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The department's mandate as it pertains to foreign affairs is to:
The department's mandate as it pertains to international commerce is the advancement of Canada's economic interests abroad through the:
With respect to the department's management of Canada's missions abroad, it is important to recognize the spread and complexity of this responsibility. This country has a formal presence in 159 of the world's 192 independent states. Outside Canada, there are 299 locations at which the services of the federal government can be accessed. The number of points of service in each country or other entity depends on the breadth of its bilateral relationship with Canada. For instance, there are more points of service in the United States than in any other country, underscoring the significance of Canada's relations with that nation.
The department also serves the foreign diplomatic community accredited to Canada (173 foreign diplomatic missions, 126 of which are in Ottawa and 47 of which are in either New York City or Washington, D.C., 525 foreign consular posts and nearly 20 international organizations and other offices). At present, there are approximately 8,000 foreign representatives and accredited members of their families in Canada.
The department delivers a number of value-added services to Canadians pertaining to foreign affairs and international commerce.
Foreign Affairs: First, the department leads and coordinates a government-wide approach to the pursuit of Canada's global agenda, while promoting Canadian values and culture internationally. Second, it analyzes national and international trends and developments for Canadians, providing timely and practical information on global issues and travel. Third, it manages Canada's network of missions worldwide, delivering cost-effective and efficient services and infrastructure to enable the international operations of the Government of Canada as well as other partners co-located at those missions (see Part II, section 126.96.36.199 and Part III, sections 188.8.131.52 and 3.2.2 for more information about Canada's missions). Finally, it provides passport and consular services to Canadians, enabling their participation in the international community.
International Trade: Much of the department's commerce-related work involves the provision of wide-ranging services to Canadian business. This includes opening and expanding markets through negotiated agreements and facilitating export and investment transactions. The benefits of this work are reaped by Canadian companies and, by extension, the entire Canadian economy.
The expansion of global commerce, including two-way trade and investment, generates employment and business opportunities for Canadians at home and abroad. A strengthened Canadian economy, built on open flows of trade, investment and technology, enables both federal and provincial governments to provide Canadians with the social and other programs that they desire. Furthermore, trade liberalization is a significant contributor to the Government of Canada's innovation agenda. Opening new markets for Canadian firms stimulates investment that can raise productivity by generating new ideas and technologies, while foreign investment in this country helps to transfer technology and know-how to Canadians.
These benefits that the department provides to Canadians are incorporated into its Management, Resources and Results Structure-Program Activity Architecture (MRRS-PAA) (see Part II, section 184.108.40.206 for more information on the MRRS-PAA).
The Minister of Foreign Affairs, Peter MacKay, and the Minister for International Trade, David Emerson, are accountable to Parliament for the management and oversight of the department.
Mr. MacKay is supported by Josée Verner, Minister for International Cooperation, La Francophonie and Official Languages, who is responsible for the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA). Mr. MacKay's Parliamentary Secretaries are Deepak Obhrai and Peter Van Loan. The Foreign Affairs Minister is the chair of the Cabinet Committee on Foreign Affairs and National Security and a member of the Cabinet Committee on Priorities and Planning. Mr. Emerson is assisted by his Parliamentary Secretary, Helena Guergis. He is the vice-chair of the Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs.
The Deputy Ministers of Foreign Affairs and International Trade support the Ministers in determining the overall direction of the department. The Deputy Ministers and Associate Deputy Minister are responsible for the department's strategic outcomes and related program activities.
Within the foreign affairs component of the department, two bureaus (Communications and Executive Services) report directly to the Deputy Minister of Foreign Affairs, while the Office of the Inspector General and Passport Canada report to the Associate Deputy Minister.
Below the levels of Deputy Minister and Associate Deputy Minister, the department's foreign affairs component has a Legal Adviser and seven Assistant Deputy Ministers (ADM). These ADMs develop policies and initiatives to achieve the department's worldwide objectives. In so doing, they are accountable for the main departmental programs and the performance of their respective branches.
Within the international trade component, a Senior Adviser reports directly to that Deputy Minister. Also reporting to the Deputy Minister for International Trade are three ADMs responsible for each of the three branches (Global Operations; Investment, Innovation and Sectors; and Trade Policy and Negotiations). The Chief Air Negotiator reports jointly to the Deputy Ministers of International Trade and Transport and conducts negotiations that are vital to Canada's air carriers, airport communities, tourists, business travellers, investors and shippers.
