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Departmental Performance Report

Canadian International Development Agency

The original version was signed by
The Honourable Beverley J. Oda, P.C., M.P.
Minister of International Cooperation

Table of Contents


Minister’s Message

Section I: Departmental Overview

Section II: Analysis of Program Activities by Strategic Outcomes

Section III: Supplementary Information

Section IV: Other Items of Interest


CIDA Canadian International Development Agency
CIDA-INC CIDA Industrial Cooperation Program
CIFA Canada Investment Fund for Africa
CPIA country policy and institutional assessment
CSOs civil society organizations
CSR corporate social responsibility
EPM excellence in people management
FTE full-time equivalent
IDPs internally displaced persons
IFIs international financial institutions
IRAI IDA (International Development Association) Resource Allocation Index
IYIP International Youth Internship Program
MACCA Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan
MDGs Millennium Development Goals
MMI Mass Media Initiative
MOPAN Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network
NGO non-governmental organization
PAA program activity architecture
PAHO Pan American Health Organization
PBAs program-based approaches
PCDEC Pakistan-Canada Debt for Education Conversion
PEF Public Engagement Fund
PRSP poverty reduction strategy paper
RBM results-based management
UN United Nations
UNHCR Office of the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees
UNICEF United Nations Children’s Fund
VCA volunteer cooperation agencies
WFP World Food Programme

Minister’s Message

The Honourable Beverly J. Oda, P.C., M.P. [Minister of International Cooperation]

In 2009–2010, CIDA faced challenges and saw continued successes. The economic and food crises continued, and severe natural disasters affected the lives of millions of people.

In January an earthquake of devastating consequence struck Haiti, one of CIDA’s countries of focus. Canadians and the Canadian government mobilized immediately. Working with international and Canadian partners, and the Haitian government itself, Canada delivered its largest ever humanitarian response.

The loss of CIDA colleagues and other Canadians, many of whom were involved in Haiti’s development efforts, brought home the sacrifice and dedication of so many Canadians working in developing countries.

Throughout 2009–2010, CIDA undertook the preparation for the G-8 and G-20 events. The Prime Minister announced that the G-8’s development focus would be to improve the lives of mothers, newborns, and children under the age of five.

During the year, new elements of our Aid Effectiveness Agenda were introduced. With consultations throughout the year to help define strategies, CIDA announced its three thematic priorities that guide CIDA’s programming: Food Security, Children and Youth, and Sustainable Economic Growth.

I am pleased to present CIDA’s performance report for the past fiscal year to Parliament.

The Honourable Beverley J. Oda, P.C., M.P.
Minister of International Cooperation

Section I: Departmental Overview


The mission of the Canadian International Development Agency1 (CIDA) is to lead Canada’s international effort to help people living in poverty by achieving real economic, social, environmental, and democratic progress in Africa, Asia, and the Americas.

Our efforts have contributed to ensuring food security, generating sustainable economic growth, giving children and youth a better future, stabilizing fragile countries, and responding to natural disasters.

Canada’s aid program builds long-term relationships in selected countries around the world, and it helps make the world more secure for Canadians. It provides a concrete expression of our Canadian values: compassion for the less fortunate, democracy, freedom, human rights, and the rule of law.


CIDA is the government’s principal organization responsible for managing the bulk of Canada’s development assistance program. CIDA aims to manage its resources effectively and accountably to achieve meaningful, sustainable results.

It engages in policy development in Canada and internationally. Its principal goal is to reduce poverty, and support sustainable development in a manner consistent with Canadian foreign policy. The vast majority of CIDA’s programming2 satisfies the eligibility requirements of the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act,3 and is therefore reported to Parliament as official development assistance.4

Orders-in-Council P.C. 1968–923 of May 8, 1968, and P.C. 1968–1760 of September 12, 1968, designate CIDA as a department for the purposes of the Financial Administration Act. The authority for the CIDA program and related purposes can be found in the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Act and in annual appropriations.

Strategic Outcomes and Program Activity Architecture

CIDA's Report on Plans and Priorities for 2009–2010 set out two long-term results, or strategic outcomes, to which the Agency contributes by managing the aid program according to five main program activities. The two outcomes are mutually reinforcing, reflecting the interdependency of achievement of development goals and Canadian citizens’ support. Each program activity is defined in Section II of this report.

This is the last year for which this program activity architecture (PAA)5 is used for reporting, as a new one has been put in place for 2010–2011 and for future years.

Strategic Outcomes and Program Activity Architecture

Financial Resources (2009–2010)

Planned Spending Total Authorities6 Actual Spending
$3,248,388,000 $4,211,661,351 $3,600,344,021

Human Resources—Full-time equivalents (FTEs) (2009–2010)

Planned Actual Difference
1,905 1,891 14

Performance Summary by Strategic Outcome

Increased Achievement of Development Goals Consistent with Canadian Foreign Policy Objectives

Performance Indicators Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs)
Progress toward Democratic Governance
Program Activity 2008-2009 2009-2010 Alignment to Govern-
ment of Canada Outcomes7
Countries of concentra-
$928,159,001 $941,639,000 $985,814,000 $1,202,898,131 $783,533,120 Global poverty reduction through sustain-
able develop-
Fragile states and countries experiencing humanita-
rian crisis
$864,654,868 $622,208,000 $625,521,000 $861,806,159 $860,208,300
Selected countries and regions $453,929,576 $387,464,000 $391,185,000 $391,933,543 $373,576,084
Multilateral, international and Canadian institutions $1,317,665,265 $934,317,000 $1,052,142,000 1,624,361,874 $1,457,703,873
Total for Strategic Outcome $3,564,408,710 $2,885,628,000 $3,054,662,000 $4,080,999,707 $3,475,021,377

Explanation of Variance
In 2008–2009, CIDA responded to requests of assistance following numerous natural disasters such as Cyclone Nargis in Burma, the earthquake in China, and the Atlantic hurricane season; whereas, in 2009–2010, the Agency responded to the crisis following the earthquake in Haiti, as well as humanitarian needs following the displacement of populations during the conflict in Pakistan and at the end of hostilities in Sri Lanka.

The variance between 2009–2010 planned spending and actual spending mainly reflects increased funding received through supplementary estimates for programs and initiatives such as programming for food security to support development, research and innovation in agriculture, as well as responding to urgent humanitarian needs, for example in Haiti.

In order to enable the Agency to respond adequately and in a timely manner to the food crisis, CIDA channelled some funding through multilateral institutions instead of bilateral programming, leading to a significant variance between planned and actual spending for the corresponding program activities, as detailed in Section II.

Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals

In 2000, 189 countries, including Canada, adopted the United Nations Millennium Declaration, which led to the establishment of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs). The MDGs are a set of specific, ambitious goals to be reached by 2015 for poverty and hunger reduction, health, education, gender equality, environmental sustainability, and global partnerships.

Canada is committed to supporting the achievement of the MDGs by contributing to sectors and initiatives directly related to them and by increasing investments in those areas where progress is needed. Canada has made important contributions to the achievement of the MDGs, particularly in the areas of food security, child health, and education.9 Canada’s emphasis on accountability and aid effectiveness also align with the objectives of the MDG Summit.

Canada, the G-8, and the MDGs

According to the World Health Organization, every year, an estimated 500,000 women lose their lives during pregnancy or childbirth, and nine million children die before their fifth birthday.

Prime Minister Stephen Harper, noting that these are areas where the needs are greatest, announced in January 2010 that Canada would make the health of mothers and children in the world's poorest regions a top priority of the G-8 Summit to take place later that year in Muskoka, Ontario.

This Maternal and Child Health initiative directly contributes to two of the MDGS: reduce child mortality (MDG4) and improve maternal health (MDG5).

Overall, progress on the MDGs has been uneven, and the financial crisis and economic slowdown have slowed progress toward their attainment by 2015. It is expected that because of the crises, an additional 64 million people will live on less than US$1.25 a day by the end of 2010, according to the World Bank’s 2010 Global Monitoring Report.10 While many developing countries are on track to achieving a few of the MDGs, large disparities persist across, and within, countries. Sub-Saharan Africa remains the geographic region with the furthest to go, and it is not on track to meet many of the MDGs by 2015. Countries emerging from conflict or facing political instability are particularly threatened, while in middle-income countries, even where progress toward achieving the MDGs is most rapid, large pockets of inequality mean that millions of people continue to live in extreme poverty.

In February 2010, United Nations Secretary-General Ban Ki-Moon issued a special report on the MDGs, entitled Keeping the Promise,11 reviewing progress achieved to date and identifying future challenges, as well as opportunities to accelerate progress. Similar conclusions are found in the 2010 United Nations Development Programme publication What Will It Take to Achieve the MDGs? An International Assessment12, co-funded by Canada and the United Kingdom, which was released in June along with the annual United Nations Millennium Development Goals Report.13 These reports conclude that achievement of the MDGs by 2015 is still possible, and that accelerated progress relies on comprehensive, nationally developed strategies that are based on targeted interventions supported by international development partners.

Progress toward Democratic Governance

Progress toward democratic governance is essential to make aid more effective and achieve sustainable development results, including progress toward the MDGs.

CIDA’s programming in democratic governance helped to build capable and accountable public institutions, increase respect for human rights, strengthen the rule of law, and support freedom and democracy.

CIDA worked to ensure that governments and the public sector in our partner countries have the ability to deliver core functions and services, are accountable and transparent in their decision making and implementation, and take into account the views of all citizens in making decisions affecting their lives.

More details on progress achieved to reduce poverty and in support of democratic governance in the countries where CIDA is active are available in Section II of this report.

Sustained Support and Informed Action by Canadians in International Development

Performance indicators Level of public support
Level of awareness, support, and engagement related to Canada’s development program
Program Activity 2008–2009 2009–2010 Alignment to Government of Canada Outcomes14
Engaging Canadian citizens $27,056,378 $79,523,000 $80,165,000 $19,613,651 $16,203,879 Global poverty reduction through sustainable development

Explanation of Variance
The variance between 2008–2009 and 2009–2010 actual spending, and between 2009–2010 planned spending and actual spending, is mostly due to internal reallocations to meet new Agency and government priorities, such as humanitarian assistance to Haiti and a reorganization in programming. For example, the mandate of the Office for Democratic Governance was reviewed, and the unit was fully integrated into CIDA’s branches during 2009–2010. As a result, this group’s expenditures could no longer be entered under "Engaging Canadian citizens."

Level of Support, Awareness, and Engagement

CIDA’s public-engagement activities provided information to Canadians to build their awareness and deepen their understanding of international development. These activities also encouraged participation and allowed Canadians to engage in international development as volunteers, interns, and election observers.

With CIDA support, in 2009–2010, millions of Canadians were reached through various media campaigns, an estimated 1.9 million children and educators were reached through classroom activities, and more than 140,000 people were reached through lectures, films, workshops, speaking tours, participatory theatre, training of youth leaders, art and multimedia contests, and leadership development.

More than 400 election observers participated in 20 international election-observation missions in 17 countries, and new agreements with several Canadian organizations are allowing more than tens of thousands of Canadian volunteers and youth interns to be placed in communities around the world to work on development projects over a five-year period.

Internal Services in Support of Both Strategic Outcomes
Expected Results Provides support services to CIDA programming
Program Activity 2008–2009 2009–2010
Internal services N/A $104,110,000 $113,561,000 $111,047,993 $109,118,765

Explanation of Variance
No comparison with 2008–2009 is possible as this is the first time15 internal services are displayed separately.

