addition, the Vanier Canada Graduate Scholarships (Vanier CGS) program was launched to attract and retain world-class doctoral students by offering them a significant financial award to assist them during their studies at Canadian universities.

Highly skilled science and engineering professionals in Canada

Through research and research training, NSERC fosters the development of skilled workers who will become leaders across the private and public sectors.

Foster a Knowledge Advantage

  • Review of Discovery Grants. In 2007, NSERC launched a review of the Discovery Grants Program by an international committee of high profile experts, to ensure that the program assists Canadian researchers to perform at world-class levels of scientific excellence and supports the best ideas. Recommendations that are accepted will be implemented starting with the 2009 Discovery Grants competition.
  • Directing resources to priority areas. Beginning in 2007-08, NSERC has been enhancing programs and launching new initiatives to mobilize the research community and increase the level of activity in the four priority research areas of the S&T Strategy.
  • Balance in funding. In recent years, there have been significant investments in creating and maintaining a competitive post-secondary research environment. The federal research funding agencies are contributing to the development of a more comprehensive approach to the management of the overall envelope of support for higher-education R&D, as called for in the S&T Strategy.

Successfully Met

NSERC introduced this year major enhancements to the Discovery Grants peer review process. These enhancements have created a much more dynamic funding system, with more opportunity for researchers with superior accomplishments and contributions to receive substantial increases.

Discovery Grants Accelerator Supplements, valued at 120K over three years, foster research excellence and are awarded to outstanding researchers who have a well-established research program. Out of the 100 supplements awarded this year, more than two-thirds fall in areas identified as a priority in the science and technology (S&T) strategy.

As part of efforts to optimize the effectiveness of federal funding for post-secondary research, the three granting agencies studied recent trends in the balance of funding between elements such as funding for researchers, funding for the direct and indirect costs of the research they perform and for research infrastructure. The balance of federal funding between the different categories has changed considerably during the last decade. In relative terms, support for the direct costs of research has decreased while support for people and infrastructure has increased. Discussions with stakeholders pointed to the need to analyze pressure points and whether there are gaps to sustaining a healthy system, as well as looking at international comparisons. This work continues in the context of the on-going planning of strategic directions and the allocation of NSERC’s budget to its various programs.

High quality Canadian-based competitive research in the natural sciences and engineering

NSERC is committed to creating a strong foundation for research and research training in Canada. This is embodied in NSERC’s Discovery Grants Program, which provides a base from which researchers can establish and build their research programs, and gives them the opportunity to unleash their creative power.

Foster an Entrepreneurial Advantage

  • NSERC plans to review and renew its Innovation Strategic Plan for Partnership Programs to ensure the plan is aligned with the S&T Strategy. This plan will guide NSERC’s partnership and commercialization programs for the coming five years.
  • NSERC will develop a better understanding of the intellectual property (IP) environment and will work with partners to identify best practices as well as factors that might be inhibiting collaboration between industry and the higher education sector.
  • NSERC will launch the College and Community Innovation Program with the objective of increasing the capacity of colleges to work with firms in their local communities, and will support all areas of applied research including social and health sciences as well as NSE disciplines.
  • Launch new initiatives in support of the priority areas of the government.

Successfully Met

A draft Strategic Plan for Partnership Programs was completed and consultations on an action plan are currently underway. NSERC has also introduced a new A new policy on intellectual property (IP) was adopted that allows for more flexible access to IP developed as a result of NSERC funding, while at the same time ensuring that the rights of all participants are protected.

NSERC announced the expansion of its College and Community Innovation (CCI) program and the results of the first CCI competition. Eight projects were funded, each receiving $2.3 million over five years.

Many new initiatives were  established during the year or early in the new year in government priority areas including:

  • A new collaborative relationship has been developed with the NRC and the BDC to increase the flow of research results to the market in the nanotechnology area.
  • The NSERC Forest Sector R&D Initiative is now underway using the suite of Research Partnership Programs (RPP).
  • In the Fall of 2008, NSERC launched a special supplemental Strategic Network Grants competition in Manufacturing.
  • Five new Centres of Excellence for Commercialization and Research were announced totaling $52.7 million over five years.
  • Four new BL-Networks were announced totaling $39.2 million over four years.

NSERC also announced $145 million in funding over five years for the establishment of Automotive Partnership Canada, an automotive research fund designed to keep the Canadian auto industry competitive and sustainable.  Automotive Partnership Canada involves funding from NSERC, NRC, CFI, SSHRC, and the CECR program.

Productive use of new knowledge in the natural sciences and engineering in Canada

NSERC aims to maximize the value of public investments in research for the benefit of all Canadians by promoting research-based innovation, university-industry partnerships, technology transfer activities.


Management Priorities
Priority Type Status Linkages to
Strategic Outcome(s)

Enhance Performance Measurement, Accountability and Value for Money

  • In partnership with the other granting agencies, a working group has been established to improve the agencies’ ability to measure and report on the impact of their S&T expenditures.
  • NSERC and SSHRC entered into an interim agreement for a shared services arrangement for the provision of internal audit services. The completion of the merger and the hiring of a Chief Audit Executive are planned for 2008-09.
  • The three granting agencies are examining opportunities to harmonize and align programs, policies and processes where appropriate.

Successfully Met

The tri-Council working group along with CFI have established a common set of indicators, completed data collection and expect to issue a performance report before the end of the year.

The merger of audit functions for NSERC and SSHRC has been completed and a new Director of Audit has been hired.

