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SECTION 2: ANALYSIS OF PROGRAM ACTIVITIES

CIDA is reporting for the first time against the Program Activity Architecture approved by Treasury Board for 2007-2008.

The Round V Management Accountability Framework (MAF) assessment for 2007-2008 recommended that CIDA increase the discussions on plans and performance at the program activity level. This recommendation will strengthen the link between resources and results and will demonstrate reporting on a Management, Resources and Results Structure (MRRS) basis. Consequently, our goal in this section is to discuss the progress program activities have made toward their expected results as identified in the MRRS and Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) for 2008-2009. As well, selected report cards that represent a cross-section of our programming and demonstrate the progress made are included in this section.

Please note that reporting against priority commitments made in Section II of the 2007-2008 RPP is provided in Section 1, 1.5.

2.1 Countries of concentration


Program activity description

This program activity involves engaging in long-term development assistance programming in countries of concentration to enhance their capacity to achieve development goals. Such programming involves direct contact between CIDA and recipient countries. It is developed through consultation and cooperation with partners internationally, in Canada, and in these countries. Initiatives include various country programs, projects, development activities as well as policy dialogue.

Actual full-time equivalents for 2007-2008

Actual spending for 2007-2008

283

$758,885,648


Financial information: In 2007-2008, spending for this program activity totalled $758.9 million or 23.6 percent of the Agency's overall expenditures. Of this amount, $718.2 million was for net program expenditures and $40.7 million was allocated to this program activity for corporate services.

Performance Overview

Conclusion against the expected result: The Government of Canada has pledged to make international development assistance more focused and effective. As a part of this objective, CIDA has increasingly focused on specific countries around the world. These countries were chosen as places where Canadian efforts can have the greatest impact. CIDA's countries of concentration have a wide range of development needs and national capacities. Although they are all trying to achieve the MDGs by 2015, not all of these countries will be able to meet them in their entirety. Despite this reality, progress towards a number of the MDGs is still being made in the countries of concentration.7


Expected result: Enhanced capacity of countries of concentration to achieve development goals

Selected performance indicators

  • Progress toward the MDGs
  • Level of democratic governance
  • Existence of an effective government poverty reduction strategy, reflected in budgeting decisions and long-term resource framework
  • Alignment of CIDA country strategies and institutional support to the country's national development plan

Developing countries identify their development goals often in line with the MDGs. To deliver its mandate, CIDA works to enable these countries to achieve the development goals they have set for themselves.

In recent years, including 2007-2008, the countries of concentration have made significant progress in the education sector. Many are expecting to achieve universal primary education and gender parity in education. They have achieved this progress by coordinating and developing aid-effective strategies that build their country's capacity to deliver relevant, quality education. These strategies include increasing the use of broad education approaches at the country level under single national strategies. CIDA's support of the education sector in Senegal, for example, has contributed to the remarkable progress in the gross primary school enrolment rate. It has increased from 64 percent in 2001 to over 80 percent in 2006. CIDA's support was also a factor in the increasing percentage of girls who are being enrolled in school — an increase from 64 percent in 2001 to 79 percent in 2006. CIDA provided $20 million in 2007 to these efforts.

In Honduras, CIDA supports the Education for All pooled fund with other donors. Results include:

  • coverage of pre-basic education has greatly increased, rising to 54 percent in 2007 from 39 percent in 2005;
  • 72 rural school networks have been formed;
  • primary completion rate is up to 89 percent in 2006 from 82 percent in 2005; and
  • a primary repetition rate is down to 7 percent in 2006 from 9 percent in 2005.

CIDA is contributing $20 million from 2005 to 2011 to this fund.

Despite this progress, commonly found challenges persist in the education sector in many of the countries of concentration. The challenges include dealing with the needs of the many children who are still out of school and illiterate adults, such as those with HIV/AIDS, who often can become marginalized. Access, quality of education, and retention of all students are still challenges, especially girls. CIDA deals with these challenges through programs and activities such as in Vietnam where Canada provides program-based support to the Ministry of Education and Training. The ministry is implementing the National Education for All Action Plan, which supports education for disadvantaged children.

Health is another priority sector for CIDA in the countries of concentration. There has been progress in some key areas of this sector. For many of the countries of concentration, infant mortality rates have improved. Progress in this area depends on, among other factors, improved and more accessible training for health care workers. Recognizing this, CIDA has supported such projects as Zonal Roll-out of Essential Health Interventions in Tanzania. Through this program, training on essential health interventions and health management has been provided to health care professionals and a number of regional and council health management teams across the country. As well, health management systems and monitoring have been improved. As a result, better and more accessible health care for pregnant women and infants is available in Tanzania.

By contrast, maternal mortality (deaths of mothers) rates in most of the countries of concentration have generally stayed the same. As a result, more effort and more effective programs in this area are expected to result in future progress. For example, CIDA supports the International Centre for Diarrhoeal Diseases Research Centre in Bangladesh (ICDDR, B), which conducts research on public health issues and provides health services to the poor. During 2007-2008, 15 new research findings were incorporated into ICDDR, B's service delivery program. One finding led to introducing a drug called Misoprostol that prevents post-partum haemorrhage among women who have deliveries in their homes. Home deliveries account for 85 percent of deliveries in Bangladesh.

Good governance helps provide an enabling environment for poverty reduction and supports effective development assistance. Recognizing this, CIDA supports democratic governance across the countries of concentration in various ways. Varying levels of progress are evident. Most of these countries have national poverty reduction strategies in place. As well, most of these countries are working to improve their institutional frameworks with the help of donors such as Canada. In Ethiopia, CIDA and other donors support the government's comprehensive Public Sector Capacity Building Program. At mid-term (which was in 2007-2008), the program had already improved public sector capability to plan and implement development projects, raise and manage public resources, and encourage communities into making contributions to, for example, building schools and health centres.

A healthy environment is one of the key factors that support progress in all other development issues across CIDA's countries of concentration. CIDA has provided $10 million in support of the development of Integrated Water Resource Management plans for five African countries of concentration to guide their national sustainable development and poverty reduction initiatives. In Indonesia, CIDA's Strengthening the Outreach and Education Network for Natural Resource Governance Project has been helping to create the necessary conditions that enable stakeholders to have open dialogue and develop democratic processes toward sustainable natural resource management, policies and practices. Through this work, 100 participating institutions, agencies and community organizations and more than 22 media organizations have drastically increased the quantity and quality of fact-based information on natural resource governance issues, reaching hundreds of thousands of people.

The countries of concentration face a number of common challenges. An overall challenge is the weakness of, or in some cases lack of, capacity of the country's systems and institutions. This weakness is often seen when implementing their development strategies. This is especially seen at the lower levels of government in the many countries undergoing governmental decentralization. Similarly, civil society organizations in partner countries often lack the capacity, experience and access to reliable funding to partner effectively with government institutions. Another aspect of this challenge is the difficulty within the countries to identify key partners, both governmental and non-governmental, who have the willingness as well as the capacity to promote change.

An additional challenge to reducing poverty in the countries of concentration is that the gains in many of these countries still fragile. As a result, the effects of the rising prices of food and fuel, or the HIV/AIDS pandemic, threaten to push many people back into extreme poverty.

Responding to these challenges, Canada is providing value-added support to these countries. Canada is recognized for its expertise in results-based management, gender equality, and enabling civil society to gain a voice and participate actively in policy debates and overall development. CIDA is also using program-based approaches, pooled funds, and joint assistance strategies in order to make aid more effective in the countries of concentration. As a result, Canada has been able to take a "seat at the table" in many of these countries, to further influence and encourage their continuing progress and development.