This program activity includes activities and resources that are administered to support the needs of programs and other corporate obligations. These are management and oversight services, communications services, legal services, human resources management services, financial management services, information management services, information technology services, real property services, materiel services, acquisition services, travel, and other administrative services. Internal services include only those activities and resources that apply across an organization, not those provided specifically to a program.

Total CIDA (Strategic Outcomes Plus Internal Services)
  2008–2009 2009–2010
Total $3,591,465,088 $3,069,262,000 $3,248,388,000 $4,211,661,351 $3,600,344,021

Explanation of Variance
See notes on pages 3, 19, and 20 for detailed explanations of variance.

Contribution of Priorities to Strategic Outcomes

Although this section provides some concrete examples of progress achieved for each priority, Section II of the report provides more in-depth performance information with additional examples.

Program and Management Priority Type16 Status Linkages to Strategic Outcome
1) Strengthen the effectiveness of Canada’s aid program and implement the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness Ongoing Significant progress made Increased achievement of development goals consistent with Canadian foreign policy objectives
2) Thematic priorities
  1. Increasing food security17
  2. Securing the future of children and youth
  3. Stimulating sustainable economic growth
(subset of priority 1)
Significant progress made
3) Canada’s strategic role in Afghanistan and other fragile states Ongoing Some progress made
4) Support the government’s commitment to the Americas Ongoing Significant progress made
5) Implement CIDA’s Public Service Renewal plan Ongoing Met all objectives

Strengthen the Effectiveness of Canada’s Aid Program and Implement the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness

During the past year, the Government of Canada has taken important steps to improve the effectiveness of its aid in order to deliver results that improve the lives of citizens in developing countries.

CIDA’s Aid Effectiveness Action Plan – Measuring Progress
In July 2009, CIDA finalized its Aid Effectiveness Action Plan,18 which integrates the government’s policy priorities of focus, efficiency, and accountability with our international commitments under the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005) and the Accra Agenda for Action (2008).

2009 Fall Report of the Auditor General of Canada

In 2009 the Auditor General assessed whether CIDA had implemented its commitments stemming from the 2002 Policy Statement on Strengthening Aid Effectiveness, and provided a series of recommendations. In summary, the audit found that CIDA had not put in place all the required management processes to implement and monitor its aid-effectiveness commitments.

The main criticisms in the report were these:

  • The processes to obtain approval for project funding were complex and lengthy, and this fact had long been criticized within and outside the agency.
  • The Agency had failed to concentrate on fewer priorities, despite a commitment to narrow its focus.
  • Donor partners, recipient governments, and program staff were unclear about the agency's direction and long-term commitment.
  • The nature of international development calls for stable, long-term programming, and CIDA needed a comprehensive plan for going forward.

Despite these drawbacks, there were a number of positive findings. The Auditor General noted that CIDA has performed very strongly in several areas critical to poverty reduction, and that the Agency had made considerable progress in donor harmonization, local ownership, and solid risk-management practices. Finally, the Auditor General noted that CIDA is well regarded by its partners in the field.

CIDA’s response to the report is available at

CIDA’s Aid Effectiveness Action Plan lays out a set of time-bound actions over four years that will have the greatest impact on improving the effectiveness of our aid. CIDA’s Aid Effectiveness Action Plan addresses many of the recommendations related to aid effectiveness made by the Auditor General of Canada in her 2009 fall report to Parliament.

The progress made on aid effectiveness commitments is already apparent:

Strengthened Focus
In 2009–2010, the concentration ratio of CIDA’s bilateral country program assistance to its 20 countries of focus19 reached approximately 81 percent, surpassing the 80-percent target set for 2010–2011, announced by the Minister of International Cooperation in February 2009.

Increased Decentralization of Operations
In 2009–2010, as part of the Government of Canada’s strategy to enhance representation abroad, CIDA developed a new decentralization model to improve alignment between programs and local priorities to quickly address local needs and develop stronger relationships with local stakeholders. The Agency has committed to increasing its field presence and delegate greater authorities to the field.

Canada has steadily increased the decentralization of operations in the field since 2007–2008, and managed risks accordingly.20 Specifically:

  • In Afghanistan, CIDA continued to strengthen its decentralized presence: the number of Canadian staff there increased to 25 in 2009–2010, compared to 7 at the beginning of 2007–2008.
  • In Africa, an additional 8 positions were moved to the field, bringing our presence there to 125 staff.
  • In the Americas, an additional 3 positions brought our presence to 82.

Further Untied Aid
All Canadian food aid has been untied21 since April 1, 2008, and Canada is well on its way to fully untying 100 percent of its development aid by 2012–2013. In 2008, Canada's untied-aid ratio reached 91 percent, up from 75 percent in 2007. Untying aid means that Canada’s aid dollars will have a greater impact, and demonstrates that Canada’s international assistance efforts are truly about helping developing countries to help themselves through a more effective, focused, and accountable approach to aid.

Improved Administrative Efficiency
Through its Business Modernization Initiative, CIDA is achieving additional efficiencies by reducing the time and effort required for the Agency to design and implement programs. In 2009–2010, the Agency streamlined administrative processes and systems in Canadian Partnership Branch22 through the “Harmonizing Operations for Partnership Effectiveness” initiative. This now serves as a single point of standard registration for partner organizations, resulting in cutting response times by more than half.

Concurrently, based on the Agency’s experience in coordinated programming, and on evaluations findings, CIDA developed a Policy on Program-Based Approaches (PBAs) in May 2009 to inform decision making by articulating the appropriate circumstances and pre-conditions necessary for our use of program-based approaches.

What our evaluations tell us about program-based approaches

The 2008–2009 Review of Program-Based Approaches (PBAs)—based on six country programs: Bangladesh, Ethiopia, Ghana, Malawi, Mozambique, and Vietnam—revealed that:

  • The selective use of PBA instruments (pooled funding, general and sector budget support, etc.) to complement traditional project-based approaches offers the donor community and partner countries a unique opportunity to collectively effect system-wide changes and strengthen the capacity of partner countries to manage investments, thus creating better enabling conditions for sustainable development. Such objectives are difficult to achieve with traditional project-based investments only.
  • PBAs are relatively recent at CIDA, and their full effects have yet to materialize. However, preliminary indications are encouraging.

Enhanced Independence of CIDA’s Evaluation Function
Under its Aid Effectiveness Action Plan, the Agency has committed to strengthening the independence and neutrality of its evaluation function. To this end, in June 2009, CIDA’s Evaluation Committee (comprising five members from CIDA and six from outside the Agency) approved a rolling five-year evaluation work plan for the Agency. The work plan includes 100-percent evaluation coverage of CIDA’s programs for the period 2009–2010 to 2013–2014.

Improved Reporting and Communications
Given the important changes in CIDA priorities and thematic approaches over the fiscal year, increased attention has been put in communicating these changes to the general public and CIDA partners in Canada and internationally, aligning our efforts to deliver effective development.

To improve accountability and transparency, and provide better information to Canadians on CIDA’s development efforts, new whole-of-government accountability and reporting requirements were met as per the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act. This includedanannual report to Parliament in September 200923 and an annual statistical report in March 201024. In addition, CIDA produced a Development for Results report in the spring of 2010. Major innovations in government communications and results management were implemented in the Afghanistan program, including updating the whole-of-government website,25 and special efforts were made to keep the public informed about Canada’s actions in Haiti through the Haiti website.26

CIDA’s website27 has been the subject of a strategic rethink and redesign through 2009–2010. It now incorporates RSS28 feeds and social media tools such as Twitter, YouTube and Flickr. The Project Browser29 is a database of project information that is easily accessible to the public via CIDA’s website. By the end of the fiscal year, there were 2,850 published projects. Special efforts are being made to include results in the project profiles to provide the public with an overview of the projects’ progress.

Thematic Priorities

To sharpen the focus of Canada's international assistance, the Government of Canada has established three priority themes30 to guide CIDA's work:

  • Increasing Food Security;
  • Securing the Future of Children and Youth; and
  • Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth.

These three themes are guiding CIDA's programming decisions. This allows Canada to focus on key issues and challenges in partner countries, and ensures that Canadian international assistance is achieving concrete and long-lasting results.

CIDA’s new approach ensures that efforts to strengthen environmental sustainability, improve equality between women and men, and support strong governance practices and institutions, including human rights, will continue to be integrated across CIDA’s work. Consultations took place with key stakeholders to inform the following CIDA strategies:

Increasing Food Security

The international food crisis of 2007–2008 was mainly due to a rapid increase in the price of key staple foods. The rise in the price of food led to an increase in awareness of food security issues within the international community. The global food situation seems to have somewhat improved in 2010, attributed mainly to increasing food supplies and less speculation by commodity investors. However, food prices remain on average higher than before 2007–2008, and food insecurity continues to be a serious problem: it is estimated that there remains more than one billion people who are food insecure.

On World Food Day (October 16, 2009), the Minister of International Cooperation outlined CIDA’s Food Security Strategy31 with the objective of addressing the extreme hunger and undernourishment of the world's most vulnerable people.

CIDA’s Food Security Strategy brings stability through improved access to sufficient quantities of food, security through the availability of quality and nutritious foods, and long-term sustainability through sustained efforts in agricultural development and in research and development.

This approach to increasing food security, combined with the 2008 decision to untie 100 percent of food aid, is helping communities address immediate food needs and find solutions for lasting food security so they can rise out of the cycle of poverty.

What evaluations tell us about CIDA’s programming in food security:

  • In Vietnam, the provincial and regional focus of CIDA’s investments have targeted rural poverty reduction and were successful in improving the livelihood and income of the poorest households in some of the country’s poorest rural districts by supporting a range of agricultural activities as well as microenterprises, and small and medium-sized enterprises.
  • In Ethiopia, CIDA programming contributed to considerable progress toward the MDG indicators with improved health and food security, and increased access to resources and services for the poor.

CIDA’s Food Security Strategy also builds on the Prime Minister’s announcement at the 2009 G-8 Summit in L’Aquila, Italy, to commit $600 million in incremental funds for sustainable agricultural development. As part of this package, CIDA will support two initiatives under the Challenge Program on Climate Change32 of the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research: HarvestPlus; and Climate Change, Agriculture and Food Security. CIDA has also partnered with the World Bank and other donors in developing the Global Agriculture and Food Security Programme while also continuing to increase support to the food security plans of our partner countries, regions, and institutions. As of the end of fiscal year 2009–2010, Canada was on track to meeting its L'Aquila commitment.

In addition, the Canadian International Food Security Research Fund was launched as a joint initiative between CIDA and the International Development Research Centre. This five-year program funds a variety of applied research projects that aim to solve immediate and concrete food security challenges through the work of researchers in the developing world. The goal of the fund is to promote more productive and sustainable agricultural systems that make food more secure and nutritious.

Securing the Future of Children and Youth

On Universal Children’s Day (November 20th, 2009), the Minister of International Cooperation announced CIDA’s Children and Youth Strategy33, Securing a Future for Children and Youth, which responds to the needs of the world’s most vulnerable and help them to become resourceful, engaged and productive young women and men.

The strategy has three paths: child survival, including maternal health; access to quality education; and, safe and secure futures for children and youth. It includes a special focus on girls. Given that girls and young women do not have the same opportunities as boys, investing in girls makes a real impact on overall development results.

