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Section II: Analysis of program activities by strategic outcomes

Strategic outcome 1: Increased achievement of development goals consistent with Canadian foreign policy objectives

 


Program Activity:
Countries of concentration
This program activity involves engaging in long-term development assistance programming in countries of concentration32 to enhance their capacity to achieve development goals. Such programming involves direct contact between CIDA and recipient countries. It is developed through consultation and cooperation with partners internationally, in Canada, and in these countries. Initiatives include various country programs, projects, and development activities, as well as policy dialogue.
20082009 financial resources
Planned
spending
Total
authorities
Actual
spending
$967,821,000 $930,086,659 $928,159,001
Expected
results
Performance
indicators
Performance
status
Enhanced capacity of countries of concentration to achieve development goals Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals
Level of democratic governance
Existence of an effective government poverty-reduction strategy reflected in budgeting decisions and long-term resource framework
Alignment of CIDA's country strategies and institutional support to the country's national development plan
See Section I
Significant progress made
Significant progress made
Significant progress made

Result: Enhanced capacity of countries of concentration to achieve development goals

Performance summary
CIDA's programming is focused on building the capacities of its countries of concentration to achieve their development goals. Considerable progress in strategic areas such as improving the level of democratic governance and reaching the Millennium Development Goals has already been noted in Section I, page 6.

According to the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index, 33 none of CIDA's 25 countries of concentration are considered full democracies, about half of them are considered to be hybrid regimes, and 20 percent are still authoritarian regimes. Nonetheless, of the 25 countries of concentration, 21 have some form of national poverty reduction strategy, and 23 have reported some level of commensurate alignment of decision making.

The Agency aligns its country program strategies to the national development plans or poverty reduction strategies of the recipient countries, where it makes best sense.

Performance analysis
Over the course of 20082009, CIDA achieved results through key investments in sectors, such as education, allowing youth and children to directly benefit from improved infrastructure and increased access to education, and ultimately aiming at reducing poverty and increasing self-sufficiency. For example, in Pakistan, school facilities were in disrepair and did not meet community expectations regarding safety and acceptability, which led parents to withhold children from school. With CIDA's assistance in 20082009, more than 280 community schools and 14 middle schools were set up where no government schools existed previously. Also, achievements in the education sector in Mali lead us to believe that they will soon reach the Millennium Development Goal on education with 100 percent of children attending school. In Mozambique, 1,382 new primary school classrooms were constructed and 9,721 new primary school teachers were hired.

Tangible and measurable progress in health and sanitation was noted in 20082009 in several countries of concentration, including Ghana, where cumulatively more than 1.6 million residents in the north have access to safe water, contributing to a significant decrease in the incidence of Guinea worm. By helping the government to build its capacity to deliver potable water and better sanitation programs, CIDA investments improve the health of children and youth and decrease child mortality rates. In Ethiopia there has been impressive progress in reducing child mortality. The country is considered to be on track to meet the Millennium Development Goal in this area. With CIDA assistance, antimalarial bed nets are now installed in 100 percent of households in malaria-affected parts of the country (compared to 91 percent in 20072008) and the malaria death rate is falling rapidly: it has decreased by more than 50 percent since 2005.

Canada has been playing a key role in supporting young and fragile democracies by strengthening the capacity of their political institutions and public administration systems in support of freedom and democracy, human rights, the rule of law, and accountable public institutions.

Based on current data taken from two commonly used and internationally recognized indicators, the Economist Intelligence Unit's Democracy Index (20062008) and the International Development Association's Resource Allocation Index (IRAI) (200520062007), 34 the levels of democracy and governance in the countries of concentration have stayed relatively stable. CIDA works with these young and fragile democracies because they are willing to implement policies and institutional frameworks fostering poverty reduction, sustainable growth, and the effective use of development assistance.

For example, in Ukraine, CIDA contributed to the introduction of a new skills-based education methodology to the Academy of Judges of Ukraine, and to publishing a Gender Reference Booklet, the first publication for court personnel that explains Ukraine's legislative provisions for equal rights and opportunities for men and women.

Also, 240,000 Canadian-made translucent ballot boxes were provided and used in the Bangladesh national election of 2008, contributing to the increased transparency and accountability of the electoral system. Both Bangladeshi and international observers found the 2008 election to be "free, fair, and relatively unmarked by violence."

Most of CIDA's countries of concentration have national poverty reduction strategies in place and they welcome support to improve their institutional frameworks. Although progress is noted in several countries, not all are ready to concretely reflect elements of their strategies in budgeting decisions and long-term resource frameworks.