Following are three report cards (Mali, Pakistan, Ukraine) to further demonstrate the contribution of this program activity to the objectives of the Canadian aid program.


Mali

Mali

At a glance…

Population

12.0 million

Area (km2)

1,220,190

Population density (2004)

9.91/km2

GNI per capita (Atlas method)

US$460

Life expectancy (2006)

54

Aid per capita

US$69

Human development index (2007)

173rd out of 177

Corruption perceptions ranking (2007)

118th out of 179

Unless indicated, all data is from 2005.
Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line (August 2008) and Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2007


Context

Mali is one of the world's 10 poorest countries. The Human Development Report 2007, published by the UNDP, ranks Mali 173rd out of 177 countries. Nearly 91 percent of the people of Mali live on less than $2 a day, 81 percent of the adult population is illiterate, and life expectancy in 2006 was 54. Mali has made definite progress in health and education. The poverty rate has decreased by 8 percent in five years (except in rural areas, which lag behind). With one of the highest population growth rates in sub-Saharan Africa (3 percent), Mali continues to face the challenge of increasing economic growth while promoting its equitable distribution.


Key poverty indicators

 

Previous

Most recent

Percent of population living on less than $1 per day

72.3 (1994)

36.1 (2003)

Mortality of children under five per 1,000 live births

224 (2000)

217 (2006)

Percent of children enrolled in primary education

46 (2001)

61 (2006)

Percent of seats held by women in national parliament

2 (1997)

10 (2007)

Percent of population with access to improved drinking water

34 (1990)

50 (2004)

Percent of malnourished children under 5

38 (1996)

30 (2001)

Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births

-

970 (2005)

Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line and UN Stats


Canadian development assistance to Mali

Mali and Canada have maintained bilateral relations since 1972. CIDA's program has increased its spending from $20 million in 2002-2003 to nearly $60 million in 2007-2008.


CIDA aid assistance in Mali

CIDA aid assistance in Mali

Note: Aid assistance excludes regional programming, CFLI, and programming through CPB, MPB and other branches.


Commitment to aid effectiveness

In the spirit of the Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness, and at the request of the Government of Mali, technical and financial partners have renewed efforts to coordinate aid and harmonize the process. Development of a Joint Country Support Strategy (JCSS) has been underway since 2007-2008. Canada is actively involved in it. It also aims to have each partner focus on a sector where its individual expertise and other advantages will be most useful. The JCSS will be implemented gradually by 2011.

Focusing on results

Health: Financial support, through Mali's Health and Social Development Program, focuses on regional health directorates in Mali's poorest regions (Kayes and Nord-Mali). In the Kayes region, for example, between 2006 and 2007, prenatal consultations increased from 75 percent to 80 percent. Childbirth assisted by health professionals increased from 43 percent to 50 percent. Canada's technical assistance has made it possible to strengthen local institutions and to involve more locally concerned people and groups, especially women, in developing the regional health operational plan.

Education: Canada has provided the basis for establishing the principles of local (decentralized) school management. Canada's support also helped define and apply an innovative policy for procuring and managing textbooks in Mali. In 2007-2008, the textbook-to-pupil ratio in junior primary school French and mathematics had improved from 1.2 in 2002-2003 to 1.7 in 2006-2007.

Private-sector development: For many years, Canada has contributed to improving food security in Mali. In 2007-2008, its contribution made it possible to replenish Mali's national food security stock. Canada's contribution played a major role in improving the grain procurement procedures of the Office des produits agricoles du Mali (OPAM). Canada has also helped OPAM manage grain supplies better by automating its management practices. Now real-time information is available concerning all central and regional supplies.

Organizing grain marketing by small producers this year has produced good results. The results include greater ownership of the collective marketing system by the agricultural cooperative's members. This is combined with a greater integration of women. For example, support for women members in the agricultural cooperative has helped them increase their income by learning to use better techniques for producing and conserving shallots.

Governance: Canada is recognized for its strong commitment to supporting the rule of law in Mali and combating corruption. We were the first among partners to support justice reform. As well, we attracted others to this sector. Through a support fund for women, CIDA helped raise the number of candidates in the legislative elections from 100 in 2002 to 200 in 2007. Canada also provided key support to the Directorate General of Taxation that has enabled it to exceed its revenue forecast by more than 6 percent. An internal evaluation8 found out that, in large part due to Canada's support to the Government of Mali, internal revenue increased from 61 percent of total revenue in 1996 to 72 percent in 2005.

Gender Equality: CIDA played a vital role in promoting equality between women and men by encouraging Mali to bring gender issues strongly into the new Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2007-2011).


Success story

What tool can help improve learning in school, lay the foundations for a national industry, and be a catalyst for a change in how people think … all at the same time? A textbook. Since 1999, Canada has supported the Government of Mali's strategy to provide primary-school pupils with textbooks, while developing a national textbook industry. Canada's support raised the textbook-to-pupil ratio in primary-school classes from one textbook for two pupils in 2002, to two textbooks per pupil in 2006. Canada's support also helped develop and professionalize public and private sector participants that are involved in the textbook industry. This also helped create hundreds of jobs. Through a Canadian support agency, textbook content was revised. Authors, illustrators, graphic artists, computer graphics designers, printers, and publishers were trained. Distributors were also involved. Mali's ownership of the textbook industry lowered the cost of textbooks, putting them within the reach of children from poor communities. Thanks to Canada's assistance, schoolchildren in Mali have access to high-quality books. These books reflect their reality and their culture. They also deal with concerns relating to gender equality, equity, integration of persons with disabilities, respect for human rights, and peace. These textbooks convey fairer and more equitable social values. They are an important agent of social change.


 


Pakistan

Pakistan

At a glance…

Population

159.0 million

Area (km2) (2005)

770,880 km2

GNI per capita

US$800

Population density

206/km2

Life expectancy

65 years

Aid per capita

US$14

Human development index (2007)

136th (out of 177)

Corruption perceptions index

138th (out of 179)

Unless indicated, all data is from 2006.
Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line (August 2008) and Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2007


Context

The development challenges facing Pakistan—social, economic, and political—are immense. The destabilizing effects to the security of many countries have increased pressures within the country. Pakistan still struggles with high rates of infant, child, and maternal deaths. Forty-six million people, or 29 percent of the population, live below the official poverty line. As well, 17 percent of the population earns less than $1 per day. Only 52 percent of the adult population can read. Primary school dropout rates are 44 percent for boys and 65 percent for girls. Few children go on to secondary school. Recent strong economic growth provides the opportunity for Pakistan to reduce poverty and improve social development indicators.


Key poverty indicators

 

Previous

Most recent

Percent of population living with less than $1 per day

13 (1999)

17 (2002)

Mortality of children under five per 1,000 live births

130 (1990)

97 (2006)

Percent of children enrolled in primary education

33 (1991)

66 (2006)

Percent of seats held by women in national parliament

10 (1990)

21 (2006)

Percent of population with access to improved drinking water

83 (1990)

91 (2005)

Percent of malnourished children under five years of age

39 (1991)

31 (2001)

Maternal mortality ratio per 100,000 live births

-

320 (2005)

Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line and UN Stats


Canadian development assistance to Pakistan

Canada's aid to Pakistan dates back to the Colombo Plan in the 1950s. In the early years, CIDA helped build economic foundations and increase agricultural production. Over the past decade, the assistance program has focused on strengthening governance, improving gender equality, and building partnerships in key areas such as human and social development. In recent years, CIDA has also been helping rebuild parts of northern Pakistan devastated by the massive earthquake of October 2005 ($29.2 million in total as of March 2008). Canada has also invested in community development in districts along the Pakistan-Afghanistan border.


CIDA aid assistance in Pakistan

CIDA aid assistance in Pakistan

Note: Aid assistance shown excludes regional programming.