Canada has a long history of child-focused development programming. Through this strategy, Canada is scaling up proven interventions to ensure that children and youth in developing countries have the health, education and protection measures they need in order to develop to their full potential.

Maternal and Children Health Initiative at the G-8

The Prime Minister of Canada announced in January 2010 that Canada would make the health of mothers and children in the world's poorest regions a top priority of the G-8 Summit taking place in June 25–26, 2010 in the Muskoka region of Ontario. Under the overall lead of the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, CIDA was central to Canadian and international efforts to prepare this key development initiative.

The Minister of International Cooperation announced in February 2010 that Canada would host a meeting of Development Ministers in April 2010 in Halifax, Nova Scotia to lay the foundations for development proposals that would go to the G-8 Leaders Summit in June. Particular attention would be paid to maternal and child health, food security, and accountability.

Stimulating Sustainable Economic Growth

Given the power of economic growth to fight poverty, and the risks posed by the current economic crisis, stimulating sustainable economic growth is key to CIDA's efforts to support developing countries.

Countries in Africa, Asia, and Latin America have shown over and over again that growing the economy is the best way to help people lift themselves out of poverty permanently. In 2009–2010, CIDA consulted widely to finalize its Sustainable Economic Growth Strategy, which will be made public in 2010–2011.

Corporate Social Responsibility

Under Canada’s Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Strategy for the Canadian International Extractive Sector, CIDA has continued to monitor the CSR performance of the Canada Investment Fund for Africa (CIFA), a US$211-million public-private investment fund designed to spur economic growth by providing risk capital for commercially successful private sector businesses throughout Africa.

CIFA ( supports four extractive-sector projects operated by Canadian companies in which fund managers have taken ethical, social, environmental, and health and safety objectives into account through their Environmental, Social, and Governance Code. Several of the fund’s extractive sector projects also involve development initiatives that contribute to host-country capacity building at the community level.

Canada’s Strategic Role in Afghanistan, Haiti, and Other Fragile States

The security, humanitarian assistance, and development needs of fragile states34 is rising in importance. The Agency applied its experience to strengthen Canada’s role in the reconstruction and development of fragile states in 2009–2010. A balance between short- and long-term interventions is found in supporting stability, good governance, and progress for sustainable development over the longer term.

In 2009–2010, Afghanistan was Canada's largest country program. CIDA’s Afghanistan country program delivered approximately $205 million in reconstruction and development assistance, contributing to three signature projects and three of Canada’s six priorities: 1) strengthening institutional capacity to promote economic growth and deliver basic services, 2) providing humanitarian assistance to increase capacity to deal with crises, and 3) advancing capacity for democratic governance by contributing to effective and accountable public institutions and electoral processes.

Canada is among the top five donors supporting the implementation of the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (2008–2013). The situation in Afghanistan remains highly unstable, especially in the south, but progress is being made in several areas.

Canada is one of the largest donors in Haiti, and it is making a real difference in the lives of the Haitian population, including those affected by the January 2010 earthquake. In addition to its regular programming, CIDA committed $150.15 million in humanitarian assistance through UN agencies, the Red Cross, and Canadian non-governmental organizations to meet urgent needs on the ground.

The program that CIDA was implementing before the earthquake in Haiti remains, for the greater part, relevant to the current needs. CIDA has reviewed its projects to see how it can more directly respond to the rapid recovery and reconstruction effort. CIDA will establish its reconstruction programming based on Haiti's priorities and on the action plan submitted by the Government of Haiti.

2010 Public Service Award of Excellence to CIDA teams

Within one hour of the earthquake, the Canada’s Haiti Earthquake Team sprang into effective action. Team members from many Government of Canada departments, including CIDA, worked ceaselessly over the days and weeks that followed the earthquake to alleviate the pain and suffering of the Haitian people and to assist Canadian citizens and their families affected by the disaster.

The CIDA Human Resources and Field Operations Team of the Afghanistan and Pakistan Task Force, working in a whole-of-government context, developed creative and innovative strategies to meet the special operational and human resource needs of civilian staff working in Afghanistan. They considered the well-being of Canadian civilians in Afghanistan and their needs here at home, including career management, family support, and reintegration into Canadian society.

The dedication and excellence of both teams were recognized when they received the 2010 Public Service Award of Excellence. Details can be found at

Other Fragile States
In West Bank and Gaza, and in Sudan, in addition to emergency assistance to the populations affected by conflicts, CIDA’s programming has contributed to recovery and reconstruction, as well as to strengthening the institutional capacity of key ministries and local organizations.

Support the Government’s Commitment to the Americas

CIDA’s programming continued to support the government’s commitment to the Americas during the reporting period.

Haiti figures prominently in Canada’s renewed engagement with the Americas, and CIDA will continue to play a leading role in the whole-of-government effort to meet Haiti’s priorities as well as reconstruction requirements following the 2010 earthquake.

In addition to Haiti, five additional CIDA countries of focus are in the Americas: Bolivia, Caribbean Regional Program, Colombia, Honduras, and Peru.

Additional information about progress made in these countries against Canada’s objectives of democratic governance, prosperity, and security in the Americas are available in Section II of this report.

Implement CIDA’s Public Service Renewal Action Plan

The centrepiece of renewal at CIDA is excellence in people management (EPM), defined as: upholding values, ethics, and key leadership competencies of the public service; having a workplace centred on respect, teamwork, learning, and innovation, and a commitment to excellence; and creating an enabling environment in which we effectively communicate CIDA’s priorities; strategically align people, work, and systems; provide necessary tools and support; manage and reward performance; and celebrate success.

CIDA’s Public Service Renewal Advisory Group on EPM, chaired by a senior manager and comprising several branch executives, created a whole-of-agency engagement initiative that touched all levels of the Agency, including union representation. The objectives of the advisory group were to develop an action plan, build a common awareness and understanding of EPM, and strengthen the alignment of CIDA’s management practices with the Public Service Renewal Action Plan, Code of Values and Ethics, and Leadership Competencies.

Section II of this report provides detailed information on progress achieved in the following four priority areas: human resource planning, recruitment, employee development, and enabling infrastructure.

Risk Analysis and Management

CIDA's management and staff have demonstrated a deep engagement in risk management, which is appropriate as CIDA works in a high-risk environment and in increasingly difficult contexts. A process is in place to review the risk environment on a regular schedule, and risk-response strategies have been developed for key risks.

CIDA has developed a suite of tools and risk information that is easily accessible and well communicated through training, a wiki,35 and web access36 for CIDA staff. This equips the Agency to establish risk-tolerance levels and respond actively to change and uncertainty by using risk-based information to enable more effective decision making. In turn, this increases capacity and the demonstrated ability to assess, communicate, and manage risk, building trust and confidence.

In CIDA's Corporate Risk Profile 2009–2010, the two most important risks were identified: 1) program effectiveness may be compromised by an inability to attract, develop, and retain competent staff, and 2) large-scale, unanticipated strategic changes may affect CIDA's ability to deliver. To respond to these risks:

  • CIDA integrated into its Integrated Business Planning exercise the human resource planning requirements to attract, develop, and retain staff. In addition, community-based learning programs such as the Development Officer Learning Program and the Leadership Learning Program have been put in place in order to ensure a solid base of knowledge about CIDA's business programs, priorities, and processes.
  • CIDA identified clear thematic priorities to guide its programming, and it has developed country strategies for its 20 countries of focus.
CIDA's Internal Audit Committee37 reviews the Agency’s corporate risk profile, and actively monitors and provides advice on the effectiveness of the Agency's risk-management arrangements and risk-mitigation measures. Along with other sources of information, risk-based internal audits undertaken across CIDA's programs and activities provide further transparency to the Audit Committee of the effectiveness of risk management across the Agency.

Expenditure Profile 2009–2010

Voted and Statutory Items

($ thousands)
Vote Number or Statutory Item(s) Truncated Vote or Statutory Wording 2007–2008 Actual Spending 2008–2009 Actual Spending 2009–2010 Main Estimates 2009–2010 Actual Spending
25 * Operating expenditures 215,706 225,663 203,668 220,710
30 * Grants and contributions 2,474,027 2,930,845 2,608,225 3,059,367
(S) Contributions to employee benefit plans 23,626 25,054 25,955 27,546
(S) Minister of International Cooperation – salary and motor car allowance 74 77 78 78
(S) Payments to the International Financial Institution (IFI) Fund Accounts 301,846 238,554 231,336 268,097
(S) Spending of proceeds from the disposal of surplus Crown assets 3 1   4
(S) Loss for revaluation at year-end 88,801 163,265   170,185
(S) Transfer payments in connection with the Budget Implementation Act, 2007 110,000      
(S) Collection agency fees   2   0
(S) To forgive Pakistan’s debt       16,148
Total Budgetary 3,214,083 3,583,461 3,069,262 3,762,135
L35* Issuance and payment of notes to the IFI Fund accounts 0 0 0 0
(S) Payments to IFIs – capital subscriptions   8,004 0 0
L40 Investment contributions pursuant to Section 3 of the Canada Fund for Africa Act 40,337      
Total Non-budgetary 40,337 8,004 0 0
Total Agency38 3,254,420 3,591,465 3,069,262 3,762,135

* In 2007–2008 and 2008–2009, operating expenses were approved in Vote 20, grants and contributions in Vote 25; and the issuance and payment of notes to the International Financial Institution (IFI) Fund accounts in L30.

The variance between the Main Estimates and actual spending for operating expenditures mainly reflects increased funding received through Supplementary Estimates to cover the cost of a secure presence in Afghanistan, and to provide necessary headquarters support for aid delivery.

The variation between the actual spending of $3,600,344,021 (see page 3) and the actual spending of $3,762,135,000 in the table above is due to the inclusion in the former amount of non-respendable revenues and services rendered without charges.

Spending Trend

($ thousands)

Spending Thread (in thousands)

Explanation of Variance
CIDA has to report under its 2009–2010 authorities the full amount of $449.5 million for the Pakistan-Canada Debt for Education Conversion (PCDEC) initiative.39 Since only the portion of this amount that has been deemed eligible for the PCDEC during 2009–2010 is reported as actual expenditures for 2009–2010 ($16.1 million), the variance between total authorities and actual spending is significant. This will be the case in subsequent reports until the PCDEC obligations are met.

Section II: Analysis of Program Activities by Strategic Outcomes

Strategic Outcome 1: Increased Achievement of Development Goals Consistent with Canadian Foreign Policy Objectives

Description: Canada pursues the achievement of development goals that collectively aim at reducing poverty.

Concrete examples of progress achieved with CIDA support:

  • Millions of people are healthier because of vaccination campaigns; rehabilitated health centres, community-health workers and health professionals trained in emergency obstetrical care, antiretroviral drug treatments, greater access to safe water, and, antimalarial bed nets.
  • Food security improved in several countries where farmers used new techniques or new crops and saw increased production and income. More than 105 million hungry people in 78 countries received food aid. CIDA funding also contributed to providing food in schools to approximately 21 million children worldwide, of which about 47 percent were girls.
  • Communities benefited from sustainable economic growth, for example, through support to small entrepreneurs, microcredit, or tax reforms.
  • Government institutions have been strengthened, allowing for more transparent budget planning, monitoring and policy making, accountable financial and procurement management, increased results-based public programs, improved statistical capacity, and better delivery of public services.
  • More than 140 Canadian civil society organizations promoted democratic governance through the development of policies and programs that support the rights of women and youth, increased democratic participation, labour rights, accountability and transparency, food security, and environmental sustainability.
  • Independent election institutions, electoral processes, and democratic participation of women and men were supported.