The three granting agencies plus the CFI have created several interagency working groups to look into a variety of issues related to alignment and harmonization of agency programs, policies and processes. Some achievements are as follows:

  • The policies and requirements contained in the Tri-Agency Financial Administration Guide (TAFAG) are now almost completely harmonized.
  • New approaches and principles for the review of cross-agency research proposals have been approved.
  • Details of the next Vanier CGS competition have been finalized and announced to universities. The harmonized approach includes a fully integrated process from nomination and review to award, including a common application platform (ResearchNet).

All Strategic Outcomes

  • NSERC will place a strong emphasis on measuring and demonstrating results to Canadians, and will continue to assure high standards of accountability and client service.
  • A shared approach to audit results in greater economies of scale.

Increase the Visibility of Canadian NSE Research

  • Revitalization of NSERC’s prizes and promotional initiatives.
  • Redevelopment of NSERC’s Web site with the objective of enhancing both content and navigability for clients and the general public.
  • Development of a corporate information package to meet the needs of NSERC’s diverse stakeholder groups.
  • NSERC has strengthened and expanded the outreach capacity of its network of regional offices. The regional offices are also helping to increase awareness of NSERC programs in the business community. NSERC will launch new initiatives with the NRC Industrial Research Assistance Program (NRC-IRAP) and the BDC to increase the understanding of venture capital within the research community and provide facilitated links to SMEs.



Successfully Met

  • NSERC’s revamped web site was launched in January 2009. The number of web visits has increased by 30% from a comparable period in the previous year.
  • New promotional materials have been developed and news bulletin activities have been increased, resulting in a 47% increase in media coverage.


Regional offices now have a Communications and Promotion specialist. Each regional office also operates a Regional Opportunity Fund to facilitate the initiatives of others in science and research celebration and promotion.

NSERC, NRC-IRAP and the BDC continue to work together on several initiatives. For example, NSEERC-Prairies completed a pilot "Innovation Supports Workshops" aimed at promoting NSERC, NRC, BDC and other federal commercialization support to business, government and academic communities. Workshops were held in Winnipeg, Calgary, Edmonton and Saskatoon and in Atlantic Canada (1 per Atlantic province).

All Strategic Outcomes

A variety of recent studies have concluded that NSERC is extremely well-known in the academic community, but its profile in other sectors and in the general public is modest. The ongoing work to improve our communications products will help to demonstrate the value of NSERC funding.

Risk Analysis

While NSERC administers a significant budget, the Council’s overall risk level compared to other government entities is considered low, in terms of continuity of government operations and the maintenance of services to, and protection of interests of, the Canadian public. This assessment of risk level is further supported by the Blue Ribbon Panel report on Grants and Contributions which stated, "The record of performance by the federal research granting agencies, including CFI, has been deemed high by international standards.  The two councils and CIHR have successfully managed their own research portfolios, using a rigorous system of oversight, including detailed memorandum of understanding signed by all recipient institutions and regular financial monitoring visits of recipient universities."

NSERC last undertook a risk assessment exercise in 2006 as part of the development of the RMAF/RBAF. This exercise identified 20 risks, which primarily relate to internal management processes. In 2008-09, NSERC undertook a process to renew the Corporate Risk Profile to ensure that the risks identified in 2006 are still relevant. Internal Audit Division and the Chief Audit Executive facilitated a process with senior management to provide advice and assistance in the development and implementation of the risk management process. The approved process included:

  • Identifying and documenting the “risk universe” that represents the logical categorization and documentation of risks to enable effective risk management;
  • Identifying all high impact risk areas and assess these for vulnerability (likelihood of occurrence);
  • Preparing mitigation plans/activities designed to reduce the resultant level of risk exposure;
  • Establishing ongoing monitoring and reporting requirements; and,
  • Formalizing the risk management process to document the methodology that will be adopted for the ongoing identification, assessment, evaluation and management of risk.

This work has begun and will be completed by December of 2009.

Expenditure Profile

During the 2008-2009 fiscal year, NSERC spent $1,029.8 (including the Employee Benefit Plan) million in order to meet the expected results of its program activities and contribute to its strategic outcomes.

The figure below illustrates NSERC’s spending trend from 2006-2007 to 2008-2009. For the 2006-2007 and 2007-2008 periods, all figures appear as reported in previous Departmental Performance Reports.

Spending on NSERC’s core programs increased in the last two years due to $43 million received in Budget 2007(including funding for the Alexander Graham Bell Canada Graduate Scholarships program) and an additional $34 million received in Budget 2008.

In addition to the core funding increases, NSERC received and spent $57 million in 2007-2008 and $19 million in 2008-2009 for the Centres of Excellence for Commercialization and Research (CECR) program, $12 million for the International Polar Year Program in 2007-2008, $2.1 million for the College and Community Innovation Program, $4.3 million for the Industrial Research Internship Program and $7 million for the Business-Led Networks of Centres of Excellence in 2008-2009.

Spending Trend - NSERC

Voted and Statutory Items

The table illustrates the way in which Parliament approved NSERC’s resources.

($ millions)

Vote # or Statutory Item (S) Truncated Vote or Statutory Wording 2006-07
70 Operating expenditures 36.5 39 40.7 43.7
75 Grants and contributions 855.2 969.6 913.4 981.8
(S) Contributions to employee benefit plans 3.7 3.9 4.1 4.3
Total 895.4 1,012.5 958.2 1,029.8