Commitment to aid effectiveness

CIDA's approach in Pakistan stresses the Agency's commitment to aid effectiveness. This includes increasing the focus of CIDA activities on fewer sectors, more active policy dialogue, and improved coordination with other donors to support Pakistan's development needs and priorities. The Agency's investments are coordinated directly with Pakistan's most recent Poverty Reduction Strategy (2003).

Focusing on results

Local governance: Since 2001, Canada has supported Pakistan's local governance reforms by encouraging more effective local democratic practices. Results in 2007-2008 included developing a professional training curriculum for local government officials in the Punjab province. This program reached 28,566 men and 14,803 women across the province. As well, public information boards were established in the North-West Frontier Province that enabled men and women to assess how elected representatives dealt with development priorities. In addition, Canada's efforts have led to more women participating in local government and civil society.

Basic education: Canada's support to basic education in Pakistan aims to improve the education system by supporting teacher training and girls' education. Implementation continues on a $117 million debt conversion. Under this, the Government of Pakistan will invest about $25 million annually for five years to improve the country's teacher college system. In 2007-2008, CIDA results included strengthened education management systems that track and evaluate teacher training and professional development at the provincial level in Punjab, and increased access for girls to primary education in Balochistan and North-West Frontier Province.

Primary health: CIDA's investment in the health sector includes programs that focus on HIV/AIDS, polio, and improving district-level health care management. For example, because of the tools introduced by the HIV/AIDS Surveillance Project, governments in Pakistan are for the first time able to identify the HIV-affected population, focus on health programs, and track the impact of those programs on HIV/AIDS prevalence rates over time.

Gender equality: CIDA is the leading donor in programs focusing on equality between women and men in Pakistan. It has been a strong supporter of the Pakistani women's movement for more than 15 years. In 2007-2008, Canada supported numerous small programs focusing on issues such as domestic violence, economic empowerment, human trafficking, and human rights. Canadian aid has also ensured that a gender equality perspective is integrated into all earthquake reconstruction programming by providing technical assistance in planning and analysis to the Pakistan Earthquake Reconstruction and Rehabilitation Authority.


Success story

CIDA's Primary Education Support Program funds UNICEF and contributes directly to improving girls' education in two provinces of Pakistan. The project currently supports 922 primary schools for girls in six districts of Balochistan with an enrolment of 82,353. In five districts of North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), 270,000 girls in 1,425 schools are also supported through a number of programs to meet the increased demand for girls' education. In NWFP, 416 teachers in 200 schools in four districts received transportation to and from school, which allowed 34 closed girls' schools to reopen. Furthermore, the project supported establishing 281 community feeder schools in communities where no government schools previously existed. The new schools accommodated an additional 22,000 girls who were previously not enrolled. In addition, 221 girls and 175 boys enrolled in 14 newly created middle schools. Physical and structural enhancements made in most project schools make them more safe and feasible for girls to attend. These enhancements included building latrines, providing drinking water, building boundary walls, and fixing or building classrooms. This project has made notable progress towards enrolling more girls in primary schools and providing them with an education. Continued efforts will ensure that CIDA and UNICEF make progress towards closing the gender gap in primary education in Pakistan.


 


Ukraine

Ukraine

At a glance…

Population

46.7 million

Area

579,380 km2

Population density

81/km2

GNI per capita

US$1,940

Life expectancy

68 years

GDP per capita (constant 2000 US$)

US$1037

Aid per capita (2005)

US$10

Human development index (2007)

76th (out of 177)

Corruption perceptions ranking

118th (out of 180)

Unless indicated, all data is from 2006.
Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line (August 2008) and Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2007


Context

Strategically located between Russia and the West, Ukraine is the second largest country in Europe with some of the world's richest farmland. Rapid economic growth has stimulated a sharp decline in absolute poverty, which fell from 32 percent in 2001 to 8 percent in 2005. However, the gap between the most affluent and the poorest is increasing, particularly in rural areas where 40 percent of the population is unemployed. Despite frequent changes in government and significant political instability, closer integration with Europe and with the world economy is still a priority for all political parties. This is shown in Ukraine's entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in April 2008. To join the European Union, implement the WTO agreement, and sustain growth, Ukraine needs to reform public institutions, include all citizens in its growth, tackle weaknesses in governance, and improve its competitiveness. In 2007, Ukraine ranked 139th out of 78 countries on the ease of doing business. In response to these challenges, CIDA activities have focused on improving the effectiveness and accountability of public institutions, including the judiciary. It has also focused on increasing the competitiveness of Ukrainian businesses in rural areas, particularly in agriculture, which is seen as an engine of economic growth.


Key poverty indicators

 

Previous

Most recent

Percent of population living on less than $2 per day

2 (1992)

5 (2003)

Life expectancy at birth (in years for women vs men)

75 (women)
66 (men)
(1990)

74 (women)
62 (men)
(2006)

Survival to age 65 (percent of cohort)

79 (women)
51 (men)
(1997)

80 (women)
51 (men)
(2006)

Average annual population growth

-0.6
(2000-2006)

-0.8 (2006 and
beyond)

Percent of total population living in urban areas

67 (1990)

68 (2006)

Percent of seats held by women in national parliament

4 (1997)

9 (2006)

Time required to start a business (days)

40 (2003)

27 (2007)

Percent of employment in the agriculture sector

23(2000)

19 (2005)

Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line, World Bank Ukraine Poverty Assessment 2005, and UN Stats


Canadian development assistance to Ukraine

Since 1991, Canada has provided Ukraine with more than $350 million in official development assistance to become its fourth largest donor among DAC members. Over the years, the program narrowed its focus to fewer, larger projects addressing fundamental institutional changes in the sectors of governance and private sector development. In recent years, investments have been averaging about $20 million per year, with the exception of a slight increase in 2004-2005 directly related to CIDA's support and monitoring of the presidential elections as a result of the peaceful Orange Revolution.


CIDA aid assistance in Ukraine

CIDA aid assistance in Ukraine

Note: Aid assistance shown excludes regional programming.


Commitment to aid effectiveness

In the spirit of the Paris Declaration, CIDA has been working to reduce the amount of tied aid and strengthened its field presence. Since 2006, CIDA has actively participated in a joints donor-government working group to support the Ministry of Economy (MOE) to engage more actively with donors and to coordinate their investments in Ukraine, especially in public administration. CIDA partially funded a review of this working group that revealed the need to strengthen the donor coordination capacity of the MOE. CIDA is also active in policy dialogue in the country with other donors and the Government of Ukraine. To achieve more measurable results, CIDA is focusing on five of Ukraine's 27 regions, which are among the poorest in the country and where agriculture is the main economic force.

Focusing on results

CIDA supports Ukraine's goal of joining the European Union. Ukraine is equally committed to achieving its MDGs. It recognizes that to reach both goals, it is important to introduce effective job creation and poverty reduction measures.

Governance: CIDA has been successfully supporting Ukraine's transition toward democracy since its independence. Recent CIDA support to improve the effectiveness of public institutions at the local level has improved the ability of six Ukrainian municipalities to respond to citizens' needs. Report cards were used for the first time to assess the satisfaction of citizens with government services and to determine priorities for action. This resulted in reforms in the communal housing sector and modernizing the social assistance system in those localities. Central government institutions also lack strategic planning capability to become more effective. To help establish priorities for effective policy action and strategic planning, Ukraine's socio-economic performance and economic potential was assessed. This review uncovered problem areas in the long-term economic development of Ukraine, such as a severe decline in population growth. This assessment enables policymakers to design appropriate measures to help prevent or counteract the impact of future problems.