For example, even though Honduras began working in 20082009 on a new National Development Plan consistent with its 20012015 poverty reduction strategy, reducing poverty is not yet systematically reflected in budgeting decisions and no long-term resource framework is in place. In the case of Ukraine, although it may not have a poverty reduction strategy, CIDA's Ukraine Program is fully in line with the European UnionUkraine Action Plan, which promotes closer cooperation between Ukraine and Europe, and Ukraine's own Millennium Development Goal agenda. Both of these documents outline the main reform goals of the country.

Vietnam on the other hand, is an example of a country that has made its poverty reduction strategy central to its planning. Moreover, it encourages a strong donor coordination culture. CIDA actively participates with other donors and aligns its programming with Vietnam's strategy, where it has notable effect, such as in strengthening accountable public institutions. For countries that do not have a formal poverty reduction strategy, a unofficial development plan can serve as a national plan. In 2008, donors in Mali demonstrated their willingness to work together and harmonize development efforts via the Joint Assistance Strategy (JAS). The JAS aims to improve the effectiveness of support to the poverty reduction strategy paper by 2011 by ensuring an adequate division of labour. Therefore, sectors where Canada is absent are covered by other donors.

Together with donors, CIDA's countries of concentration have been working on internationally agreed aid effectiveness agenda targets. For example, CIDA's work in 2007 as coordinator for the Indonesian government's response to the Paris Declaration was continued in 2008, when CIDA was designated the donor focal point for preparations for the Accra High-Level Meeting in September 2008. This responsibility indicates the trust the Indonesian government and other donors have in CIDA.

Not only has CIDA become the lead donor in education in Senegal, but it has also assumed responsibility for coordinating the dialogue between donors and the government. It is harmonizing its interventions with other donors and has supported the Government of Senegal's 10-year plan to lead the reform of its education system.

Lessons learned
When key public institutions lack the capacity to implement efficient and transparent procurement systems, it is important that donors, including CIDA, work together to support the implementation of public procurement reforms and that technical assistance be provided as appropriate to build the country's institutional capacity.

In the education sector, relying only on projects at the level of formal primary education will not be sufficient to reach disadvantaged groups. Non-formal education programming is also required, especially to reach those in remote regions. Moreover, unless access to primary school leads to the completion of at least a basic education, then improved access is not meaningful. Attention must also focus on improving quality in order to keep children in school and prevent repetition and high dropout rates.


Program Activity:
Fragile states and countries experiencing humanitarian crisis
This program activity involves programming development and/or humanitarian assistance in fragile states and/or countries experiencing humanitarian crisis to reduce the vulnerability of crisis-affected people and restore the capacity of public institutions and society, through: government-wide responses using a variety of mechanisms to respond to the many specific needs and risks or timely and effective action. In both cases, partnerships with institutional organizations offer flexibility and expertise to provide adequate responses.
20082009 financial resources
Planned
spending
Total
authorities
Actual
spending
$611,209,000 $866,628,289 $864,654,868
Expected
results
Performance
indicators
Performance
status
Reduced vulnerability of crisis-affected people Prevalence of acute malnutrition
Level of personal and community protection
Significant progress made
Restored capacity of public institutions and civil society Development of national poverty reduction strategies, including sector priorities
Level of availability of key public services
Significant progress made

Result 1: Reduced vulnerability of crisis-affected people

Performance summary
The global humanitarian situation worsened in 2008, in part due to the rise in food costs. Consequently, the number of people requiring food assistance from the WFP or seeking protection from the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) increased in comparison to 2007. In coordination with other donors, additional contributions from Canada enabled organizations such as the WFP and UNHCR to increase the coverage of their intended beneficiaries: from 89 percent in 2007 to 91 percent in 2008 for the WFP, and from 72 percent in 2007 to 76 percent in 2008 for the UNHCR. In 20082009, CIDA with other donors, helped feed more than 102 million people in 78 countries.

Performance analysis
Canada's humanitarian assistance programming objective is to save lives and alleviate the suffering of crisis-affected populations in a timely, effective, and coordinated manner. Humanitarian assistance includes the protection of civilians and those no longer taking part in hostilities and the provision of food, water and sanitation, shelter, health services, and other items of assistance. CIDA worked with trusted partner organizations, such as United Nations agencies, the Red Cross Movement and Canadian non-governmental organizations (NGOs), to respond to both complex humanitarian situations and natural disasters in more than 25 countries.

Complex humanitarian situations
CIDA responded to complex humanitarian situations35 in several countries and regions, including the Democratic Republic of Congo, Zimbabwe, Sri Lanka, Iraq, and Kenya. Globally, in 2008, there were three million more refugees, internally displaced persons, and returnees seeking protection by the UNHCR than in 2007. In Sudan, the already dire humanitarian situation was further complicated by the expulsion of 13 international NGOs by the Sudanese government in March 2009. Despite this difficult operating environment, CIDA provided close to $53 million in humanitarian assistance through multilateral partners, including the UNHCR, WFP, UNICEF, as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross and Canadian NGOs such as Oxfam-Qubec and World Vision Canada.