CIDA program activities contribute directly to progress toward the MDGs and toward democratic governance. The following pages provide performance information for each of CIDA’s program activity.

Program Activity:
Countries of Concentration
This program activity involves engaging in effective development assistance programming in countries of concentration to enhance their capacity to achieve development goals. Programming is developed through consultation and cooperation with partners internationally, in Canada, and in these countries. Initiatives include various country programs, projects, development activities, as well as policy dialogue.
2009–2010 Financial Resources
$985,814,000 $1,202,898,131 $783,533,120
Enhanced capacity of countries of concentration to achieve development goals Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals

Level of democratic governance

Existence of an effective government poverty-reduction strategy reflected in budgeting decisions and long-term resource framework

Alignment of CIDA’s country strategies and institutional support to the country’s national development plan
Significant progress made (see Section I)

Significant progress made

Significant progress made

Significant progress made

Explanation of Variance
The variance between planned and actual spending is mainly due to funding being channelled through other programming means, such as multilateral institutions, instead of bilateral programming, for example, to enable the Agency to respond adequately and in a timely manner to the food crisis. The variance between total authorities and actual spending is mainly due to the Pakistan-Canada Debt for Education Conversion (PCDEC) initiative. For more details, see note 39 on page 20.

Enhanced Capacity of Countries of Concentration to Achieve Development Goals

Performance Summary
CIDA focused the majority of its resources allocated to countries of concentration to increase the effectiveness and efficiency of aid in support of progress toward country development goals. Programming achieved considerable progress in building the capacity of these countries to achieve the MDGs in areas such as education and health. Significant progress was also made in tackling the root causes of food insecurity, as well as in improving the level of democratic governance.

In 2009–2010, CIDA put in place a new planning process for geographic programs whereby country strategies were developed for 24 of the 25 countries of concentration.40 These strategies include an analysis of the recipient country’s needs as identified in their national poverty reduction strategy or national development plan. They form the basis upon which programs in CIDA’s countries of focus developed their country development programming frameworks, thus fully aligning CIDA’s bilateral programs and activities with the plans of partner countries.41

Performance Analysis
Over the course of 2009–2010, CIDA achieved results through key investment in sectors such as education, health, food security, democratic governance, and sustainable economic growth.

What evaluations tell us about managing country programs

Major findings of the country program evaluations conducted in 2008–2009 (Ghana, Ethiopia, Malawi, Mozambique, and Vietnam) include these:

  • CIDA investments are addressing highly relevant needs of people in recipient countries.
  • Most of the aid objectives and intended results are being achieved with increased likelihood in the sustainability of the benefits, but there is still room for improvement.
  • CIDA managers are exercising due diligence and making adjustments in their programming choices as needed.
  • Integrating crosscutting issues such as gender equality and the environment remains a challenge for the programs.

Through CIDA’s work in education, children and youth benefited directly from improved infrastructure and increased access to schooling, ultimately aimed at reducing poverty and increasing self-sufficiency.

For example, in Bangladesh, the BRAC42 Education Program posted impressive results in reaching children that the national school system could not: drop-outs, ethnic minorities, the disabled, and the extremely poor. CIDA was one of seven donors supporting the program that saw 1.3 million children graduate from BRAC primary schools over the past five years. Of these graduates, 93 percent enrolled in higher grades of primary and secondary schools.

CIDA programming also contributed to progress toward the universal primary education MDG. For example, CIDA budgetary support to Mali’s education sector contributed to an increase in primary school enrolment from 79 percent in 2008 to 81 percent in 2009. Mali now appears on track to reach its goal of 100 percent primary enrolment by 2015.

In Nicaragua, where Canada is one of three donor countries supporting the national education plan, the government’s education reform led to a sharp decline in illiteracy. In 2006 about 22 percent of the population over the age of 10 was illiterate; this decreased to only 3 percent in 2009. In Pakistan more than 120,000 teachers and education professionals, almost half of whom were women, were trained as part of the Pakistan-Canada Debt for Education Conversion (PCDEC) initiative. Training women teachers and administrators is critical to raising girls’ enrolment rates: many families will more readily send their daughters to school if they can be assured of qualified women teachers.

Measurable progress in health and sanitation was seen in 2009–2010 in several countries of concentration, including Ghana, where access to safe water in rural areas improved from 57 percent of the rural population in 2008 to 59 percent in 2009. In Ethiopia, CIDA programming contributed to continued progress in reducing child mortality and maternal deaths due to improved access through local health centres and extension workers to contraceptives, antimalarial bed nets, and immunization. For example, the proportion of children vaccinated against three deadly childhood diseases—diphtheria, pertussis, and tetanus—rose to 82 percent last year from 73 percent in 2007–2008.

Despite the negative effects of the global economic downturn, CIDA achieved important results in advancing food security. In Vietnam, CIDA programming increased farm incomes through expanded production of higher-value crops and livestock. For example, farmers increased production of fragrant rice from 3,586 hectares in 2005 to 18,707 hectares in 2009. While severe droughts have hampered food production in Tanzania, CIDA programming contributed to an increase in the number of hectares of irrigated cropland. In Ukraine, CIDA programming established a system of 17 agricultural extension service offices in four regions. More than 5,000 farmers have been served by these offices, with 79 percent of the farmers reporting increased profits.

CIDA is also working to promote sustainable economic growth for some of the world’s most vulnerable citizens. For example, in Sri Lanka, CIDA programming established 57 community groups to advocate for the poorest households in some of the communities most severely affected by the country’s recent conflict. Microcredit schemes and other initiatives organized by these groups led to a 15-percent increase in livelihood incomes in all three project areas and a 35-percent increase in the Polonnaruwa area in north central Sri Lanka. In addition, through CIDA programming in Indonesia, 26,500 villagers participated in decisions affecting their livelihoods, benefiting from activities they conceived, such as soil-erosion control, integrated pest management, and demonstration plots for commodity crops.

As part of its commitment to improve aid effectiveness, Canada took a lead role in coordinating the work of donors in support of nationally identified country priorities. For example, as the co-chair of Ghana’s Multi Donor Budget Support Group, CIDA helped to strengthen communication and engagement between development partners, parliamentarians, civil society organizations, and the government in implementing the country’s national development strategy. In Senegal, CIDA became the lead donor in education in 2009 and assumed responsibility for coordinating the dialogue between donors and the government. It is harmonizing its interventions with other donors, and has supported the Government of Senegal's 10-year plan to lead the reform of its education system. Playing these leadership roles allowed CIDA to interact with decision makers and to pursue policy changes in key areas linked with Canada’s priorities.

CIDA assistance to the Ministry of Education in Mozambique strengthened the ministry’s systems and capacity to procure textbooks for primary education. In total, this helped the ministry obtain 74 million textbooks since 2005. In 2009, the cost of textbooks decreased to $1.20 each, considerably lower than the price in previous years and in neighbouring countries. This resulted in all primary students in the national education system having access to textbooks, and contributed to the country’s nearly 100-percent enrolment rate.

Canada has been playing a key role in supporting young and fragile democracies by strengthening the capacity of their political institutions, public administration systems, and civil society in support of freedom and democracy, human rights, the rule of law, and accountable public institutions. Based on data taken from a commonly used and internationally recognized indicator, the International Development Association Resource Allocation Index (IRAI) (2005–2006–2007–2008–2009),43 the levels of good governance in the countries of concentration have stayed relatively stable.

Canada supported the creation of an Office of the Auditor General by the Government of Mali in 2008. Well recognized by citizens and civil society, the role of this office is to hold government accountable for public spending. A visit by Canada’s Auditor General to Mali in January 2010 raised the profile of the new office, whose reports are being used by some donors to make aid-financing decisions. In Bolivia, CIDA programming supporting democratic governance helped to ensure free and fair elections. Through Canadian support to the National Electoral Commission, more than 40,000 people obtained birth certificates and registered to vote. In the December 2009 general election, a remarkable 95 percent of eligible Bolivians voted.

In Ethiopia, CIDA has been a leader in efforts to link the Donor Group on Gender Equality to other technical working groups. In the food security area, CIDA lobbied successfully to fully implement the gender equality provisions of a large, multidonor food-for-work program, such as allowing women to work reduced hours and relieving pregnant women of work obligations.

Lessons Learned
A high turnover of personnel in participating organizations can undermine efforts at building lasting capacity. To address this issue, a project in the education sector in Pakistan focused on systems, not individuals. Staff training and other capacity-development activities were carried out for teams rather than individuals. This created a ‘‘critical mass’’ of trained people, and reduced the negative impact caused by the occasional transfer of staff members.

The importance of working with a variety of development actors in countries that experience significant governance challenges, such as Honduras, was highlighted during the political crisis of 2009.44 While programming supporting the Honduran government's Education for All initiative came to a halt, CIDA was able to continue supporting initiatives with multilateral institutions, such as the World Food Programme, and civil society partners, such as CARE Canada. CIDA's diversified choice of partners provided the program with the flexibility and ability to continue providing international assistance. As a result, the political crisis did not have the significant impact that it could have had on program performance.

Program Activity:
Fragile States and Countries Experiencing Humanitarian Crisis
This program activity involves development and/or humanitarian assistance in fragile states and/or countries experiencing humanitarian crises. By responding to rapid onset crises due to hostilities, natural disasters, and civil unrest, CIDA fulfills its international responsibilities via means that ensure access to and delivery of essential emergency services to affected populations. Over the long term, CIDA will support efforts to restore the capacity of public institutions and civil society to meet specific needs and risks. In both cases, partnerships with organizations offer flexibility and expertise to provide effective responses.
2009–2010 Financial Resources
$625,521,000 $861,806,159 $860,208,300
Reduced vulnerability of crisis-affected people Prevalence of acute malnutrition

Level of personal and community protection
Significant progress made
Restored capacity of public institutions and civil society Development of national poverty reduction strategies, including sector priorities

Level of availability of key public services
Significant progress made

Explanation of Variance
The variance between planned and actual spending is mainly due to additional funding received during the year in support of various emergency situations, notably the 2010 Haiti earthquake, population displacement in Pakistan and Sri Lanka, and additional funding for food security programming in Sudan.

Reduced Vulnerability of Crisis-Affected People

Performance Summary
The global humanitarian situation remained dire in 2009 due in part to the deepening of the global economic and financial crisis, and the persistence of high food prices. More than one billion people were facing hunger by the end of the year, and the 43.3 million forcibly displaced persons was the highest amount since the mid-1990s45. Despite these challenges, Canada, in coordination with other donors, enabled the World Food Programme (WFP) to reach 94 percent of its targeted beneficiaries (101.8 million persons), and enabled the United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) to provide assistance to an unprecedented 15.6 million conflict-generated internally displaced persons (IDPs). CIDA contributions also played a major role in providing humanitarian assistance following the earthquake in Haiti, as well as in response to less-visible crises, such as typhoons in Southeast Asia, floods in some parts of Africa, and population displacement in Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

Performance Analysis
Canada’s humanitarian assistance programming objective is to save lives and alleviate the suffering of crisis-affected populations through core lifesaving interventions that respond in an effective, timely, and coordinated fashion. Humanitarian assistance includes the protection of civilians and those no longer taking part in hostilities, and the provision of food, water and sanitation, shelter, health services, and other relief items. CIDA worked with experienced partner organizations, such as United Nations agencies, the Red Cross Movement and Canadian NGOs, to respond to both complex humanitarian situations and natural disasters in more than 50 countries.