Private sector development: CIDA focuses on improving the business climate. A key focus has been drafting new legislation governing agricultural insurance. This type of safety net, which does not exist in Ukraine, will protect at least 50,000 farmers if an environmental disaster strikes. CIDA also helped improve grain quality testing, based on internationally recognized standards. This improvement will facilitate exporting grain products and improve the price that grain farmers receive for their crops. To improve competitiveness, CIDA helped establish 19 agricultural extension offices in four regions of Ukraine. To date, these agricultural extension workers have helped more than 18,000 farmers determine the most appropriate use of fertilizers and crop protection products, select the most useful seeds and seedlings, upgrade production techniques, and diagnose plant diseases. CIDA also supported the re-emergence of the credit union movement in Ukraine, which supports small and medium businesses. Today, there are now 798 credit unions registered in Ukraine, 400 of which were established as a direct result of Canadian assistance.

 


Success story 

Canada has sent election observation missions over the past 10 years to Ukraine. Canada has also been helping Ukraine by funding the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe to completely overhaul electoral practices and procedures. These practices and procedures had been hastily put together following the country's independence from the Soviet Union in 1991. As a result of Canada's support, more citizens became aware of their voting rights and responsibilities; electronic voter lists were established throughout the country; and 90,000 election officials were trained. As well, guidelines to promote fair and unbiased media coverage and broader access to media were developed, and 15,000 copies were distributed to media and journalism departments in national universities.


2.2 Fragile states and countries experiencing humanitarian crisis


Program activity description

This program activity involves programming development and/or humanitarian assistance in fragile states and/or countries experiencing humanitarian crisis to reduce the vulnerability of crisis-affected people and restore capacity of public institutions and society, through different means: government-wide responses, using a variety of mechanisms to respond to the many specific needs and risks, or timely and effective action. In both cases, partnerships with institutional organizations offer flexibility and expertise to provide adequate responses.

Actual full-time equivalents for 2007-2008

Actual spending for 2007-2008

183

$716,436,642


Financial information: In 2007-2008, spending for this program activity totalled $716.4 million or 22.3 percent of the Agency's overall expenditures. Of this amount, $694.2 million was for net program expenditures and $22.2 million was allocated to this program activity for corporate services.

Performance overview

Conclusion against the expected result: In 2007-2008, Canada delivered humanitarian assistance, quick-impact programming, as well as projects that build social and economic development and strengthen institutions. In addition to increasing the capacity of people to deal with crises, humanitarian assistance and programming that is immediately effective (which we call "quick-impact" programming) provide a more stable and secure environment for longer-term programming. There are some challenges in ensuring sustainability and measuring results. However, CIDA's work in 2007-2008, outlined below, demonstrates Canada's continued leadership in rebuilding and developing fragile states as well as in helping countries experiencing humanitarian crisis.


Expected result: Reduced vulnerability of crisis-affected people

Selected performance indicators

  • Prevalence of acute malnutrition
  • Level of personal and community protection

In collaboration with the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT), CIDA's humanitarian assistance program is mandated to save lives and alleviate the suffering of crisis-affected populations, in a timely, effective, and coordinated manner. In 2007-2008, CIDA funded trusted United Nations agencies, the International Federation of Red Cross and Red Crescent Societies, and NGOs in response to unexpected emergencies such as: the July 2007 tropical storm in Pakistan; the August 2007 earthquake in Peru; Hurricane Dean in August 2007 in the Caribbean; flooding in East and West Africa in September 2007; and Cyclone Sidr in Bangladesh in November 2007. CIDA's funding enabled partner organizations to respond to the needs of affected populations. These responses included providing:

  • drinking water, hygiene, and sanitation services;
  • primary health care services;
  • health surveillance services;
  • logistical and transportation support;
  • emergency and transition shelter;
  • emergency food aid, essential non-food items (such as soap, clothing, and cooking utensils); and
  • temporary learning spaces for children.

Canada also used the Canadian Forces' airlift capability to transport emergency relief supplies directly to Jamaica after Hurricane Dean and to Nicaragua after Hurricane Felix.

Humanitarian assistance, including food aid, is particularly important to reduce ongoing suffering due to conflicts and ongoing crises (such as droughts). In 2007, Canada's contributions to the World Food Programme (WFP) and the Canadian Foodgrains Bank helped feed more than 5 million vulnerable people. Canada was the third-largest donor to the WFP in 2007 (after the United States and the European Commission). Overall, the Programme met the food aid needs of 86.1 million people in 80 countries. For example, in Afghanistan, the WFP delivered over 219,000 metric tonnes of food aid to over 6.5 million people. CIDA has contributed to feeding 5.7 million Sudanese through WFP, 3 million of whom are in Darfur.

In fragile states, a combination of humanitarian assistance and short-term, quick-impact development programming has been important. While this type of engagement is not designed to be sustainable, it provides some stability that allows longer-term, more sustainable programming to be developed and implemented. In Kabul, CIDA has contributed since 1997 to the Vocational Training for Afghan Women project that benefited over 21,000 widows. In 2007-2008, this number included over 3,000 unemployed widows living in extreme poverty. The project focuses on skills development provided in vocational training, including agriculture and trades. In Haiti, CIDA created more than 150,000 days of work through the funding of several community development programmes that create a source of income for families. This contributed directly to social stability in the country by improving living conditions and providing income for families. In Sudan, child-friendly spaces were created in internally displaced persons camps. As well, enhanced safety measures were created in schools to protect 21,000 Sudanese children and community members.

Providing humanitarian assistance is a challenging activity. One ongoing challenge is that the frequency and severity of natural disasters has been increasing worldwide. In response, CIDA, its partners, and governments of countries that are vulnerable to natural disasters have been focusing on disaster risk reduction (DRR) programs. These include disaster prevention, preparedness, management, mitigation (that is, reducing harmful effects), and rebuilding programs. The recent OECD-DAC Peer Review of Canada recommended that CIDA continue to ensure that it integrates DRR in its programming.


Expected result: Restored capacity of public institutions and civil society

Selected performance indicators

  • Development of national poverty reduction strategies, including sector priorities
  • Level of availability of key public services

In 2007-2008, CIDA provided resources and played a leadership role in policy dialogue to promote donor coordination and the development of national poverty reduction strategies. CIDA led the Government of Canada response on the Afghanistan National Development Strategy (ANDS), and through a special project, helped strengthen the institutional capacity of the ANDS Secretariat. The Government of Afghanistan's development vision is consolidated in the Afghanistan National Development Strategy, which was approved in Paris in June 2008 and outlines the sectoral priorities and mechanisms for achieving its strategic objectives and multi-year commitments to the MDGs. CIDA's contribution to the Making Budgets and Aid Work Project supported the Ministry of Finance's budgeting based on Afghan priorities in 10 different provinces, including Kandahar. With technical assistance from CIDA and other donors, the Government of Haiti was able to develop its National Strategy for Growth and Poverty Reduction, which was completed in November 2007. This document lays out the Government of Haiti's development priorities for 2008-2010. These priorities will enable donors to more effectively deliver aid that matches the Government of Haiti's needs and priorities. This will help strengthen donor coordination, which has been somewhat of a challenge in recent years in the absence of strong coordination mechanisms. There is no poverty reduction strategy for Sudan. Therefore, CIDA and other donors have learned to coordinate programs within key Sudanese and international development frameworks, including the Joint Assessment Mission and the Sudan Consortium. Currently, there is relatively limited donor coordination with government systems in Sudan. In 2007, CIDA became a member of the Joint Donor Team (JDT), the world's only aid office managed by six countries. The JDT is responsible for development cooperation in Southern Sudan. The members of the JDT represent about 35 percent of the total assistance given to Southern Sudan. The coordinated approach increases the effectiveness of Canada's contribution in this region.