Natural disasters
CIDA responded to numerous natural disasters in 20082009. In Asia, Canada disbursed almost $26 million to respond to Cyclone Nargis in Burma, including support for the WFP's efforts to reach more than one million people in remote areas of the country. In China, Canada provided more than $31 million to relief efforts in the aftermath of the Sichuan earthquake, including an in-kind contribution of 700 tents from Canadian stockpiles. CIDA also supported UNICEF's efforts to provide emergency water and sanitation supplies for six months to more than 100,000 people in camps. In response to the 2008 Atlantic hurricane season, which affected more than 800,000 Haitians, Canada provided $5.6 million, which included emergency relief supplies for 2,000 families from Canadian stockpiles. In addition, CIDA provided $5 million to support early-recovery projects.

Food assistance
In 2008 rising food, input, and transportation costs exacerbated global food insecurity, leading to a global food crisis. In response to this crisis and to help address food security, CIDA provided significant food assistance primarily through its two main food-assistance partners: the WFP and the Canadian Foodgrains Bank. While the food crisis increased the number of people requiring the WFP's assistance by 16 million, for a total of 102.1 million people, additional contributions from Canada and other donors enabled the WFP to reach more than 92 million beneficiaries. In Afghanistan, the WFP distributed more than 300,000 tonnes of food, reaching approximately six million people, with more than 15,000 tonnes of food distributed to more than 580,000 people in Kandahar Province.

In response to the global food crisis, Canada announced in April 2008 that it would increase its food assistance commitment by $50 million to $230 million. Given increasing needs, by the end of 20082009 Canada provided a total of $318 million, thereby exceeding our initial commitment by more than $88 million. This included more than $100 million in additional funding to respond to emergencies. This support helped Canada to exceed its annual Food Aid Convention commitment of 420,000 metric tonnes of wheat equivalent.

Result 2: Restored capacity of public institutions and civil society

Performance summary
Basic services in education, health, housing and water were provided, and through demining efforts, economic activities were strengthened.

Haiti and Afghanistan have national poverty reduction strategies, and CIDA is an active participant in a number of aid-coordination bodies.

Electoral processes have been supported in Haiti and Afghanistan, and key government capacity has been strengthened.

Performance analysis

Early recovery and reconstruction
CIDA's support to reduce the vulnerability of crisis-affected populations consists of efforts at restoring normalcy of life, including basic services in education, health, and water. In Sudan, CIDA's support through the World Bankmanaged Multi-Donor Trust Funds helped establish 260 boreholes providing clean drinking water, the delivery of more than four million textbooks for primary grades, and the distribution of more than 179,000 antimalarial nets. In Haiti more than 320,000 schoolchildren received a nutritious meal every day during the school year, which improved their health and enhanced their attendance and ability to learn at school. In January 2009, in response to the latest crisis in Gaza, Canada provided the United Nations with funds to provide food aid to half a million Palestinians as well as temporary shelter and other emergency needs to exceptionally vulnerable families. And in Afghanistan more than 278,000 returnees were assisted by the UNHCR through the provision of shelter units and assistance.

In Sudan and Afghanistan, CIDA's funding provided to UN demining operations, which have contributed to the opening of 25,206 km of roads in Sudan through assessment or mine clearance, is expected to have a significant impact on economic activities. In the process, national organizations have been trained to conduct demining. In Afghanistan, a total of 377 km2 of land was released and more than 24,000 individuals received mine-risk education in Kandahar.

Supporting institutional capacity
CIDA's support to key public institutions in Haiti and Afghanistan, through training and technical assistance, contributed to building capacities in many critical institutions. For example, in Haiti, CIDA provided 45 experts to train and support staff in central agencies, which resulted in strengthened planning, implementation, and delivery capacity in key institutions, including the Office of the Prime Minister, the Planning Ministry, and the Ministry of Finance. Also, more than 2,500 Haitian civil registrars were trained in adapting new technologies to their work, including digitizing more than 14 million paper records as electronic files in order to allow wider access and use, which resulted in broader and better access to government services. In Afghanistan, CIDA's support to institutional building through the Canadian Governance Support Office in Kabul resulted in the placement of eight Canadian civilian experts in policy making and implementation across key Afghan ministries and institutions. In Kandahar, Canada provided advisors for the provincial governor's office to strengthen this important sub-national governance body.