Accountability below the ADM level throughout the department is governed by the Management, Resources and Results Structure-Program Activity Architecture. Accordingly, all of the department's branches contribute to achieving the strategic outcomes identified in the MRRS-PAA as follows:
In keeping with the reintegration of the department, the following central functions report jointly to both Deputy Ministers: Corporate Services, Human Resources, the Strategic Policy and Planning Branch, and the Protocol Office. Corporate Services and Human Resources provide essential infrastructure to the whole department. The core functions of the two branches, including finance, information technology, property management, administration and human resources services, support all departmental strategic outcomes. As a global player, the department requires a highly robust and secure information technology infrastructure and related support in order to provide the services and results Canadians expect. The department also continues to lead enhancement of the international gateway (http://canadainternational.gc.ca/ci/main_menu-e.aspx) on the main Government of Canada website.
The work of the Strategic Policy and Planning Branch ensures that the international economic dimension is appropriately reflected in Canada's foreign policy. The branch undertakes research on and analysis of cross-cutting international issues, including broad economic questions with implications for Canada's foreign policy. Through the work of the department's Policy Committee, the branch sets annual policy priorities to guide corporate planning and alignment of resource allocation. The branch also identifies gaps in Canada's international policies and carries out policy planning and development to address them. And, it explores the implications of new global trends and issues with other foreign ministries to identify ways in which Canada can collaborate with other countries on emerging policy issues, including those of economic importance.
The two geographic branches-North America, which concentrates on the United States and Mexico, and Bilateral Relations, which covers the rest of the world-manage and coordinate Canada's relations with their designated part of the world, providing resources and guidance to Canada's missions on all aspects of foreign policy, international trade and consular services. They provide policy advice to Ministers and, at missions abroad, manage all of the department's program activities as well as the initiatives of other federal departments and agencies co-located there.
The Legal Adviser is the principal source of legal services and advice to the Government of Canada on international issues.
The Office of the Inspector General is central to the department's commitment to provide Canadian taxpayers with services and benefits of real value by:
All audits of programs at Headquarters and missions abroad are conducted using risk-based assessment methods.
Within the department are two special operating agencies: Passport Canada and the Physical Resources Bureau. Passport Canada operates much like a private-sector enterprise, financing its operations entirely from the fees charged for passports and other travel documents. It also maintains a revolving fund that allows it to carry over surpluses and deficits. The Physical Resources Bureau is responsible for the cost-effective acquisition, management, development and disposal of real property and materiel required to support program delivery abroad. The department manages over 2,000 properties abroad (chanceries, official residences and staff quarters), valued at approximately $2 billion.
The following committees and groups guide corporate decision making for the department as a whole (i.e. for both the foreign affairs and international trade components):
These committees make up the formal decision-making structure of the department. However, certain issues cannot always be addressed within the time frames of this structure. As a result, like any other organization, the department also makes use of informal networks of governance. Both formal and informal means of decision making are necessary to deal with the complexity and volatility of the international environment in which the department operates. By carrying out decision making in this manner, the department increases its organizational agility in addressing unforeseen and/or rapidly changing issues and events such as the December 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami.
The international trade component of the department has the Strategic Directions Committee, which provides the challenge function for policy and program initiatives prior to their consideration by Executive Committee. Chaired by the DG of Policy and Consultations, this committee is attended by all trade and other relevant DGs as well as representatives of Export Development Canada and the Canadian Commercial Corporation (see Part II, section 220.127.116.11 for more information on these two organizations).
The department's Foreign Service employees fall into three categories: political/economic officers, management/consular officers and trade commissioners, all of which are rotational, relocating regularly between Headquarters and Canada's missions abroad. Trade commissioners also serve at regional offices across Canada.
Political/economic officers focus on shaping Canada's policies on a wide range of issues, such as international human rights, the environment, disarmament and the Middle East Peace Process. These officers typically spend a considerable amount of time working with their international counterparts. Some of the department's foreign policy work is done by nonrotational specialist officers.