CIDA supports the strengthening of public institutions in fragile states to establish sustainable changes. For example, in 2007-2008, CIDA compiled all Haitian legislation in effect since 1804. This collection now helps judges, parliamentarians, ministries, and students to more effectively deliver justice and strengthen the rule of law in Haiti. Another example related to the Sudan Multi-Donor Trust Funds (SMDTFs), which faced initial difficulties in delivering results. These difficulties are generally associated with start up but others are more systemic and include lack of technical and managerial capacity in the Government of Southern Sudan (GoSS), the Government of National Unity (GNU), and the lack of familiarity by GoSS and GNU with World Bank procedures and practices, especially for procurement. The December 2007 SMDTFs report acknowledges recent improvements especially in building the capacity to ensure success of the program.

Promoting human rights is vital to strengthening the role of civil society organizations to bring about positive changes in the attitudes and behaviours of people and institutions. In Afghanistan, human rights abuses against women and men are pervasive. The Afghan Independent Human Rights Commission (AIHRC), with CIDA's support, advocated for human rights and raised awareness among officials and staff in government institutions, seven ministries, and the Afghan National Army and Police. During the past year, AIHRC educated thousands of people on human rights concepts through workshops, media broadcasts, and meetings. It also distributed 153,000 copies of its Human Rights magazine throughout Afghanistan.

Investments in public institutions benefit not only the citizens of a jurisdiction, but also are a positive contribution for neighbouring states. In West Bank and Gaza, CIDA tailored its programming to meet evolving circumstances, including renewed efforts for Middle East peace. For 2007-2008, the Agency supported the UN Relief and Works Agency in providing education, health, and welfare services to roughly 4.5 million Palestinian refugees in the Middle East. CIDA has focused on justice and security issues. In doing so, CIDA builds on the solid foundation established by its partnership with the University of Windsor in shaping the Palestinian Authority's plan for justice reform. The plan lays out the Authority's future directions for establishing the rule of law. These include enhancing and modernizing its judicial system, prosecution services, and investigative agencies.

Following are two report cards (Afghanistan and Haiti) to further demonstrate the contribution of this program activity to the objectives of the Canadian aid program.


Afghanistan

Afghanistan

At a glance…

Population

25 million

Area (2005)

652.1 km2

Life expectancy

43 years

GDP/capita (2006) ***

US$264/year

Aid per capita (2005)

US$110.7

Human development index (2007)

174th (out of 178) fourth lowest in the world

Under age of 5 child mortality

191/1,000 among 10 highest in the world*

Literacy rate

male 36 percent, female 18 percent**

Sources: 2007 Afghanistan Human Development Report, UNDP
* John Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, 2006

**The Afghan Central Statistics Office
*** IMF World Economic Outlook, 2008


Context

Afghanistan is Canada's largest bilateral aid recipient. In 2007-2008, as part of a Canadian investment of $349 million, CIDA delivered about $280 million in reconstruction and development assistance to Afghanistan. This aid assistance combines the resources and expertise of development specialists, diplomats, military personnel, police officers, and corrections experts. The remaining $69 million in reconstruction assistance was delivered through DFAIT.


CIDA aid assistance in Afghanistan

CIDA aid assistance in Afghanistan

Note: Aid assistance shown excludes regional programming.


Commitment to aid effectiveness

Canada's development assistance was coordinated in 2007-2008 with the Interim Afghanistan National Development Strategy, from which CIDA would develop its new priorities in keeping with a renewed whole-of-government strategy for Afghanistan. Canada has also supported important national programs to build Afghan capacity, while ensuring that its assistance is fully taken into account in these national programs and in the budget process.


"Canada is among the best with regard to spending the resources effectively and in a way that builds Afghan capabilities."
-- Kai Eide, UN Special Representative in Afghanistan and head of the United Nations Assistance Mission in Afghanistan


Furthermore, Canada has coordinated donors and harmonized assistance efforts in order to foster an effective partnership with the Government of Afghanistan. For example, Canada is a member of several international donor working groups, such as the Joint Coordination and Monitoring Board and sector groups including gender and governance. In recent months, Canada has assumed a leadership role in Afghanistan's education sector.

Results and accountability

The monitoring and control systems of the Afghanistan Program have progressively been enhanced over the past three years. CIDA is tracking and analyzing the performance, results, and risks of the Afghanistan Program, advancing informed decision-making, and producing necessary documentation to demonstrate that the Agency is delivering on its objectives and meeting Treasury Board accountability standards.

Canada's increased involvement in Afghanistan has been accompanied by a substantial expansion of programs and staff, including establishing a Results and Accountability Unit. CIDA has also improved its program planning, delivery, and monitoring capacity in Afghanistan. These improvements included: increased field presence; improved quality of reporting to headquarters; and improved inter-departmental cooperation for integrated planning, monitoring, and measurement of its program. CIDA's participation in joint evaluations, missions, and reviews has also improved its monitoring of pooled-fund programs. It has also improved its accountability for specific uses of CIDA's contributions to trust funds that support the Afghan national budgets.

Focusing on results

As partners with the Afghan government in the five-year Afghanistan Compact that took effect in 2006, Canada is among the top five donors of 50 countries contributing to Afghan development. The situation in Afghanistan remains highly unstable, especially in the South, but progress is being made in several areas:


Key education indicator

2001: 700,000 children in school, no girls

2007: Close to 6 million children in school, one third of whom are girls

In Kandahar, over 134,000 children in school, 17 percent of whom are girls

Source: Ministry of Education, 2007


Education: During the Taliban regime, girls were forbidden to participate in formal education. The reintegration of girls and the re-establishment of the formal school system will help break the cycle of illiteracy among Afghan women. For example, through the Literacy Program in Kandahar Province, more than 170 literacy courses have been established, more than 170 literacy teachers have been trained, and more than 5,000 students, the majority of them women, have received literacy courses.

In 2007, Canada pledged its support to the Ministry of Education making the largest single contribution to the Education Quality Improvement Project (EQUIP). This is Afghanistan's largest education program and key to implementing the National Education Strategic Plan.

Humanitarian assistance: Afghanistan continues to suffer natural and conflict-induced emergencies affecting millions, especially in Kandahar. Here, returning refugees and internally displaced persons face life-threatening situations every day. Helping increase people's capacity to deal with shocks and crises is essential to maintain hard-fought stabilization gains and development progress.


Key health indicator

2004: Access to basic health care stood at 9 percent of total population

2007: Access to basic health care reached more than 80 percent of total population

Source: IMF Country Report, 2008


With Canadian support, the World Food Programme delivered over 219,000 metric tonnes of food aid assistance to over 6.5 million people across Afghanistan. In Kandahar alone, more than 15,000 tonnes of food was distributed to more than 550,000 people. More than 30,000 people received functional literacy training through food-for-education programs.

This year, Canada has increased its commitment to support the Government of Afghanistan's objective to eliminate polio by 2009. This effort has made steady progress over the last year. The number of polio cases reported has decreased from 31 in 2006 to 17 in 2007. Canada's contribution to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative helps vaccinate over 7 million children under the age of 5 during each national polio campaign. Nearly 350,000 children in the province of Kandahar alone were vaccinated during each of the 10 polio campaigns carried out in 2007.

Economic growth: While the Afghan economy has shown remarkable growth and the gross domestic product has more than doubled in six years, it will take decades of sustained growth to reach reasonable levels.