CIDA, along with others in the Joint Donor Team, provided support to the Government of Southern Sudan by co-chairing 6 of the 10 Budget Sector Working Groups. As a result, the Government of Southern Sudan has been able to prepare credible budgets and improve its economic governance.

Supporting Electoral Processes in Haiti and Afghanistan
In Afghanistan and Haiti, Canada and its partners, including national governments and their parliaments, have made democratic governance a priority. This means governance that is transparent, effective, and accountable. And it means conducting upcoming elections that are seen by Haitians and Afghans as legitimate. In Haiti, more than 600,000 adults were registered on the voters list, which now totals 4.2 million, representing more than 92 percent of the voting population. In Afghanistan, more than 4.4 million eligible voters participated in an update of the existing voter registry in preparation for presidential and provincial council elections in August 2009.

Strengthening aid effectiveness
CIDA facilitated a technical meeting on Haiti, with the participation of the Haitian government and key donors, that set the stage for a new partnership framework that sought to re-engage donors through additional funding commitments and improved policy dialogue, coordination, and aid effectiveness.

CIDA continued to apply a whole-of-government approach through close collaboration with key Government of Canada departments. In Afghanistan, CIDA is a member of several international donor working groups, such as the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board, and Canada is co-chair supporting the Ministry of Education's National Education Development Board. In April 2008 the Afghanistan National Development Strategy was launched, against which CIDA developed its three priorities: focusing on strengthening institutional capacity to promote economic growth and deliver basic services, advancing Afghan capacity for humanitarian assistance and crisis management, and democratic governance through strengthening public institutions and electoral processes.

Lessons learned
CIDA continued to invest in strengthening the international humanitarian system. In order to improve the timeliness of humanitarian action in sudden onset emergencies and increase funding to forgotten crises, Canada, in collaboration with other partners, played a key role in shaping the development of the UN Central Emergency Response Fund (CERF). In 2008, the CERF underwent an evaluation of its first two years. The evaluation concluded that in a short amount of time, the CERF has become a valuable and impartial tool for humanitarian action by helping to accelerate response and increase coverage of needs. In 2008, the CERF provided funding to assist people in 55 countries experiencing crises. Specifically in response to the global food crisis in 2008, CERF funding helped deal with the humanitarian side effects of rising food costs and reached an estimated 17.8 million people, including some 9.7 million women and girls. Canada has committed $192 million to the CERF (20072011), making Canada the sixth largest contributor to the CERF in 2008.

In Haiti, social and economic development priorities had to be further focused in order to respond to the extraordinary circumstances of 20082009 (i.e. global food and economic crisis, and severe natural disaster). Maintaining flexibility and capacity to respond to unforeseen needs and new government priorities remains critical. Coordination mechanisms and procedures have to be flexible to respond to new priorities, including a strong support structure, for example, through a secretariat with dedicated full-time staff.

In Afghanistan, CIDA's capacity to respond to emergent needs and government priorities required strong, flexible, whole-of-government coordination mechanisms and processes, which have strengthened Canada's engagement in Afghanistan. Through innovative rapid analysis and response, Canada's efforts in stabilization with development were supported through whole-of-government programming implementation, and were further demonstrated through CIDA's leadership in the development of a comprehensive whole-of-government elections strategy in Afghanistan. Canada also showed leadership in its contribution to the establishment of the National Education Development Board, through which it now serves as co-chair promoting policy dialogue and coordination among Government of Afghanistan partners, donors, and civil society.


Program Activity:
Selected countries and regions
The purpose of CIDA's development assistance programming in selected countries and regions36 eligible for Canadian international assistance is to enhance the capacity of these countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals and to contribute to Canada's international interests through expertise, dialogue, and resources. These initiatives can also require linkages and/ or partnerships between Canadian partners and their local partners.
20082009 financial resources
Planned
spending
Total
authorities
Actual
spending
$580,822,000 $459,075,690 $453,929,576
Expected
results
Performance
indicators
Performance
status
Enhanced capacity of selected countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals
Level of democratic governance
Existence of an effective government poverty reduction strategy, reflected in budgeting decisions and long-term resource framework
Alignment of CIDA country strategies and institutional support to the country's national development plan
See section I
Some progress made
Significant progress made
All strategies aligned
Contribution to international interests of the Government of Canada Targeted programming in areas of mutual interest
Degree to which other government departments are engaged in country
Significant progress made
Some progress made

Performance summary
While CIDA's programming is now concentrated in fewer countries, some involvement is retained in selected countries and regions to address poverty and stability, and the international interests of the Government of Canada. CIDA's selected country and regional programs can be grouped into three categories:

  1. Regions that can benefit from an integrated approach to development challenges and opportunities that cross borders, including environmental concerns, communicable diseases, armed violence, human rights, drug and human trafficking, and trade and regional economic integration.
  2. Countries that are poor and unable to meet the needs of their population, and who lack the institutional capacity to manage larger bilateral investments on the scale used by CIDA for its countries of concentration.
  3. Countries on the way to middle-income status but who require some consolidation of development investment and targeted programming in areas where sustainability and continued progress can be strengthened.