Complex Humanitarian Situations
In 2009, more than 43 million refugees, IDPs, and returnees sought protection by UNHCR—more than one million more than in 2008. CIDA responded to complex humanitarian situations46 in several countries and regions, supporting humanitarian efforts through experienced partners, including UNHCR, WFP, UNICEF, as well as the International Committee of the Red Cross and Canadian NGOs.

In Pakistan, where an estimated 2.7 million people were displaced by conflict in the volatile regions bordering Afghanistan, CIDA supported humanitarian efforts through the provision of food, shelter, health care, water and sanitation, and protection services to affected populations.

In addition, CIDA supported its partners in providing humanitarian assistance to an estimated 280,000 forcibly displaced people as a result of the civil war in Sri Lanka.

The earthquake in Haiti and Canadian generosity

Within days of the earthquake that struck Haiti, the Government of Canada announced the Haiti Earthquake Relief Fund.

This fund matches the generosity of individual Canadians, who donated $220 million to registered charitable organizations.

Natural disasters
CIDA responded to 36 natural disasters in 2009–2010, including Canada’s largest-ever humanitarian response to a natural disaster following the devastating earthquake in Haiti. Canada was one of the first countries to respond to the crisis, and committed $150.15 million to meet the humanitarian needs of more than 2 million people affected by the earthquake, including more than 1.5 million displaced persons living in improvised settlements.

CIDA also supported humanitarian efforts in response to typhoon Ketsana, the Sumatra island earthquakes, and floods in Burkina Faso, among others.

Food Assistance
In 2009–2010, CIDA contributed $337 million in food aid, mostly through two main food assistance partners, the WFP and the Canadian Foodgrains Bank, who met the food needs of some 105 million people in 78 countries, including in Haiti, Afghanistan, and Sudan.

WFP emergency operations met the immediate needs of more than 40 million people facing humanitarian crises in countries such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Chad, and Pakistan through general food distributions and supplementary feeding. CIDA also supported the WFP’s Purchase for Progress (P4P) initiative in Afghanistan. P4P is an innovative program that uses WFP’s food-procurement activities to support local farmers (the majority of whom are women) and markets, thereby helping to address longer-term food insecurity.47 In addition, CIDA continued to be a lead supporter of WFP’s school feeding program across seven African countries to encourage children to stay in school while increasing their nutritional status.

Restored Capacity of Public Institutions and Civil Society

Performance Summary
CIDA supported institutional capacity building and democratic development in these countries. The Agency also contributed to improved access to basic services in health and education, and to strengthened economic activities for the benefit of their populations.

Performance Analysis

Recovery and Reconstruction
In Afghanistan, through CIDA’s support, the Mine Action Coordination Center of Afghanistan (MACCA) surpassed Canada’s targets on mine risk education and mine clearance, releasing a total of 574 km2 of land, thereby improving the productive potential of land. MACCA delivered mine-risk education to more than one million people nationwide, of which approximately 40 percent were women and girls, including more than 480,000 Kandaharis to date. The number of victims dropped to its lowest level ever in 2009, decreasing by more than 70 percent since 2001.

In Sudan, through support to a World Bank multidonor trust fund, CIDA contributed to improved health service delivery, particularly to women. As of 2009, approximately 180 health facilities had been constructed and health care services were strengthened through the training of more than 1,900 health professionals. This contributed to a 30-percent increase in births attended by skilled health staff in the targeted areas.

Supporting Institutional Capacity and Strengthening Aid Effectiveness
In Haiti, CIDA provided 55 experts to train and support staff in central agencies, which resulted in strengthened planning, implementation, and delivery capacity in key institutions, including the Planning and External Cooperation Ministry, Status of Women Ministry, and Ministry of Economy and Finance. In addition, following the earthquake, the Modernization of the Civil Registry project transformed a pilot mobile registration campaign for children into a massive registration exercise to address the needs of thousands of unaccompanied and orphaned minors. In cooperation with UNICEF, the Ministry of Social Affairs, and the International Rescue Committee, more than 1,570 children and youth were registered through this initiative.

In West Bank and Gaza, CIDA’s contribution to the World Bank’s Palestinian Reform and Development Plan Trust Fund achieved significant results in helping the Palestinian Authority to improve public financial management and adopt sound macroeconomic policies.

Supporting Electoral Processes
In Sudan, through civic and voter education, and election monitoring, the program supported Sudan’s first multiparty elections since 1986. Approximately 16 million people (50 percent of population) registered to vote in Sudan’s elections, indicating some awareness of elections process. Despite widespread international concern regarding technical challenges and irregularities surrounding the election results, the election was conducted with minimal violence and recognized by most international observers as a significant achievement given weak electoral capacity, and the technical and logistical challenges experienced.

In Afghanistan, CIDA supported national projects aimed at encouraging people to exercise their right to vote in the 2009 presidential and provincial council elections, especially women who continue to confront serious obstacles to achieve greater political participation. Women represented approximately 38 percent of votes. The 2009 elections were marked by a 15-percent increase in women candidates compared to 2005. Through CIDA’s support, more than 200 women candidates received training on campaigning, and 92 percent of elected women councillors received training that better prepared them to fulfill their mandates.

Lessons Learned
In Haiti, given persistent instability and weak institutions, CIDA has adopted a three-pronged approach, intervening at various levels. CIDA’s bilateral program supports long-term capacity building of public institutions. The Agency also works closely with Haitian civil society, which plays a role in the delivery of services such as education and health to compensate for the absence of the state. And CIDA works to strengthen coordination and encourage policy dialogue among donors, partners, and the Haitian government by providing more effort to consult and plan with other donors.

CIDA’s program in West Bank and Gaza is helping to build the capabilities of justice and security institutions to carry out their mandated responsibilities. CIDA recognizes that reforms in both the justice and security sectors are mutually reinforcing and essential elements of the rule of law. As such, the development of CIDA’s justice sector programming requires close coordination with the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade, Department of National Defence, as well as the mission of the United States Security Coordinator and the European Union Police Mission for the Palestinian Territories.48

In Afghanistan, insecurity and challenging conditions make development programming across the country difficult. The provision of emergency and development assistance requires innovation and adaptability, Afghan leadership, and the adoption of local approaches to deliver services that reach vulnerable populations. For example, the 2009 implementation of nine national polio immunization campaigns to more than seven million children through the Ministry of Public Health required the mobilization of provincial and local health networks and communities. Local efforts contributed to the Ministry’s ability to prevent the further spread of the poliovirus through the support of more than 54,000 service providers and more than 45,000 trained community volunteer vaccinators who administered polio vaccines from house to house.

In 2009 the Sudan program introduced the notion of conflict-responsive programming to some of its key partners. This process involved the use of geographic information systems, which drew on local databases and expertise to map how factors contributing to instability and conflict impact children and youth, and food security. The result is a stronger evidence base for CIDA and partners to focus projects geographically and on results that contribute to mitigating conflict.


The following pages provide additional detailed information on the two main Canadian missions in fragile states.


On January 12, 2010, a devastating earthquake struck the capital of Port-au-Prince and surrounding areas, killing 220,000 people and affecting more than two million more. The earthquake also caused catastrophic damage to homes, infrastructure, and livelihoods, creating a major setback to development efforts.

Canada was one of the first donors to respond to the crisis. It rapidly provided funds to the appeal from the International Federation of the Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, co-funded the Canadian-Norwegian Red Cross field hospital, deployed CIDA emergency relief items, and supported the deployment of humanitarian experts to United Nations agencies.

CIDA’s commitment of $150.15 million dollars in humanitarian assistance to various organizations has helped to provide emergency medical services, food, water and sanitation services, protection, and shelter for those affected by the earthquake. For example: 4.3 million people have received food assistance, 1.2 million people have access to safe water daily, 90 percent of internally displaced persons have access to health clinics, 195,000 children have benefited from temporary learning spaces, and more than 1.5 million people have received emergency shelter materials. CIDA is also funding the construction of 16,500 transitional shelters to help provide more durable, safer shelters for families that have lost their homes.

CIDA also supported a microcredit initiative allowing 350,000 Haitians to access financial services, as well as the cleaning of drainage canals in the Port-au-Prince neighbourhood of Bel Air, contributing to job creation and the improvement of sanitary conditions for nearly 50,000 people.

The program CIDA was implementing in Haiti prior to the earthquake remains, for the most part, relevant to current needs, but additional efforts are needed. CIDA is establishing its reconstruction programming based on Haiti's action plan submitted by the Government of Haiti at the International Donors Conferenceheld in New York City on March 31, 2010, at which Canada pledged $400 million over two years. The pledge includes a contribution to the Haiti Reconstruction Fund, a multidonor trust fund that will help improve the coordination and effectiveness of international assistance. Canada’s pledge was in addition to the generosity of individual Canadians who donated $220 million to registered Canadian charities, an amount the Government of Canada is matching through the Haiti Earthquake Relief Fund.

Canada has provided donor leadership and emphasized coordination in the delivery of aid programs in Haiti. For example, before the earthquake, CIDA played an important role in the preparations for a donors conference held in Washington in April 2009. The Agency also held fruitful discussions with the Haitian government in the second Canada-Haiti Expanded Consultation, held in Ottawa in December 2009. Since the earthquake, CIDA has participated in the organization of the Ministerial Preparatory Conference held in Montréal, the Preparatory Technical Conference held in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic, as well as the International Donors Conference held in New York.

More details on CIDA’s program in Haiti are available at


CIDA continued its efforts in Kandahar province and maintained its focus on the implementation of three signature projects. CIDA focused its programming efforts on the following three priorities:

Basic services
CIDA supported the Afghanistan Ministry of Education’s efforts to increase access to quality education for girls and boys nationwide. In 2009 school enrolment rose to approximately 6.2 million children nationally—one third of them girls. There are now more than 10,500 schools across the country. As one of Canada’s signature projects, 16 schools were constructed or rehabilitated and 27 more schools were under construction in Kandahar.

Another signature project supported the rehabilitation of the Dahla Dam and its irrigation system, which support 80 percent of Kandahar’s population. Over fiscal year 2009–2010 the reparation of the irrigation canals and the removal of 85,000 m3 of silt and other material from the main canal improved the downstream water flow to Kandahar farmers. Also, more than 3,500 ha of land have been improved, improving agricultural output in the area.

CIDA’s programming also supported Afghan efforts to stimulate job growth and income opportunities, and improved access to microfinance. Canada’s benchmark targets were surpassed as more than 5,000 individuals received vocational and skills training, 1,100 people received loans, and 1,100 businesses were registered in Kandahar.

Humanitarian Assistance
As a signature project, CIDA supported the Afghanistan Ministry of Public Health’s efforts to eradicate polio. In 2009, nine national immunization campaigns vaccinated seven million children. Although 38 poliovirus cases were reported in 2009, the northern part of the country remained polio-free. New approaches were introduced to deal with resistant strains of poliovirus and cross-border transmission. In Kandahar, quality health services were improved through the training of more than 1,200 health workers—exceeding Canada’s target to train 500 health workers by 2011.

Canada’s targets on mine action and risk education were exceeded. In Kandahar, more than 18,000 people received training or assistance on community-led initiatives to mitigate crises.