Key economic indicator

GDP per capita (USD) has increased from $176 per capita (in 2002) to $264 (in 2006)

Source: IMF World Economic Outlook, 2008


Canada's efforts are helping increase the local economic impact of international participants and directly supporting local Afghan businesses and entrepreneurs. The Kabul Procurement Marketplace project, for example, has been identified as a best practice by the World Bank. The project has also enhanced Afghan businesses' access to procurement opportunities with international agencies and large buyers in Afghanistan. These efforts have resulted in over US$65 million in new contracts awarded to Afghan agricultural, construction, and manufacturing companies.

Way forward: a strong Kandahar, a strong Afghanistan

CIDA's aid program in 2007-2008 was delivered as part of an effort involving the whole government. It is coordinated in partnership with DFAIT, DND, and other departments in response to needs identified by the Government of Afghanistan. The January 2008 report of the Independent Panel on Canada's Future Role in Afghanistan, chaired by the Hon. John Manley, and the passing of a motion by the House of Commons on the future direction of the mission on March 13, were key inputs for the government as it developed a more focused set of priorities in Afghanistan. The government also created a full-time task force reporting directly to the Prime Minister and established the Cabinet Committee on Afghanistan to improve coherence and coordination among departments.

CIDA is involved in implementing three of Canada's six priorities in Afghanistan, namely:

  • strengthening Afghan institutional capacity to deliver core services and promote economic growth, thereby enhancing the confidence of Kandaharis in their government;
  • providing humanitarian assistance to vulnerable people, including refugees, returnees and internally displaced persons; and,
  • helping advance Afghanistan's capacity for democratic governance by contributing to effective, accountable public institutions and electoral processes.

In response to the Manley panel, and in line with those priorities, Canada also announced three signature projects:

  • rehabilitating the Dahla Dam and its irrigation system, located in Kandahar's Arghandab Valley, which will generate up to 10,000 seasonal jobs;
  • building or repairing of 50 schools in key districts of Kandahar; and,
  • expanding support for polio vaccination in Kandahar, and throughout Afghanistan.

Canada has announced an increase in aid from $1.3 billion for the 2001-2011 period to $1.9 billion. Also, Canada aims to increase its focus on Kandahar from 17 percent of its total aid allotment, to 50 percent, subject to changes in the complex Afghan environment, in addition to increasing its civilian presence in Kandahar, as the military mission comes to an end in 2011. Building a more secure Kandahar is central to Canada's overall objective of helping Afghanistan once again become a viable state. More information on Afghanistan can be found at www.Afghanistan.gc.ca.


Drapeau d'Hati

Haiti

At a glance…

Population

9.4 million

Area

27,562 km2

GNI per capita

US$430

Life expectancy

60 years

Aid per capita

US$62

Human development index (2007)

146th out of 177

Corruption perceptions ranking

177th (out of 179 countries)

CIDA bilateral aid (2007-2008)

$93.1 million

Canada's rank among DAC donors

2

Unless indicated, all data is from 2006.
Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line (August 2008) and Transparency International Corruption Perceptions Index 2007


Context

Despite recent events related to the global food crisis, under President Prval's leadership, and with the Mandate of the U.N. Stabilization Mission in Haiti's (MINUSTAH) contribution, Haiti became less insecure in 2007. The government has pledged to strengthen its institutions and to serve Haitians more effectively. Despite the government's legitimacy and good will, and the contribution of international partners, Haiti remains a fragile state. It is the poorest country in the Americas. Haitian society has experienced an economic crisis for more than two decades. Other important challenges include the high cost of living and the environment, especially loss of forests, which makes Haiti very vulnerable to natural disasters.


Key poverty indicators

 

Previous

Most recent

Percent of the population living on less than US$1 a day

-

54 (2001)

Percent of the population living than less than US$2 a day

-

78 (2001)

Population density (per km2)

258 (1990)

343 (2006)

Primary enrolment ratio

21 (1991)

-

Mortality under five (deaths per 1000 live births)

152 (1990)

80 (2006)

Percent of under nourishment (children under age of 5, weight for age)

24 (1995)

19 (2006)

Maternal mortality (deaths per 100,000 live births)

-

670 (2005)

Percent of population with access to improved water sources

47 (1990)

54 (2004)

Sources: World Bank, World Development Indicators On-line and UN Stats


To respond appropriately to its people's aspirations, the Government of Haiti has developed a vision and established objectives in its National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper (2008-2010). Tabled in November 2007 based on consultations, the Paper is based on three pillars: economic growth, human development, and democratic governance. The time is ripe for the international community and the emerging donors of Latin America to provide concerted, coordinated support to the government and people of Haiti.

Canadian development assistance to Haiti

CIDA has been active in Haiti since 1968. Its support has varied depending on Haiti's political situation and security. As shown by the trend in aid assistance, Canada has increased its spending by nearly 600 percent since 2000. In July 2007, the Prime Minister increased Canada's commitment to $555 million over five years (2006-2011) for rebuilding and developing Haiti, based on four key priorities: good governance; establishing open and accountable government; combating corruption; and the rule of law. Adopting an approach that includes all of government, Canada is now Haiti's second largest bilateral donor. The Haiti bilateral program is CIDA's second largest.


CIDA aid assistance in Haiti

CIDA aid assistance in Haiti

Note: Aid assistance shown excludes regional programming.


Aid effectiveness and CIDA priorities

CIDA's current interim strategy builds on a balanced approach (short-, medium-, and long-term; diversity of partners). It applies aid effectiveness principles in a fragile state. This strategy is based on three priorities: government institution building and governance; access to basic services and basic needs; and social conciliation. Starting in 2008-2009, CIDA plans to realign its aid program to provide full support for the Government of Haiti and the priorities it has established in the National Growth and Poverty Reduction Strategy Paper as well as its plan to increasingly apply aid effectiveness principles based on the Paris Declaration. Finally, Canada is recognized for its active role at the donor table in strengthening coordination.

Focus on Results

Governance: CIDA's support for the Government of Haiti's central democratic institutions has made them more open by broadcasting parliamentary sessions, and by re-editing, publishing, and distributing the Penal Code. In addition, 560,000 people have been registered on the voters' list, which now covers 92 percent of the adult population. In the justice sector, CIDA supported creating the school for judges in which 70 justices of the peace have already been trained.

Access to basic services: In health, CIDA has built human resource capacities by providing training, which is leading 24 students to an advanced graduate diploma and 16 students to a master's degree in health services administration. Moreover, nearly 220,000 people have been made aware of sexually transmitted infections and HIV/AIDS. In education, CIDA has funded tuition fees for 13,415 pupils. CIDA has also contributed to the School Feeding Program, which provides a meal for some 290,000 children every school day.

Socio-economic improvements and social conciliation: To meet the urgent basic needs of the population, CIDA has supported "quick-impact" programs that have created more than 160,000 workdays. Thanks to local development projects, producers have seen their agricultural production double and sometimes even triple. Moreover, CIDA's efforts make it possible to offer ongoing financial services to over 212,000 members of one of the 56 savings and credit unions, of which 14 have joined forces to improve the quality of their services.

Canada pays special attention to Haiti in its Strategy for the Americas. It remains committed to Haiti on a long-term basis. CIDA plans to continue to play a leadership role in coordinating aid around Haiti's priorities. CIDA also plans to strengthen the effectiveness of its activities and to achieve even more sustainable results.


Success story

CIDA is achieving good results by strengthening the health system through a number of basic projects. For example, CIDA is improving the quantity and quality of care for 2.2 million women and men in four specific departments. It is strengthening the governance of the health system. Finally, it is immunizing 620,000 people under 20 against polio and/or measles and rubella.


2.3 Selected countries and regions


Program activity description

The purpose of CIDA's development assistance programming in selected countries and regions, eligible for Canadian international assistance, is to enhance the capacity of these countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals and contribute to Canada's international interests, through expertise, dialogue, and resources. These programs can also require linkages and/or partnerships between Canadian partners and their local partners.