Result 1: Stability and development goals

Performance analysis
Despite considerable challenges, including the food crisis in late 2008, the global economic downturn, ongoing conflicts and structural challenges such as poor infrastructure and low institutional capacity, CIDA's investments performed well. Selected countries and regions enhanced their capacity to achieve stability and development goals through modest but well-targeted CIDA programming in health, education, food security, and democratic governance.

In health, for example, CIDA programming in Nigeria with a school and a college of health technology strengthened the quality of education for hundreds of primary health care workers and is continuing to do so through enhancing curriculums, improving administration and management, and expanding outreach to local communities. Logistics were put in place for the renovation and construction of as many as 14 primary health care clinics. Regional programming in Western Africa improved epidemiological monitoring in the health ministries of five countries-Benin, Mali, Niger, Burkina Faso, and Guinea-as 600 health officers were trained and 230 epidemiological surveillance centres established. In South Africa, CIDA continued to expand and strengthen a network of NGOs and hospices providing HIV/AIDS services to communities in the worst-affected areas.

All developing countries recognize the importance of meeting education targets. Canadian assistance in that regard figured prominently in Peru, where CIDA piloted a literacy model for rural primary students. The results are influencing regional and national education policies. In provinces using CIDA's model, the reading comprehension of Grade 6 students went from 8 percent to 74 percent, and mathematics problem-solving ability went from 0 percent to 46 percent. As a result, the regional government will invest public funds to extend the literacy model to other provinces. CIDA is working in Egypt, Jordan, and Morocco along the same lines to advance education reform.

For a time, food prices soared, putting the spotlight on weaknesses in country food production, nutrition levels, and the management of food supplies. Well-placed CIDA programming at the country level allowed for continued progress toward food security in the Americas, where since 2004, CIDA has been supporting ECOFONDO, a network of Colombian NGOs implementing small-scale sustainable ecological agriculture projects. CIDA support consolidated more than 1,300 hectares of productive agro-ecological land and benefited more than 5,000 persons, who are now food secure and removed from illicit crops and illegal activities. CIDA funding also helped develop and release 36 new disease-resistant bean varieties with enhanced nutritional value for planting in similar agricultural zones of the 24 countries in which the Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance works.

Level of democratic governance
By far the biggest challenge to the progress of democratic and economic reforms in the last year was to stay the course as each country and region weathered the global economic downturn. Food prices brought people into the streets. CIDA programming in private sector development, governance, and democracy provided some underpinning in this regard, as well as a foundation for resumed economic growth.

For example, the Caribbean Program concentrated on governance, economic renewal, and building human capital. Support to the Caribbean Regional Technical Assistance Centre built the knowledge and skills of 1,900 Caribbean public servants in public finance management. Projects in the Philippines helped create 1,600 jobs by providing advice to small businesses, and improved the income and access to markets of some 7,000 rural farmers. In Egypt, CIDA supported a network that served 30,000 clients and helped create 4,500 new small-scale enterprises (50 percent of them women). CIDA programming in Nepal figured prominently to achieve stability and development goals in that country. The democracy program supported the work of 23 Nepalese organizations to provide civic education to 308,000 people-mostly women-during the 2008 election, resulting in the formation of a representative body mandated to draft a new constitution.

Alignment of CIDA strategies
All CIDA country and regional strategies are aligned with country and/or regional priorities. Each selected country and region has some form of national or regional poverty reduction strategy, which donors such as Canada use as a basis for coordinating assistance. For example, Peru provides a framework for donor alignment through the National Policy on International Technical Cooperation, which ties together the national, sectoral, and regional policies that articulate the country's development vision. Canada's assistance to Peru aligns with specifically stated priority needs: human security and human development, strengthening the democratic state, and sustainable competitiveness.

Result 2: Canada's international interests

Performance analysis
CIDA contributes to Canada's international policies by helping selected countries and regional institutions improve their capacity to promote or sustain democracy, freedom, human rights, the rule of law, security and international trade.

CIDA's regional programs contribute to address cross-border issues, such as communicable diseases and natural resource management. For example, the West Africa Regional Program addresses climate change adaptation through a project that helped upgrade climatic, hydrological, and environmental data banks, produce climatic scenarios specific for the Sahel, and design requisite training curriculum. To increase its effectiveness, the Permanent Inter-State Committee for Drought Control in the Sahel (Comit permanent Inter-Etats de Lutte contre la Scheresse dans le Sahel (CILSS)) elaborated its strategic plan for 2020, environmental strategic framework, and gender policy.