Democratic Development and National Institutions
CIDA supported efforts aimed at strengthening the government’s capacity for democratic governance contributing to effective, accountable public institutions and electoral processes. The Government of Afghanistan reached a significant completion point through their progress made on key structural reform benchmarks, and it qualified for debt relief through the International Monetary Fund–World Bank Enhanced Heavily Indebted Poor Countries Initiative.

Despite pervasive incidences of fraud in the 2009 presidential and provincial council elections, the Afghan Independent Election Commission and Electoral Complaints Commission made advances on the execution of their respective mandates.

More details on Canada’s progress in Afghanistan can be found at

Program Activity:
Selected Countries and Regions
The purpose of CIDA's development assistance programming in selected countries and regions49 is to enhance the capacity of these countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals, and to contribute to Canada’s international interests and objectives.
2009–2010 Financial Resources
$391,185,000 $391,933,543 $373,576,084
Enhanced capacity of selected countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals Progress toward the Millennium Development Goals

Level of democratic governance

Existence of an effective government poverty-reduction strategy supported by transparent and accountable systems and a resource framework

Alignment of CIDA country strategies and institutional support to the country’s national development plan
Some progress made (see Section I)

Not rated50

Not rated

All strategies aligned
Contribution to international interests of the Government of Canada Targeted programming in areas of mutual interest

Degree to which other government departments are engaged in country
Significant progress made

Significant progress made
Stability and Development Goals

Performance Analysis
Despite considerable challenges, including the continuing impact of the global economic downturn, ongoing conflicts and structural challenges, such as poor infrastructure and low institutional capacity, CIDA’s investments performed well. Selected countries and regions enhanced their capacity to achieve stability and development goals through modest but well-targeted CIDA programming.

Although the scale of CIDA’s investments constrain the Agency’s ability to influence change, significant progress was recorded toward country development goals such as health and education. Some progress was also made in supporting food security and economic growth as well as improving democratic governance.

In health, for example in Nigeria, CIDA polio-vaccination programming cut in half the incidence of wild poliovirus transmission: there were 782 cases in 2008, but just 388 in 2009. Coordinated vaccination campaigns, as well as improvements to the health infrastructure needed for vaccine delivery, also raised the proportion of immunized children in Nigeria’s highest-risk states to more than 90 percent for the first time. In the Democratic Republic of Congo, CIDA programming constructed or rehabilitated 36 health centres in the province of Kinshasa, providing 300,000 people with access to basic health care. In one of the two health districts where CIDA works, vaccination coverage for three deadly childhood diseases for children under the age of five increased from 43 percent in 2003 to 97 percent in 2009, and the number of births assisted by qualified personnel more than doubled to 68 percent. In South Africa, CIDA continued to strengthen non-governmental organizations, providing HIV/AIDS services to communities in the worst-affected areas.

CIDA was instrumental in advancing the achievement of MDG targets in education. In Peru, CIDA programming has led to significant improvement in the quality of education offered in rural areas and in student achievement. In La Libertad, the reading comprehension of Grade 2 students increased from 3.9 percent in 2008 to 16 percent in 2009. In Colombia, CIDA programming assisted children and youth displaced byinternal armed conflict to continue their education. Some 2,500 formerly out-of-school children and youth were enrolled in alternative, flexible-education programs that are preparing them for reintegration into the regular school system.

Over the past year, CIDA worked to increase food security in partner countries and regions. Agency programming made progress in this area in Nigeria through initiatives that led to the adoption of new drought-resistant crop varieties and farming methods that reduced land degradation. Farmers were introduced to new varieties and farming methods that led to significant increases in crop yields and reduced poverty.CIDA continued to support the Pan-Africa Bean Research Alliance, which last year distributed three new climbing bean varieties to farmers in drought-prone eastern Rwanda. These varieties are disease resistant and have enhanced nutritional value. Overall, the alliance has distributed more than 100 bean varieties to greater than seven million African households, leading to improved nutrition and household incomes.

CIDA programming in private sector development, governance, and democracy provided a base for resumed economic growth. For example, with CIDA support, nine Caribbean countries reformed their tax structures by introducing more efficient value-added tax (VAT) and excise tax systems. As a result, tax revenues that could be used to address government priorities increased by 25–70 percent compared to pre-VAT revenues. In Egypt, CIDA programming worked with 20 centres providing non-financial services to new business start-ups. Over the course of the project, nearly 18,000 microenterprises, and small and medium-size enterprises purchased their services, resulting in increased sales, exports, and enhanced profitability.

In the area of democratic governance, CIDA worked with civil society organizations in Zimbabwe to protect human rights and the rule of law. Agency programming provided legal assistance for 4,000 children and youth who were able to obtain birth certificates and identity documents essential for admittance to school. In China, CIDA helped to protect the labour rights of the country’s 200 million migrant workers, who are among the country’s most vulnerable citizens. Agency programming provided training and supported rights awareness-raising activities that contributed to 89 percent of businesses in pilot counties of Sichuan province in which migrant workers signed formal employment contracts, an increase from 81 percent in 2007. Employment contracts are a key element of labour-rights protection, which migrant workers have traditionally lacked.

In keeping with the principles of aid effectiveness, CIDA aligns its work with the poverty-reduction strategies or national plans of its partner countries. In 2009–2010, CIDA developed new country and regional strategies for all selected countries and regions where it will continue to have a presence. Those strategies analyze recipient-country needs identified in their poverty-reduction strategies or plans, and form the basis for program implementation. CIDA is also actively coordinating with countries’ national governments, other donors, civil society, and other partners. For example, in Colombia, Canada is leading a process of policy dialogue to develop a framework for donor coordination involving the country’s 11 primary bilateral donors.

Canada’s International Interests

Performance Analysis
CIDA contributes to Canada’s international policies by helping selected countries and regional institutions improve their capacity to promote or sustain democracy, freedom, human rights, the rule of law, security, and international trade.

In some countries, crime and violence severely limit economic growth and development. That is the case in Guatemala, where Canada is one of the most important donors to the International Commission Against Impunity. Tasked with dismantling organized crime, the commission investigated 18 high-impact cases, which include an ex-President and other government officials, narcotics trafficking, and corruption rings. The commission has provided hope to Guatemalans that justice is possible in their country.

CIDA’s regional programs contribute to addressing cross-border issues, such as natural-resource management and communicable diseases. For example, the Inter-American Program improved regional and national capacity to deliver health services. CIDA programming with the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) supported immunization, emergency pandemic response, and control of communicable diseases. PAHO conducted drills and simulations to fight pandemics, which assisted in the response to the H1N1 virus. In West Africa, CIDA-supported programming resulted in the ratification of the Water Charter of the River Niger Basin by the countries who share the river. The charter constitutes the legal basis for peaceful and consensual management of the river.

Lessons Learned
A valuable lesson highlighted by several CIDA programs was the need to develop complementary initiatives with various state and non-state actors to foster collaboration to deal with complex challenges. The Caribbean Program found this in its work on justice system reform in Jamaica, where a large number of organizations delivers justice services. In that case, the input and support of both government and non-governmental organizations is critical to getting buy-in and support for reforms from major players and society at large.

A key lesson learned for programming in middle-income countries is the need for governments to ensure social stability in order for economic growth to be sustainable. In the case of Peru, increased economic growth has put pressure on the country's environment and social fabric, and proactive measures are needed in order for this growth to become inclusive and environmentally sustainable.

Program Activity:
Multilateral, International, and Canadian Institutions
Through its engagement with multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions, CIDA seeks to strengthen its partnerships with institutions that maximize program effectiveness.
2009–2010 Financial Resources
$1,052,142,000 $1,624,361,874 $1,457,703,873
Enhanced effectiveness of CIDA’s partnership with multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions in achieving development goals Number of multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions demonstrating quality, effective, and efficient results-based management approaches

Existence of strategies related to equality between women and men, and to the environment for partner institutions
Significant progress made

Significant progress made

Explanation of Variance
The variance between planned and actual spending can be explained primarily by funding received during the year for food security programming to support development, research, and innovation in agriculture, including programming with the World Bank and the Consultative Group on International Agricultural Research.

Enhanced Capacity and Effectiveness of Multilateral Institutions and Canadian and International Organizations in Achieving Development Goals

Performance Summary
Most organizations and projects funded through this program activity have met or exceeded CIDA’s requirements for the use of results-based management, and for the integration of considerations related to equality between women and men, and to the environment.

Performance Analysis
Multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions are key partners in poverty reduction due to their effectiveness and reach, as well as the resources and capacities they bring to bear. By working with these partners so that they sustain and improve their effectiveness as development actors, Canada’s contribution to development has become more efficient and effective.

CIDA continued to work closely with its multilateral, international, and Canadian partners to achieve this expected result. The Agency continued to influence its partners in areas where Canada has recognized expertise, and in areas aligning with CIDA’s programming priorities and objectives. In particular, CIDA emphasized improvements related to results-based management, equality between women and men, and environmental sustainability. Through this program activity, CIDA has taken the following steps to contribute to Canada’s agenda for aid effectiveness:

A) With Multilateral and Global Organizations:

Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network

In 2009 the work of four multilateral organizations—the World Bank, the African Development Bank, the United Nations Development Programme, and UNICEF—in nine developing countries was assessed using this new method.

The "Common Approach" takes a systematic look at the internal effectiveness of multilateral organizations. It examines four dimensions of organizational effectiveness: strategic management, operational management, relationship management, and knowledge management.

CIDA continued to be a leading member of the Multilateral Organisation Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN). CIDA and other donor agencies involved in MOPAN developed a stronger approach for assessing the effectiveness of multilateral organizations. Building on previous surveys, the MOPAN "Common Approach" was launched in July 2009, and reports are now published on the organization’s website.51 In 2009–2010, CIDA expanded its suite of “gender equality institutional assessments” to include the United Nations Development Programme, United Nations Population Fund, and Joint United Nations Programme on HIV/AIDS. These assessments analyze the ability of multilateral partners to plan, achieve, monitor, and report on gender equality results. CIDA uses these assessments to guide its strategic relationships with partners in terms of integrating considerations relating to equality between women and men. Certain partners, including the African Development Bank52 and the World Bank,53 have credited these assessments with influencing how they approach gender equality.

CIDA’s multilateral and global programs complement the Agency’s priorities, including priorities within CIDA’s countries of focus. For example:

  • As part of CIDA’s efforts to increase food security and to secure the future of children and youth, CIDA supported the WFP school feeding programs for children in several African countries.54
  • In line with Canada’s focus on Africa, CIDA supported UNICEF for the “Catalytic Initiative to Save a Million Lives,” which is a main component of the Africa Health Systems Initiative announced at the 2006 G-8 Summit.55

CIDA has ensured that its multilateral and global programs are fully consistent with the government's commitment to untie all development aid by 2012–2013. CIDA does not restrict where its multilateral and global partners can procure goods and services.

B) With Canadian Organizations:
All new projects submitted by Canadian partners now use a results-based management (RBM) approach, consistent with CIDA, Treasury Board, and international donor community terminology and best practices.

Canadian partners are encouraged to perform a participatory gender audit at the organizational level. These audits provide an analysis of how gender equality issues are addressed in both programming and in internal organizational processes. CIDA places emphasis on the importance of capturing gender equality results at the outcome level, and using gender-disaggregated performance indicators to measure results. Canadian partners are also encouraged to collect gender-disaggregated baseline data.