Actual full-time equivalents for 2007-2008

Actual spending for 2007-2008

849

$490,116,537


Financial information: In 2007-2008 spending for this program activity totalled $449.8 million or 14 percent of the Agency's overall expenditures. Of this amount, $419 million was for net program expenditures and $30.8 million was allocated to this program activity for corporate services. Non-budgetary spending totalled $40.3 million for the Canada Investment Fund for Africa.

Performance overview

Conclusion against the expected result: On balance, real progress has been made in meeting our first expected result of enhancing capacity of selected countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals. However, the wide range of development levels and national capacities of countries and regions included in this program activity needs to be recognized in making this assessment. As described below, we also contributed to the international interests of the Government of Canada through a number of collaborative initiatives with other government departments.


Expected result: Enhanced capacity of selected countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals

Selected performance indicators

  • Progress towards the MDGs
  • Level of democratic governance
  • Existence of an effective government poverty reduction strategy, reflected in budgeting decisions and long-term resource framework
  • Alignment of CIDA country strategies and institutional support to the country's national development plan

Despite challenges, such as global economic instability, weak institutional capacity, political and ethnic conflict, and low levels of local ownership of key developmental issues, most of CIDA's selected countries and regions have made improvements towards stability and achieving their development goals. There has been progress towards achieving the MDGs, particularly in health and education. For example, at the regional level, the Americas made significant progress with CIDA's help in controlling communicable diseases such as yellow fever, measles, and rubella by systematically vaccinating people. In particular, eradicating rubella from the Americas is well within sight because the number of confirmed cases has dropped from 135,000 in 1998 to less than 5,000 in 2006. In Egypt, CIDA has strengthened 200 community schools and established 100 more schools. This has allowed more than 7,500 children, 75 percent of them girls, to access quality primary education in community schools. Many of these schools are in hard-to-reach areas of Upper Egypt where girls have previously been denied the opportunity to attend school and learn in the classroom.

Poverty reduction strategies have been developed by various selected countries to guide long-term investment decisions at the country and regional level. The Southern African Development Community has developed a Regional Indicative Strategic Development Plan. All member states and donors, to accelerate and achieve sustainable regional economic integration and poverty reduction, have endorsed the plan.

Democratic governance has improved for most selected countries. It is measured by political stability, government effectiveness, rule of law, and control of corruption. For example, CIDA programming:

  • in the Philippines fortified local governance structures for accountability;
  • in Central Europe has led to collaboration among neighbouring countries through its regional programming; and
  • in the Americas promoted democratic governance and contributed to the integrity, impartiality, and reliability of elections by supporting more than a dozen electoral observation missions.

All CIDA country and regional strategies are in line with either country or regional priorities. For example, CIDA programs in Morocco, Algeria, and Tunisia build the capacity of government institutions to implement and support those countries' national development plans, especially in education and encouraging more local control of programs (called "decentralization"). Furthermore, the main purpose of these programs is to match changing labour market needs with well-trained employees, thereby increasing employment, productivity, and competitiveness of the private sector, as well as reducing poverty. Aid effectiveness is therefore heightened by focusing on education and decentralization. It is also strengthened by developing programs in direct response to specific requests from governments, in areas where Canada has internationally recognized expertise. A key lesson learned in programming at the regional level or in supporting regional organizations is the importance of promoting greater consistency between commitments made at the regional level and national policies. Another lesson learned was reinforcing linkages between regional and national bodies, and civil society organizations.

Some selected countries that have not demonstrated progress against key indicators have a higher risk profile. Therefore, these countries require more complex risk management strategies that focus on the challenges mentioned above (for example, Zimbabwe). CIDA programming helps government and/or civil society develop strategies to deal with some of the root causes of the conflict. For example, while CIDA has not provided direct support to the Government of Zimbabwe since 2002, a Civil Society Fund ($7.5 million over four years) has helped civil society organizations better respond to human rights violations, participate in elections monitoring, and promote gender equality in a challenging economic and political environment. In Nepal, the emphasis on civic education, elections, and media reporting has helped enable a more peaceful transition to democracy.


Expected result: Contribution to international interests of the Government of Canada

Selected performance indicators

  • Targeted programming in areas of mutual interest
  • Degree to which other government departments are engaged in country

CIDA contributes to Canada's international interests by helping partner countries and regional institutions improve their capacity to promote or sustain democracy, freedom, human rights, the rule of law, security, and international trade. As well, Canada helps countries deal with issues that cross regional and national boundaries such as communicable diseases or natural resource management (for example, water basins). CIDA, for example, supports a number of regional institutions in the Americas, Africa, and Asia that help their member states negotiate with the World Trade Organization (WTO) to be on a more level playing field vis--vis developed countries, as well as develop strategies to combat infectious diseases. Demonstrating an approach that involves the whole of government, many other government departments (OGDs) work collaboratively with CIDA, for example:

  • Department of National Defence supports peacekeeping in the Democratic Republic of the Congo.
  • International Development Research Centre (IDRC) helps develop small and medium businesses and water demand management strategies in Egypt.
  • Industry Canada supports small business development in South Africa.
  • Indian and Northern Affairs Canada, Agriculture Canada, HRSDC, Status of Women Canada, and Treasury Board Secretariat support capacity development in South Africa.

Important lessons have been learned from cooperation with OGDs. One lesson learned was the need for plans that sustain ongoing involvement after CIDA funding ends. Another lesson learned was the need to produce timely results-based narrative and financial reports.

Following are two report cards (Canada Fund for Africa and the Caribbean program) to further demonstrate the contribution of this program activity to the objectives of the Canadian aid program.

Canada Fund for Africa

Context

Launched at the G8 Summit in Kananaskis in June 2002, the $500-million Canada Fund for Africa (CFA) was established to respond to the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD), a made-in-Africa plan to put the continent on a path of sustainable growth and development, and respond to the G8 Africa Action Plan. The CFA supported bold new initiatives and large-scale programs that could have an impact on sustainable development in Africa. It included 33 distinct initiatives that are consistent with NEPAD priorities and supported African development in governance, peace and security (15 percent); health (22 percent); economic growth through trade and investment (24 percent); agriculture, environment, and water (28 percent); and information and communication technologies (7 percent). The CFA has played a key role in helping Canada meet its commitment to double aid to Africa from $1.05 billion in 2003-2004 to $2.1 billion by 2008-2009.

Commitment to aid effectiveness

The CFA complemented ongoing CIDA programming while contributing to aid-effectiveness principles.

  • It stressed African ownership, leadership, and control: The CFA supported priorities identified by African leaders, African institutions, and African communities. These priorities included strengthening the peace and security capacity of the African Union and supporting the African peer-review mechanism.
  • It introduced innovative, strategic investments with a long-term approach: The CFA contributed $100 million to create the Canada Investment Fund for Africa (CIFA), an innovative public-private risk capital fund that combines profitable investments with corporate social responsibility. The CFA funded strategic areas such as research in biosciences, agricultural productivity, and HIV vaccines.
  • It was a catalyst for other donor investments and partnerships: The CFA took a calculated risk as the first and, sometimes only, donor for new investments that are now being supported and recognized by others. Canadian leadership as a donor has increased the amount of funds coming from other donors, for the African Water Facility and the NEPAD Infrastructure Project Preparation Facility. The CFA stressed the formation and maintenance of partnerships, coalitions, and networks to share knowledge and experience, achieve economies of scale, and multiply outreach. For example, four Canadian NGOs pooled resources to deliver the Canadian Coalition on Youth and HIV/AIDS project. They shared best practices and reduced administration costs in the field. This enabled them to reach more people than if they had worked alone.
  • It took a whole-of-government approach: As the lead partner, the CFA called on the expertise, networks, and facilitation capacities of a number of key federal government departments to co-manage several of its programs. This included collaboration with DFAIT in the West Africa Peace and Security Initiative and the Canada Investment Fund for Africa; Industry Canada in the e-PolNet, Connectivity Africa and Enablis projects; and the International Development Research Centre in the Connectivity Africa project.