Ongoing conflict can present considerable difficulty in delivering programming in certain countries precisely where it is most needed. For example, in Zimbabwe, CIDA-supported partners mitigated the impact of political violence and repression by documenting human rights violations and by providing legal aid to imprisoned activists and medical support to 5,400 victims of political violence and torture. A notable CIDA partner, Zimbabwe Lawyers for Human Rights, received Rights & Democracy's John Humphrey Freedom Award in 200837 for its work in locating detained human rights defenders, and in seeking medical access and legal redress for them. Support for an independent parallel tabulation of the vote in March 2008 helped limit the scope of electoral fraud and safeguard parliamentary election results.

Lessons learned
A valuable lesson from a regional program, the West African Regional program, is that coordination and dialogue among partners are important to ensure aid effectiveness. Coordination in a regional context is vulnerable when national interests get the upper hand on the common approach. Secondly, the regional approach can accelerate learning in other countries if appropriate actions are taken to pass on the lessons learned in a given country.

A vital lesson learned when conducting modest programming in a poor country such as Burkina Faso is that CIDA's institutional presence in the field needs to be constant. Furthermore, programming may need to be adapted to the changing needs of the country and the evolving situation in order to obtain better results. Finally, when engaging with a middle-income country such as Jordan, Canada has learned that, despite its modest investments, it has leverage by being active in policy dialogue and donor coordination in the education sector.

CIDA's Indian Ocean tsunami response 20042009
Canadians remember the devastating 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.38 Some 228,000 lives were lost, 1.7 million persons were displaced, and damage reached US$10 billion.

The Government of Canada contributed $425 million in assistance. CIDA managed $383 million of that amount through more than 80 relief and reconstruction projects: $130 million in the immediate relief phase delivered through multilateral channels, and $253 million in a longer term reconstruction program delivered through bilateral channels from 20052006 to 20082009.

Aid-effectiveness principles with a clear focus on results were key to the successful delivery of Canada's assistance.

Whole of government and international coordination: A whole-of-government approach was used during the emergency phase, with CIDA chairing the Tsunami Assistance Coordinating Committee, comprising 12 federal government departments. During the reconstruction phase, CIDA partnered with more than 40 international and non-governmental organizations.

Canada "exemplary" as donor
Independent evaluations, including one conducted in 2008, found that the reconstruction phase of CIDA's tsunami response had made substantial sustainable improvements in the lives of those affected by the disaster.

Two others by the multidonor Tsunami Evaluation Coalition assessed Canada's performance as a donor as exemplary.

Physical infrastructure: With the overarching theme of "build back better," results included the construction or reconstruction of more than 7,500 homes, more than 2,700 km of road, 825 bridges, 282 schools, 19 markets, 43 health clinics, 262 waste-disposal units, 1,100 wells, 1,226 clean-water projects, 1,300 sanitation units, and 1,075 km of drainage/irrigation canals.

Social infrastructure: Vocational and livelihood support, such as entrepreneurship training and small-scale loans, have helped more than 55,000 affected individuals to improve their employment opportunities.

Environment: Environmental aspects were integrated throughout the tsunami program projects. Results include the improved health of affected fisheries through coastline-restoration efforts, and more than 5,000 families gaining improved water and sanitation facilities.

Governance and peacebuilding: In Aceh, Indonesia, more than 1,700 teachers and students were trained in peace-education techniques, and dozens of communities affected by the tsunami and conflict alike were introduced to more participatory planning and project-implementation practices.

Gender: As with the environment, gender was a crosscutting theme throughout the program. For example, 62 percent of 2,700 Sri Lankan business course trainees were women, and in Indonesia, almost 60 percent of 1,700 Economic Recovery Group members were women.


Program Activity:
Multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions
Through its engagement with multilateral, Canadian, and international institutions, CIDA seeks to influence institutional policies and practices to strengthen the ability of institutions and to maximize program effectiveness in order to enhance the capacity and effectiveness of partner institutions in achieving development goals. CIDA's engagement includes the provision of expertise and core funding, as well as its participation on decision making and on advisory committees and boards.
20082009 financial resources
Planned
spending
Total
authorities
Actual
spending
$991,286,000 $1,331,314,995 $1,317,665,265
Expected
results
Performance
indicators
Performance
status
Enhanced capacity and effectiveness of multilateral institutions and Canadian/ international organizations in achieving development goals Number of multilateral institutions and Canadian/international partners demonstrating a results-based management approach
Existence of equality between women and men and environment strategies for partner institutions
Significant progress made

Result: Enhanced capacity and effectiveness of multilateral institutions and Canadian and international organizations in achieving development goals

Performance summary
Individual organizations and projects funded through this program activity have met or exceeded CIDA's requirements for the use of results-based management, and for the integration of considerations related to equality between women and men and to the environment.