Management/consular officers provide help and advice to Canadians outside the country in dealing with issues such as incarceration, death, child abduction and evacuation in the event of a political emergency or natural disaster. They also coordinate the services provided by the department to all Government of Canada departments and agencies operating outside Canada, including contracting, procurement and human resources management. At Headquarters, management/consular officers exercise budgetary and human resources authority.
Trade commissioners make up the Trade Commissioner Service (TCS), a worldwide network of some 1,000 highly skilled professionals with preferred access to contacts in international business. This number includes 650 locally engaged staff at 149 missions around the world. They are instrumental in promoting Canadian economic interests in the global marketplace. The main client groups of TCS are the Canadian business community, for trade and outward investment, and the provinces and municipalities, for inward investment. Its primary objective is to create an internationally competitive private sector and assist companies in achieving success in foreign markets. The service's main activities include helping the country's entrepreneurs succeed in foreign markets by developing and accessing export markets; developing international business contacts; identifying trade barriers, foreign business leads and strategic alliances; promoting two-way investment and joint venture partnering; facilitating licensing, franchising and venture capital linkages as well as acquisition and dissemination of technology and related information; promoting R&D collaboration and commercialization; promoting corporate social responsibility; and advocating Canadian commercial interests. These officers also deal with trade policy issues that arise in their territory and complement the work of trade policy specialists, which is undertaken in missions such as Geneva and Brussels.
Canada has a formal presence in 159 of the world's 192 independent states. Outside Canada, there are 299 locations at which the services of the federal government can be accessed. The number of points of service in each country or other entity depends on the breadth of its bilateral relationship with Canada. For instance, there are more points of service in the United States than in any other country, underscoring the significance of Canada's relations with that nation.
Worldwide, federal government services are available at Canada's:
In addition, there are 16 other locations at which consular services only are provided, under agreements with the governments of Australia and Sweden.
The missions represent the Government of Canada and advance Canadian interests (federal, provincial, territorial and municipal) in designated countries, areas or multilateral organizations by performing one or more of the following functions:
The missions play a growing role in support of Canada's domestic programs and activities. In carrying out these functions, missions ensure the integration and coordination of all federal programs and activities outside Canada. Heads of Missions act on behalf of the entire Government of Canada, not just the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade. Program managers at missions report to their HOMs and to the relevant program authorities in their home departments or agencies.
Each mission has a Committee on Mission Management, usually chaired by the HOM. Its members are the mission's program managers. Meeting weekly, the committee coordinates the mission's policies and programs and oversees its management. While decisions are typically made by consensus, the HOM has the final authority. All federal employees at missions abroad, regardless of their home departments or agencies, act as members of a cohesive Government of Canada team.
The department provides goods, services and real property to other government departments and agencies co-located at missions abroad. The purpose is to:
As part of its transformation agenda, the department is working to re-categorize Canada's missions abroad in order to better align them with the country's international priorities as well as the department's resources, program activities and results, and ensure greater understanding inside and outside the department about the role of missions and expected results.
The following organizations outside of the department's direct governance structure make up what is known as its portfolio:
The Canadian International Development Agency supports sustainable development in developing countries in order to reduce poverty, and contributes to a more secure, equitable and prosperous world. It reports to Parliament through the Minister for International Cooperation. The authority of CIDA is articulated in the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Act, the Annual Appropriation Acts and the International Development (Financial Institutions) Assistance Act. CIDA is currently listed under Schedule 1.1 of the Financial Administration Act. CIDA's website address is http://www.acdi-cida.gc.ca/index-e.htm.
The International Development Research Centre (IDRC) is a Crown corporation created by Parliament in 1970 to help developing countries use science and technology to find practical, long-term solutions to their social, economic and environmental problems. Support is directed toward developing an indigenous research capacity to sustain policies and technologies that developing countries need to build healthier, more equitable and more prosperous societies. IDRC's website address is http://www.idrc.ca/en/ev-1-201-1-DO_TOPIC.html.
Export Development Canada (http://www.edc.ca/) is also a parent Crown corporation under Schedule III of the Financial Administration Act. It is a financial institution that provides trade-related financial and insurance services to Canadian exporters and investors.
The Canadian Commercial Corporation (http://www.ccc.ca/index.html) is a parent Crown corporation under Schedule III of the Financial Administration Act. It is an export sales agency that works to expand Canada's international trade, in particular by participating in foreign government procurement and infrastructure projects.