Canadian partner organizations are encouraged to strengthen their institutional environmental capacity, so that they can appropriately manage activities with environmental implications.

As part of its capacity development of civil society organization (CSO) partners, CIDA designed and delivered a new training program in RBM and gender equality to more than 300 participants with the seven provincial councils for international cooperation. Participant evaluations indicate that partners have a better understanding of how to manage for results and integrate gender equity into projects.

Example of CIDA partners’ results:

As a result of the Primate's World Relief and Development Fund’s program in Tanzania, Mozambique, Bangladesh, and Burundi, 92,000 people had an increased awareness of HIV/AIDS and 10,000 people increased their awareness of maternal and child health issues. Through access to health services, 6,100 women received prenatal and postnatal consultations, leading to safer deliveries.

Following bilateral discussions, 27 recipient countries have signed training agreements based on their education and training needs in targeted sectors. Under the new Canadian Francophonie Scholarship Program approach, more than 100 applications were submitted to Canadian universities. The new educational opportunities are consistent with the major findings and recommendations of the 2006 CIDA commissioned program evaluation.

More than 40 partners had greater than 50 projects and programs in Haiti. For example, International Child Care Canada mitigated pregnancy-related risks by providing comprehensive maternal health care services to 368 rural women that encouraged birthing in medical institutions. Development and Peace trained 10,000 farmers, who experienced a 42-percent increase in sustainable farm production. They also trained and strengthened 40 women’s organizations to fight corruption and environmental degradation. Socioeconomic, peacebuilding, technical, and commercial small business training was offered to 4,000 young women and men, increasing household incomes by 12.5 percent.

In Sudan, CIDA supported Hope International Development Agency to provide clean water, as well as education on health and sanitation practices and water pump maintenance and repair, to eight rural communities of returning refugees and internally displaced persons.

CIDA partners working in Afghanistan have achieved significant results contributing to community social and economic development. For example, the Mennonite Economic Development Associates of Canada (MEDA) is augmenting Women for Women International’s program to enable marginalized entrepreneurs to earn sustainable livelihoods and improve their health and well-being through access to financial services. As well, Women for Women International’s microfinance program has served an additional 2,600 female entrepreneurs in a nine-month period.

In accordance with its Aid Effectiveness Agenda, CIDA has ensured that nearly 40 percent of projects funded by its branch in charge of partnerships with Canadian organizations were in the 20 countries of focus.

In its Volunteer Cooperation Program, CIDA worked with nine volunteer cooperation agencies (VCAs) to sign contribution agreements for a $244.6-million multicountry program.56 This program supports the placement of 8,500 volunteers over five years (2009–2014). Close collaboration between CIDA and the VCAs has produced a common logic model and performance-measurement framework to enable the Agency to better capture and report on results for the program.

What evaluations tell us about civil society organization work

Evaluations of CSOs promoting democratic governance indicate that CIDA support helped improve their accountability and develop their capacity to demonstrate effective and results-based programming in the following areas: anticorruption; municipal governance; rights, freedoms, and the rule of law; democratic economies and healthy communities; and democracy and peace.

Lessons Learned
The number and diversity of CIDA’s partners pose challenges to demonstrating results and to coordinating programming. To address these challenges, CIDA continues to strengthen its approaches to results and reporting. It is also focusing increased attention on whole-of-agency coordination of relationships with partners.

CIDA is increasing the effectiveness of its cooperation with multilateral and global organizations through three main actions:

  • focusing funding on organizations that are aligned with Canadian priorities and able to deliver results effectively;
  • helping to strengthen the performance of organizations in areas where Canada has relevant expertise; and
  • helping to strengthen the multilateral system to improve results achieved in order to reduce poverty and to support the achievement of goals related to development and humanitarian assistance.

Canadian partnerships are based on evaluation and results. Programs and projects must fulfill the Canadian partnership criteria: have local ownership and sustainable results after the project ends. Partnership decisions need to be based on fairness, transparency, and rules, and must be done in a timely manner.

Strategic Outcome 2: Sustained Support and Informed Action by Canadians in International Development

Canadians are involved in international development through government, non-governmental activities, the private sector, and volunteerism. Canadians make a valuable contribution to international development through their financial and in-kind support, resourcefulness, innovative ideas, and commitment.

Program Activity:
Engaging Canadian Citizens
This program activity provides opportunities for Canadians to raise their awareness and deepen their understanding of international development, and increase their engagement therein. Canadian engagement is a vital element of effective development. It enables CIDA and its partners to draw from a broad range of expertise and financial resources across the country to implement aid initiatives. It also provides the necessary aid and support for the Government of Canada’s international development efforts.
2009–2010 Financial Resources
Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
$80,165,000 $19,613,651 $16,203,879
Increased awareness, deepened understanding, and greater engagement of Canadians with respect to international development Number of Canadians involved in international development efforts Significant progress made

Explanation of Variance
The variance between 2009–2010 planned spending and actual spending is mostly due to internal reallocations to meet new Agency and government priorities and to a reorganization in programming.57

Result: Increased awareness, deepened understanding, and greater engagement of Canadians with respect to international development

Performance Summary
Media campaigns carried out by CIDA partners reached millions of Canadians. An estimated 1.9 million children and educators were reached through classroom activities, and more than 140,000 people were reached through lectures, films, workshops, speaking tours, participatory theatre, training of youth leaders, art and multimedia contests, and leadership development.

Benefits to Canadians
By supporting the development activities of Canadian civil society, CIDA creates opportunities for hundreds of thousands of Canadians to contribute to Canada’s development program, and in the process, helps build relationships and mutual understanding between Canadians and people throughout the developing world.

CIDA’s public-engagement activities provided information to Canadians to build their awareness and deepen their understanding of international development. These activities also encouraged participation and allowed Canadians to engage in international development as volunteers, interns, and election observers.

Canada contributed 414 observers to 20 international election-observation missions in 17 countries, including Bolivia, Colombia, Afghanistan, Mozambique, and Ukraine. Through its work in election observation, Canada has assisted countries in holding democratic elections in line with national and international election standards.

What evaluations tell us about internships

The 2007 IYIP evaluation demonstrated that 93 percent of the interns expressed a high level of satisfaction with the quality of the work experience, and 84 percent were pursuing a career in international development.

CIDA's International Youth Internship Program (IYIP)58 (2009–2014) supports approximately 1,980 interns to gain international work experience in developing countries, and is part of the Government of Canada's Youth Employment Strategy. Based on recommendations from the 2007 program evaluation, IYIP moved to a continuous funding approach, allowing for multiyear funding to reduce the administrative workload and foster a strategic, longer-term approach to programming.

CIDA’s 20th annual International Development Week (IDW),59 was successful, with more than a hundred events organized by CIDA's partners, reaching out to thousands of Canadians. With a focus on youth engagement, the seven provincial councils for international cooperation organized a youth campaign across Canada using traditional and new media. This campaign reached 24,000 Canadians directly and 10 million indirectly. Thanks to a partnership with the Federation of Canadian Municipalities, 25 mayors across the country proclaimed International Development Week in their cities, including Toronto and Regina.

In 2009–2010, the Public Engagement Fund (PEF)60 reached approximately 142,000 people through a wide range of activities and millions through media campaigns. PEF partners engaged Canadian audiences in workshops, speaking tours, participatory theatre, training of youth leaders, art and multimedia contests, leadership development, lectures, films, and media campaigns, among other activities.

Using educational resources and activities developed with the support of CIDA’s Global Classroom Initiative,61 an estimated 1.9 million Canadian children and educators were engaged in active exploration of international development issues. Through this initiative, children gained an awareness of their global neighbours and differing world views, as well as an understanding of the global impact of their choices and actions.

CIDA’s Mass Media Initiative (MMI)62 encourages media professionals to raise awareness of international development issues by highlighting Canadian international development contributions and by communicating to Canadians the many challenges in the developing world. In 2009–2010 the MMI financially supported 13 projects consisting of prime-time television and radio programs, documentary films, daily and community newspaper articles, podcasts, and magazine stories. Depending on the medium, the audience reach was estimated using various methods, including BBM Canada63 data tracking, web statistics, publication circulation numbers, and participation at events such as film screenings. Based on an average of figures from the past two years, it is estimated that MMI-supported activities reached Canadians more than 20 million times in 2009–2010.64

Lessons Learned
Measuring results for public engagement activities in order to evaluate the impact of those activities is difficult in the absence of an accepted methodology and the high cost of the tools needed. Stronger performance indicators have been drafted to demonstrate results that are more concrete and modernisation has been ongoing in 2009–2010 to avoid the duplication of programs.

Program Activity:
Internal Services
This program activity includes activities and resources that are administered to support the needs of programs and other corporate obligations. These are management and oversight services, communications services, legal services, human resources management services, financial management services, information management services, information technology services, real property services, materiel services, acquisition services, travel services, and other administrative services. Internal services include only those activities and resources that apply across an organization, not those provided specifically to a program.
2009–2010 Financial Resources
$113,561,000 $111,047,993 $109,118,765

Explanation of Variance
No comparison with 2008–2009 is possible as this is the first time internal services are presented separately.65

Performance Summary
In 2009–2010, in addition to its focus on Excellence in People Management discussed in Section I,66 CIDA’s main priority in terms of internal services was the implementation of CIDA’s Public Service Renewal action plan. Significant progress was achieved in the following four priority areas:

Planning: In late fall, CIDA launched an Agency-wide, fully integrated business planning exercise. This work provided the basis for budget planning and priority setting for 2010-2011. CIDA created a new Resource Planning and Allocation Committee, chaired by the Executive Vice-President. The committee focuses on resource planning, setting priorities, and the strategic management of resources. CIDA now has a senior forum to oversee all resource decisions and the budgetary dimension of all major reporting documents. CIDA developed and communicated to employees its new Strategic Planning Framework, providing a comprehensive snapshot linking CIDA’s mission, mandate, goal statements, strategic outcomes, program activities, and priorities.

Recruitment: CIDA took a prudent approach to resourcing. On one front, CIDA hired several post-secondary candidates, while in parallel, it launched a national recruitment campaign in order to create a pool of entry-level development officers. More than 3,800 applications were received, confirming a strong interest among Canadians to work for CIDA.

Employee Development: CIDA expanded its talent management to include all EX minus 1 employees. For these and all other CIDA staff, the Agency refined its tracking, monitoring, and reporting of learning plans: information sessions were offered on how to validate, monitor, and collect the learning plans and performance appraisals of all employees. CIDA also implemented a new learning strategy to support an enhanced field presence.

CIDA instituted a performance-management regime that includes a mandatory midyear performance review discussion. CIDA conducted the annual EX talent management exercise for all executives, which included the midyear executive performance review exercise and a 360° evaluation for Management Board members. All EX performance management agreements included a mandatory commitment of excellence in people management. CIDA has launched a new “People Manager of the Year” award, which is a direct outcome of CIDA’s excellence in people management initiative.

Enabling Infrastructure: CIDA implemented service standards for classification, staffing, and compensation. The purpose of these service standards is to guide expectations regarding the time and effort required to complete key human resource processes and provide information on service delivery that permits measuring, evaluating, communicating, and improving performance. The service standards are communicated and accessible to all CIDA’s staff through its intranet site.