Performance analysis
Multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions are key partners in poverty reduction due to their effectiveness and reach, as well as the resources and capacities they bring to bear. By working with these partners so that they sustain and improve their effectiveness as development actors, Canada's contribution to development has become more efficient and effective.

During 20082009, CIDA continued to promote multilateral effectiveness through its assessments of partners' effectiveness through its active participation in the Multilateral Organization Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN), 39 and through assessments of the ability of multilateral partners to plan, achieve, monitor, and report on gender equality results:

  • In order to generate up-to-date information for decision making about CIDA's relationships with key multilateral organizations, CIDA staff at headquarters and in the field systematically reviewed and assessed organizations' effectiveness in terms of their relevance to CIDA's priorities, organizational effectiveness, development results, and adherence to the Paris Declaration principles.
  • Building on previous surveys, CIDA and other donor agencies involved in MOPAN published the MOPAN annual survey for 200840, which assessed the World Bank, the United Nations Population Fund, and the European Commission. CIDA and MOPAN also made progress in 20082009 on the development of a joint approach for assessing multilateral organizations. This approach, which will be tested during 2009, is expected to improve the quality and scope of the annual survey, as well as enhance donor harmonization and reduce the costs of doing business between donors and multilateral organizations.
  • CIDA completed its suite of "gender equality institutional assessments". These assessments have already influenced how CIDA's partners approach gender equality. For example, the African Development Bank has used CIDA's assessment as a key element of the work to update its action plan for gender equality. Also, CIDA's assessment of the World Bank has formed the basis for the government's interactions with the World Bank to operationalize gender-equality considerations across its programs. 41

As part of its renewed partnership with Canadian civil society, CIDA continued to pursue greater effectiveness and accountability with its Canadian partners.

  • In 20082009, CIDA partnered with the seven Provincial Councils for International Cooperation to design and deliver new training programs in results-based management and gender equality to more than 200 participants. Participant evaluations were very positive and demonstrated that partners have a better understanding of CIDA's requirements for results reporting.
  • CIDA's Volunteer Cooperation Program continued to be managed in a collaborative manner. CIDA worked closely with nine volunteer cooperation agencies (VCAs) to renew a $244.6-million multicountry program42 that will provide support for the placement of 8,500 Canadian volunteers over five years (20092014). The program reflects increased geographic and sectoral concentration. Close collaboration between CIDA and the VCAs has produced a common logic model and performance-measurement framework to enable the Agency to better capture and report on results for the program.
  • CIDA continued to support democratic governance through programming with Canadian partners that strengthened institutional capacities and democratic practices at the national, regional, and local levels.

Lessons learned
The current number and diversity of CIDA's partners pose challenges to achieving and demonstrating the expected results of this program activity, as does the need for the broad coordination of programming. To address these challenges, CIDA will continue to strengthen appropriate and systematic oversight of its partnerships.

Strategic outcome 2: Sustained support and informed action by Canadians in international development

Canadians are involved in international development through government, non-governmental activities, the private sector and volunteerism. Canadians make a valuable contribution to international development, through their financial and in-kind support, resourcefulness, innovative ideas, and commitment.


Program Activity:
Engaging Canadian citizens
This program activity provides opportunities for Canadians to increase their awareness, deepen their understanding, and engage in international development. Canadian engagement is a vital element of effective development. It enables CIDA and its partners to draw from a broad range of expertise and financial resources across the country to implement aid initiatives. It also provides an ongoing basis for commitment on the part of the Government of Canada to international development cooperation.
20082009 financial resources
Planned
spending
Total
authorities
Actual
spending
$71,633,000 $27,415,305 $27,056,378
Expected
results
Targets Performance
indicators
Performance
status
Increased awareness, deepened understanding, and greater engagement of Canadians with respect to international development Number of Canadians involved in international development efforts Reach 10,000 Canadians through the Public Engagement Fund

Reach more than 2,000 teachers and 101,000 students in Canada through the Global Classroom Initiative
Exceeded

Exceeded

Result: Increased awareness, deepened understanding, and greater engagement of Canadians with respect to international development

Performance summary
An estimated one million children and educators were reached through classroom activities supported by CIDA, more than 55,000 people were reached through lectures, films, workshops, speaking tours, participatory theatre, training of youth leaders, art and multimedia contests, and leadership development.