The North American Free Trade Agreement (NAFTA) Secretariat (Canadian Section) (http://www.nafta-secalena.org/canada/index-eng.aspx) is an agency of the Government of Canada under Schedule 1.1 of the Financial Administration Act. The secretariat helps to administer the dispute settlement provisions of the North American Free Trade Agreement.
Rights & Democracy (the International Centre for Human Rights and Democratic Development) is a non-partisan organization created by Parliament in 1988 to encourage and support the universal values of human rights and the promotion of democratic institutions and practices around the world. This organization receives most of its funding from Canada's Overseas Development Assistance Budget, through the department. Each year, Rights & Democracy submits a report on its activities to the Minister of Foreign Affairs, who tables it in Parliament. More information can be found at http://www.ichrdd.ca/site/home/index.php?lang=en.
The International Joint Commission is an independent bi-national (Canada and the United States) organization established by the Boundary Waters Treaty of 1909. Its purpose is to help prevent and resolve disputes over the use and quality of boundary waters and to give advice on related issues. The International Joint Commission website can be found at http://www.ijc.org/en/home/main_accueil.htm.
The Roosevelt Campobello International Park Commission administers the Roosevelt Campobello International Park on the Bay of Fundy as a memorial to former United States President Franklin Roosevelt. The commission was created by an international treaty in 1964, which specifies that the two countries share the costs of the park's development, operation and maintenance. The department approves the Canadian budget. More information can be found on the park's website at http://www.fdr.net/englishii/.
The department works closely with a wide range of domestic and foreign partners, including:
Its client groups include parliamentarians, federal departments and agencies with international operations, provincial governments and others co-located at missions abroad, and Canadians, particularly those with an interest in foreign policy, global business, international travel and study abroad.
Since January 2005, the department has been transforming its structure, processes and culture in order to bring sharper focus to its role in delivering Canada's international policies.
The transformation agenda was devised to address certain realities affecting the department's foreign affairs operating environment, including the growing importance of diplomacy carried out by world leaders; the increasing international engagement of other public- and private-sector players; and the evolution of the department from a policy-oriented organization to one also heavily involved in program and project design, management and delivery, especially with respect to security issues. As a result of these factors, the department has recognized the urgent need to redefine its role within the Government of Canada and modernize its organization and structure in order to best represent Canada and protect Canadian interests in a constantly changing world.
In January 2005, the trade component of the department began implementation of an agenda to modernize its structure, processes and culture in response to the globalization of international commerce and its increasing importance to the Canadian economy. The Global Operations Branch (initially called the World Markets Branch) provided a new focal point in the department to address the global commerce challenges of the 21st century. The branch has led the development of over-arching strategies in specific priority markets (e.g. Brazil, India, China, among others). These strategies integrate all commercial policies, programs and initiatives undertaken at missions abroad with the support of Headquarters, regional offices and key players at the federal, provincial and municipal levels.
The following graph shows at a glance the governance and accountability structure of the department as a whole and how it relates directly to its strategic outcomes and stated priorities for the planning period. More details on this relationship and the department's planning process in general are provided in the sections that follow. As indicated in the graph, there are four elements that make up governance and accountability: strategic direction, functions, structures and management processes.
Since the department's reintegration took place near the end of the 2005-2006 fiscal year, the department was unable to prepare a new, merged Management, Resources and Results Structure-Program Activity Architecture in time for use in putting together this report. Instead, this document reflects the combination of two separate PAAs, which were developed for the previously separate departments of Foreign Affairs Canada and International Trade Canada. The chart below brings together these two PAAs, listing the four strategic outcomes of the reintegrated department: three pertaining to foreign affairs and one to international trade.1
1 Full descriptions of the strategic outcomes and their associated program activities are presented in Part III (foreign affairs) and Part IV (international trade). Elsewhere in the document, the strategic outcomes are identified only by their main themes (e.g. Advancing Canada's Interests Internationally).
Meanwhile, the department is working on a more complete, merged PAA. First, it has recently completed work on a single, interim PAA, which has been approved by Treasury Board of Canada. Second, it is continuing to develop a more fully integrated and comprehensive PAA.