Section III: Supplementary Information

Financial Highlights

($ thousands)
Condensed Statement of Financial Position
At End of Year (March 31, 2010)
% Change 2010 2009
Total Assets 2.3% 421,257 430,970
Total 2.3% 421,257 430,970
Total Liabilities 70.1% 1,092,124 641,971
Total Equity 217.9% (670,867) (211,001)
Total 2.3% 421,257 430,970

($ thousands)
Condensed Statement of Financial Operations
At End of Year (March 31, 2010)
% Change 2010 2009
Total Expenses 12.3% 3,909,395 3,480,700
Total Revenues 8.7% 188,764 206,667
Net Cost of Operations 13.6% 3,720,631 3,274,033

The purpose of this section is to explain the Agency’s financial highlights during the 2009–2010 fiscal year based on the Agency’s consolidated financial statements. Below are explanations for the variances in each major grouping based on the most significant factors that affected each grouping during the fiscal year.

Total assets have decreased by $9.7 million, mostly due to a decrease of $8.1 million in prepaid contributions using pool-funding payments and a program-based approach, an increase of $3.0 million in capital assets due to the capitalization of assets under construction, a decrease of $5.7 million in net loans mostly due to reimbursements and variations in discounts and allowances on these loans.

Total liabilities have increased by $450 million, largely explained by the significant amount of agreements completed in February and in March with multilateral organizations in support of the global food crisis and the assistance to Haiti, thereby contributing to the increase in accounts payable and accrued liabilities of $295 million; and to the increase in accrued liabilities for matching-fund programs of $163 million due to the creation of a new matching-fund program in 2009–2010 to support the humanitarian crisis following the earthquake in Haiti.

The year-over-year increase of $460 million, or about 218 percent, in equity is calculated by subtracting the net cost of operations of $3,721 million from the opening balance and by adding the net cash provided by government of $3,238 million plus the $23 million in services provided without charge by other government departments. For more information, refer to the financial statement’s statement of equity and Note 3 on parliamentary appropriations.

Total expenses have increased by $429 million, primarily due to an increase in transfer payment spending for food aid, including the response to the global food crisis, increased spending in Haiti in response to the earthquake, as well as increased humanitarian assistance in Pakistan and Sri Lanka.

The decrease of $17.9 million in revenues is mainly explained by an increase of $7.4 million in the gain on foreign exchange for revaluation of notes payable yet to be encashed by international financial institutions, as well as on allowances on advances and investments; and by a decrease of $24.6 million to the unamortized discount on loans due to the normal yearly amortization of the discount and to the write-off of the unamortized discount on Pakistan’s loan following the approval of Pakistan’s debt write-off.

Financial Statements

Complete financial statements67 are available on CIDA’s website.

Financial Highlights Charts

CIDA’s expenses are divided up into the following six program activities:

CIDA’s expenses are divided up into the following six program activities: Countries of concentration, Fragile states and countries experiencing humanitarian crisis, Internal services, Engaging Canadian citizens, Selected countries and regions, Multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions

CIDA’s expenses are divided up into the following sectors of focus:68

CIDA’s expenses are divided up into the following sectors of focus: Private sector development, Peace and security, Environment, Other, Strengthening basic education, Improving health, Emergency assistance, Democratic governance

CIDA bilateral69 disbursements were distributed as follows:

CIDA’s expenses are divided up into the following six program activities: Asia (25%), Sub-Saharan Africa (47%), Global (1%), North Africa (1%), Eastern Europe (1%), Middle East (4%), and Americas (21%)

More details on disbursements by sectors and countries are available in CIDA’s statistical reports.70 A statistical report for 2009–2010 will be published by the end of March 2011.

Section IV: Other Items of Interest

CIDA’s Program Activity Architecture

The following diagram represents CIDA’s program activity architecture (PAA) for 2009–2010, which is covered in this report.

CIDA’s Program Activity Architecture - The following diagram represents CIDA’s program activity architecture (PAA) for 2009–2010, which is covered in this report.

* List of selected countries and regions

Selected Countries Regions
Algeria, Burundi, Democratic Republic of Congo, Côte d’Ivoire, Egypt, Guinea, Jordan, Lebanon, Morocco, Nigeria, South Africa, Yemen, Zimbabwe, China, India, Maldives, Nepal, Philippines, Tajikistan, Thailand, Brazil, Colombia, Cuba, Ecuador, El Salvador, Guatemala, Jamaica, Peru, Bosnia and Herzegovina, Russia, Serbia and Montenegro. Africa Great Lakes Regional Program, Pan Africa Program, Southern Africa Program, West Africa Program, Sahel Regional Program, East Africa Regional Program, Central Africa Regional Program, Canada Fund for Africa Program, Caribbean Regional Program, Inter-American Program, Central America Regional Program, Lee and Windward Regional Program, South America Regional Program, Southern Cone Regional Program, Southeast Asia Program, South Asia Regional Program, Central Asia Regional Program, Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe Program, Institutional Partnerships in Europe, Mideast and Maghreb, Broader Middle East and North Africa Program, Middle East Regional Program, South Caucasus Regional Program, Eastern Adriatic Program, Maghreb Regional Program.

List of Supplementary Information Tables

The following electronic supplementary information tables can be found on the Treasury Board of Canada Secretariat’s website at

  • Sources of Respendable and Non-Respendable Revenue
  • User Fees / External Fees
  • Details on Transfer Payment Programs
  • Internal Audits and Evaluations
  • Green Procurement
  • Responses to External Audits

Contact Information

For additional information about CIDA’s programs, activities, and operations, please visit the Agency’s website at or contact:

Public Inquiries Service
Communications Branch
Canadian International Development Agency
200 Promenade du Portage
Gatineau, Quebec K1A 0G4

Telephone: 819-997-5006
Toll-free: 1-800-230-6349
Telecommunications device for the hearing- and speech-impaired: 819-953-5023
Toll-free: 1-800-331-5018
Fax: 819-953-6088

You may also contact one of CIDA’s Regional Offices 71



2 Some activities—for example, CIDA’s Russia program—cannot be reported as official development assistance as per the Official Development Assistance Accountability Act.


4 A summary of the Government of Canada’s official development assistance activities was tabled in Parliament in September 2010 and is available on CIDA’s website at

5 A more detailed version of the PAA is presented in Section IV, page 48.

6 Total authorities include the $449.5-million Pakistan-Canda Debt for Education Conversion initiative, and have not been adjusted for non-respendable revenues and services provided without charge; however, actual spending is derived from public account figures, and is adjusted for non-respendable revenues and services provided without charge in order to be comparable to planned spending. For more details, see pages 19–20.


8 In this report, “countries of concentration” refers to the name of a CIDA program activity (see page 22 for details); the term “countries of focus” refers to a list of 20 countries announced in 2009 in which CIDA would concentrate the majority of its bilateral assistance (

9 For more information on Canada’s contributions and the MDGs, visit






15 Commencing with the 2009—2010 Estimates cycle, the resources for the internal services program activity are displayed separately from the program activities: they are no longer distributed among the remaining program activities, as was the case in previous Main Estimates. This has affected the comparability of spending by program activity between fiscal years. For more details, see page 42.

16 “Type” is defined as follows: Previously committed to—committed to in the first or second fiscal year prior to the subject year of the report; Ongoing—committed to at least three fiscal years prior to the subject year of the report; and New—newly committed to in the reporting year of the Report on Plans and Priorities or Departmental Performance Report.

17 In CIDA’s Report on Plans and Priorities 2009–2010, Contributing to mitigating the food crisis was identified as a distinct Agency priority. Given that Increasing Food Security is one of the three thematic priorities announced by the Minister of International Cooperation in the last year, the former priority was adapted and is being presented under the heading "Thematic Priorities" to avoid redundancy.


19 See note 8 on page 4 for the distinction between countries of focus and countries of concentration.

20 See page 17 for details on risk analysis and management.

21 Untied aid is assistance in the form of goods and services that do not have to be purchased in Canada. This gives Canada’s aid dollars a greater impact. See details at

22 Formerly known as Canadian Partnership Branch, this branch was renamed Partnership with Canadians Branch in summer 2010. See details at






28 An RSS feed (Really Simple Syndication or Rich Site Summary) allows readers to quickly access updated content from a website.






34 Details on CIDA’s performance in fragile states are available in Section II of this report, under the corresponding "Program Activity" on page 26.

35 (only available to employees of the Government of Canada)


37 CIDA’s Audit Committee comprises a majority of external members (4), as required by the Policy on Internal Audit and related directives, and is chaired by the Agency’s President. Ex officio members of the Audit Committee are the Executive Vice-President, Chief Financial Officer, and the Chief Audit Executive.

38 Excludes $264.5 million (2008—2009: $227.0 million) in issuance of notes to the IFI Fund accounts.

39 The PCDEC is an agreement between Canada and Pakistan that aims at forgiving Pakistan’s outstanding $449.5-million debt to Canada using a debt-conversion approach: the Government of Pakistan is required to make education sector investments that are equivalent to the value of its debt. According to the agreement, Pakistan’s debt is written down proportionally by CIDA for the year in which investments are made. In 2009–2010, the PCDEC supported training for more than 120,000 teachers and other education professionals.

40 A country strategy was not developed for Cameroon since CIDA is winding down its bilateral aid program in that country; however, Cameroon will remain eligible to receive assistance through the West Africa Regional Program, the Pan Africa Program, Multilateral Programs Branch, and Canadian Partnership Branch.

41 Note: country development programming frameworks (CDPFs) were developed for CIDA’s 20 countries of focus. For programs and regions where CIDA will continue to have a modest presence, country strategies are accompanied by a logic model and performance measurement framework (as well as other CDPF annexes) which align with partner country development priorities.

42 Bangladesh Rehabilitation Assistance Committee (

43 The IRAI is the latest edition of a composite index constructed by the World Bank using scores from its Country Policy and Institutional Assessment (CPIA). The CPIA is used to assess how conducive a country’s present policy and institutional framework are to fostering poverty reduction, sustainable growth, and the effective use of development assistance. The CPIA rates countries against a set of 16 criteria related to economic management, structural policies, policies for social inclusion and equity, and public sector management and institutions. The IRAI, i.e. the overall CPIA score, is calculated by averaging the mean of these four categories. The IRAI, as well as each criterion, is scored on a scale of 1 to 6 (

44 On June 28, 2009, the Honduran military carried out a Supreme Court order to forcibly remove the democratically elected President of Honduras, Manuel Zelaya, from power.

45 WFP Annual Report 2009

46 A complex humanitarian situation occurs in a country, region, or society where there is a total or considerable breakdown of authority resulting from internal or external conflict.



49 See Section IV for the list of selected countries and regions.

50 Due to the refocusing of CIDA programming on a smaller number of countries and regions announced in May 2009, annual performance reports were not prepared for countries and regions where CIDA is no longer providing bilateral assistance, i.e. in 17 of the 31 countries included in this program activity. This made it impossible to accurately assess the overall performance status of this and the following indicator.







57 See additional variance explanation on page 7.






63 BBM Canada is an audience-measurement organization for Canadian television and radio broadcasting.

64 In many instances, MMI projects may have reached the same individual more than once. This is helpful in raising awareness on development issues, but poses a challenge to assess precisely the reach and impact of overall efforts to engage Canadians.

65 See note 15 on page 8.

66 See page 17 for details.


68 Excludes administrative costs, changes in the value of investments in international financial institutions, and debt relief to Pakistan. “Other” includes higher education, promotion of development awareness, and support to civil society.

69 “bilateral” excludes core funding to multilateral organizations.


71 See