Benefits to Canadians
By supporting the development activities of Canadian civil society and private sector partners, CIDA creates opportunities for hundreds of thousands of Canadians to contribute to Canada's development program and, in the process, helps build relationships and mutual understanding between Canadians and people throughout the developing world.

Performance analysis
CIDA's promotion of public engagement in international development begins with providing information to help build awareness, deepening understanding through education, and achieving engagement through opportunities to participate.

CIDA's website43 a dynamic source of information on all aspects of Canada's international development program, has been the subject of a strategic rethink, redesign and cleanup effort through 20082009 to make the website more current, comprehensive, interactive, and easy to use. The resulting changes are being implemented in phases through the balance of 2009 and beyond, continuously improving the effectiveness of CIDA's Internet presence in deepening Canadians' understanding of development issues and the role CIDA plays.

The Project Browser44, a database of project information published on CIDA's website, was expanded to include more than 2,300 projects, exceeding the target by 800. The Project Browser makes information on CIDA projects, and increasingly, their results, easily accessible to the public.

CIDA's regional offices45 remained active throughout the year in reaching out to the Canadian public, as well as providing guidance to individuals and organizations on how to become more actively engaged in international development.

CIDA's annual International Development Week46, with the theme of "Development for Results," saw seven regional councils produce more than 69 events across Canada, directly reaching tens of thousands of Canadians, and hundreds of thousands indirectly.

More than 1,200 people, including a broad representation of CIDA's Canadian partner organizations, attended International Cooperation Days 200847. An exit survey found that 68 percent of participants considered International Cooperation Days 2008 to have met their expectations, and 24 percent said their expectations were exceeded. Of respondents, 76 percent indicated that the event was successful at providing networking opportunities with partners, parliamentarians, the diplomatic community, and other government departments.

Recipients of support from CIDA's Public Engagement Fund48 reported reaching more than 55,000 people in 20082009 directly through workshops, speaking tours, participatory theatre, training of youth leaders, art and multimedia contests, leadership development, lectures, and films, exceeding the target set in 2008 of reaching a minimum of 10,000 Canadians.

Through the use of education resources and activities developed with the support of CIDA's Global Classroom Initiative49, an estimated one million Canadian children and educators were engaged in 20082009 in active exploration of international development issues that helped create awareness of their global neighbours, different world views, and understand the global impact of their choices and actions.

CIDA's Mass Media Initiative (MMI) 50 encourages media professionals to raise awareness and understanding of international development issues, highlight the Canadian contribution to developing countries, and communicate why challenges faced by developing countries are important to Canadians. In 20082009, the MMI financially supported 57 communications projects in a diverse range of media including documentaries, podcasts, radio programs, new media, print, and exhibit projects. Based on an average of figures from the past two years, it is estimated that the MMI reached Canadians 27.5 million times in 20082009.

CIDA's International Youth Internship Program51 was renewed through to 2014. It will provide support for the placement of 1,980 interns into overseas development projects over the next five years.

CIDA supported several electoral missions involving 39 Canadian election observers.

In November 2008, CIDA published its first Development for Results52 report, presenting to parliamentarians and the public stories of human progress resulting from the efforts of CIDA and its partners in some of the poorest parts of the world.

The 2008 launch of a new website, www.afghanistan.gc.ca, profiles Canada's six priorities, their benchmarks, and CIDA's three signature projects in Afghanistan, as well as the government's quarterly progress reports to Parliament. The website also presents Canada's work in Afghanistan through its photo library (Afcam) and through videos and podcasts featured on social media outlets such as YouTube, iTunes, Flickr, and Facebook. First shown in Ottawa in 2008 and slated for exhibition across Canada in 2009, Afghanistan360, an interactive multimedia exhibit, showcases Canada's role in rebuilding Afghanistan and some of the progress that has been made.

Given Haiti's centrality to Canada's engagement in the Americas, the Haiti Program53 was proactive in communicating to Canadians the activities and results achieved through CIDA-funded initiatives in that country. This was done through a variety of venues, including the Canada Pavilion during the festivities of Qubec 2008, International Cooperation Days, and International Development Week, as well as the presentation of success stories and photo exhibits at these and other venues as well as via the Internet.

Lessons learned
Most of the activities and programs above are based on close working relationships with various partners across Canada. This approach has proven to be an effective means of reaching Canadians to present them with opportunities to support and engage in Canada's development program.

Measuring levels of support attributable to our public engagement activities in order to evaluate the impact of those activities is difficult in the absence of an accepted methodology and the high cost of the tools needed. This year, the Agency will assess best practices here and in other agencies in the domain of evaluating impacts of public engagement efforts.