The MRRS-PAA is made up of four critical elements:
The MRRS-PAA is essentially a vertical structure, into which the department's Strategic Planning Framework fits horizontally. In other words, the priorities for the planning period, which are identified in the framework, cut across the department's nine program activities listed in the MRRS-PAA. The framework, first established in 2002, provides the direction needed to achieve the department's priorities for the planning period. It identifies outcomes for the one- to threeyear period as well as accountabilities and performance indicators with which the department will measure its performance.
As a matrix, the MRRS-PAA and Strategic Planning Framework makes clear the department's system of corporate accountability. The MRRS-PAA sets out which ADMs are responsible for the department's program activities as well as which DGs. The same ADMs are also accountable for delivering on the planned outcomes specified in the framework.
To measure the performance of its senior staff (ADMs to Directors), the department is guided by performance management agreements. These agreements enable senior managers to:
In addition, as part of its ongoing transformation agenda, the department will provide all employees with performance appraisals. Staff will evaluate their accomplishments against expectations on an annual basis with their immediate supervisors. The benefit of these tools will be to close any remaining accountability gap within the department.
The following pro forma table summarizes the combined vote funding and statutory spending of the two former departments before they were reintegrated. Readers will find exact figures for the foreign affairs and international trade in the financial tables at the end of Parts III and IV, respectively.
|Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade 2006-2007 Summary of Voted and Statutory Items
|Vote / Statutory Items
|Vote 1: Operating expenditures
|Vote 5: Capital expenditures
|Vote 10: Grant and contribution expenditures
|Vote 15: Operating expenditures
|Vote 20: Grant and contribution expenditures
|Statutory: Ministers' salaries and car allowances expenditures
|Statutory: Payments under the Diplomatic Service (Special) Superannuation Act. This is an Act to provide superannuation benefits for senior appointees of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade serving outside Canada.
|Statutory: Contributions to employee benefit plans
|Statutory: Payments to Export Development Canada for facilitating and developing trade between Canada and other countries under the terms of the Export Development Act (budgetary). (These amounts are for Canada Account coverage and are not available for any operational use by the department.)
|Statutory: Payments to Export Development Canada for facilitating and developing trade between Canada and other countries under the terms of the Export Development Act (non-budgetary). (These amounts are for Canada Account coverage and are not available for any operational use by the department.)
Over the past few years, Treasury Board has approved changes to the department's MRRS-PAA related to its transformation agenda. As a result, the former Global and Security program activity was divided into two separate program activities: International Security and Global Issues. Establishment of the stand-alone International Security program activity recognizes the importance of effectively managing the complex and fast-moving international security agenda post-9/11. Creation of a separate Global Issues program activity brings together the department's expertise on economic, social, political and environmental issues for the purpose of strengthening policy capacity as well as giving greater focus to the department's involvement in issues that cut across the mandates and programs of other federal departments and agencies.
At the same time, the department's Protocol Program was established as a discrete program activity. Previously, it was included in the MRRS-PAA as support to all program activities.
An important change for the department's trade-related component has been the move from two strategic outcomes to one, as well as creating a supporting activity-Strategic Policy, Business Planning and Communications-to contribute to the department's four commerce-related program activities.
The table below provides a snapshot of the department's overall priorities for the year ahead. Each is discussed in greater detail in the relevant sections of this report that follow (i.e. those related to foreign affairs in Part III and those related to international trade in Part IV).
In the Foreign Affairs Component of the Department
|1. Greater collaboration with the United States and increased cooperation with all hemispheric partners.
|2. A more secure world for Canada and Canadians, safer from the threats of failed and fragile states, terrorism, transnational crime and weapons of mass destruction.
|3. A revitalized multilateralism, responding to the new challenges of globalization and putting outcomes ahead of processes.
|4. Greater engagement with like-minded partners in the G8 as well as emerging economies such as Brazil, Russia, India and China.
|5. Strengthened consular and passport services, able to respond rapidly and flexibly.
In the International Trade Component of the Department
|6. Increased Canadian awareness of the challenges and opportunities presented by global commerce.
|7. More secure access for Canadian business to global markets through the negotiation and implementation of commercial agreements.
|8. Assistance to Canadian business to compete successfully for global opportunities.
|9. Promotion of Canada as a globally competitive location and partner for investment, innovation and value-added production.
In the Operational Arena
|10. A foreign ministry that is recognized as modern and agile.