Focusing on Results

From 2002 to 2008, CFA's financial and technical support has achieved some remarkable results. Sample project results (by NEPAD priority) include:

Governance: The Africa-Canada Parliamentary Strengthening program restored the African Parliamentarians Network Against Corruption. This network played a key role in passing eight pieces of legislation in four countries dealing with transparency and accountability in government and the public service.

Peace and security: The Sub-Regional Program for Arms and Light Weapons focused on communities in Senegal, Gambia, Guinea Bissau, and Guinea. Under this program, hundreds of small arms and light weapons were collected. Community development projects, ranging from horticulture to community radio to brick making, have generated incomes for over 980 people, including 664 women.

Water and environment: Support to the UN-HABITAT Water and Sanitation Trust Fund engaged 17 cities in 14 African countries in water and sanitation issues. This involvement led to improved access to services for over 100,000 people. In Ethiopia, eight public water facilities serving 5,000 people have been built. Trained community women are managing and operating these facilities.

Health: Support to the Canadian Coalition on Youth and HIV/AIDS resulted in strengthening nearly 400 civil society organizations and government partners to deliver better quality HIV prevention services for youth and women. As well, economic support was given to community-based groups, which improved daily incomes for 2,000 project participants. In addition, s upport for the African AIDS Vaccine Partnership also helped develop the National AIDS Vaccine Plans or Strategies in Cameroon, Tanzania, Rwanda, Kenya, and Uganda.

Trade and investment: Small and medium-size South African businesses have accessed loans, information and communication technology, business coaching, and technical support through the Enablis project. To date, the project has created nearly 1,800 jobs, supported 400 entrepreneur members (30 percent women), and granted loans of over $7.5 million. The project's success in South Africa has led to plans for a similar model for East Africa.


The Canada Investment Fund for Africa (CIFA) provides risk capital for private sector investments that may have development impact, generate growth, and promote Canadian interests in Africa. Canada committed $100 million to help increase investment from public and private sources. In its third year, the Fund is operating strongly and is subject to stringent, internationally recognized corporate social responsibility measures and environmental standards.

Thus far, the Fund Managers have invested US$162 million in oil and gas, mining, consumer goods, financial services, agribusiness, manufacturing, and logistics. Investments have been made in Angola, Burkina Faso, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Egypt, Ghana, Madagascar, Nigeria, Rwanda, Senegal, South Africa, Togo, Tunisia, and Zambia. While its aid is not tied to purchasing requirements, CIFA has been important in involving the Canadian private sector in Africa. As of March 31, 2008, four of the 14 CIFA investments were in Canadian companies operating in Africa.

CIFA investments are delivering development results. Through the leadership of CIFA and sometimes in partnership with other donors or NGOs, companies have been created that are actively engaged in their local communities by: providing educational and medical supplies; implementing reforestation programs; and delivering educational grants. They have supported developing local infrastructure such as roads and bridges, electricity supply, water supply, as well as providing financial services to under-represented regions. These companies have also invested in training and education in areas such as preventing HIV/AIDS and developing technical/vocational skills.


Caribbean program

Context

The Caribbean Community (CARICOM) comprises 12 island states and three continental countries, with a combined population of about 15.2 million. Haiti accounts for over half (8.5 million) this amount. The combined gross national income (GNI) of the 15 member states of CARICOM is $US36 billion. There are significant differences in the size of their economies and their levels of development. About half are lower middle-income countries, while the remainder are upper middle-income countries. All are considered members of the Small Island Developing States grouping that share similar sustainable development challenges. These challenges include: small populations; human resource deficits; susceptibility to natural disasters; poor diversification that depends on traded commodities and tourism; weak regional, national, and local institutions; and vulnerability to external shocks. Another common issue shared by these countries is a high debt level — 14 of the 15 CARICOM states are ranked among the top 30 of the world's highly indebted emerging market economies.

Canadian development assistance to the Caribbean

Canadian development assistance to the Caribbean is one of its oldest programs. The Anglophone Caribbean has received about $2 billion since 1963. Recent investments in the region have totalled about $30-$35 million per year. Given the importance of the Caribbean in Canada's Strategy of the Americas, a new 10-year programming framework for the Caribbean Community was approved in June 2007. This framework builds on our previous results and lessons learned. CIDA's programming will now be regional in scope. In July 2007, the Prime Minister announced that Canada will provide significant new support ($600 million) to the region over the next 10 years. This commitment will make Canada and the European Union the region's leading grant donors. This position will give us increased effectiveness, influence, and visibility.


CIDA aid assistance in the Caribbean Region

CIDA aid assistance in the Caribbean Region

Note: The figures reflect past country and regional aid assistance.


Commitment to aid effectiveness

CIDA's approach in the Caribbean reflects the Agency's commitment to aid effectiveness and responds to the needs and priorities of the countries in the region. CIDA has been proactive at the regional level in advancing new approaches to development cooperation. The goal is to achieve greater developmental effectiveness, such as well-designed programs and joint funding mechanisms. This has resulted in support for programs such as the Caribbean Regional Technical Assistance Centre and Caribbean Regional Negotiating Machinery project mechanisms, and the PAHO/Caribbean Epidemiology Centre.

CIDA is involved on an ongoing basis in policy dialogue on a range of issues that affect development across the region. For example, in the Eastern Caribbean, Canada is part of donor groups in four sectors. Canada plays a lead role in the Caribbean in disaster risk reduction. We have harmonized our support with that of other donors in this area. We have been instrumental in encouraging and supporting the region to develop a Comprehensive Disaster Management Framework. In Jamaica, at the request of donors and the Jamaican government, CIDA is leading a harmonized approach to support justice reform.

Focusing on results

In the earliest days, CIDA funded major infrastructure projects and also provided stand-alone scholarships that many current leaders in the region have used. As the program evolved, the main focus moved to other areas. For example, under the Canadian Regional Development Programming Framework of 1993, CIDA invested in human resource development, private sector development, HIV/AIDS, environment, trade policy development, social infrastructure, educational and leadership development, public sector economic management, gender equality, and institutional strengthening of the CARICOM and Organization of Eastern Caribbean States Secretariats. Recent results include the following:

Governance: In recent years, CIDA has helped improve the capacity of Caribbean states to deal with catastrophic natural disasters. In April 2007, CIDA provided $20 million (the single largest contribution to date, of a total of about US$50 million) to help fund the Caribbean Catastrophe Risk Insurance Facility (CCRIF). The CCRIF is an insurance mechanism that helps countries maintain essential public services immediately after a natural disaster occurs.

Private sector development: CIDA supports one of the main goals of the CARICOM, which is to create a Caribbean Single Market and Economy (CSME). Creation of the CSME would help CARICOM achieve greater economic and political strength through regional integration.

Gender equality: The Caribbean Gender Equality Program II reached an estimated 110,000 direct and indirect beneficiaries in 15 countries between 2000 and 2007. It has produced several results in combating violence against women. These results include: reform of laws on domestic violence and family law by member countries of the Organisation of Eastern Caribbean States (OECS); new legislation to protect families, women, and children was produced in five of the eight OECS countries; a Domestic Violence Act in Suriname was developed; a training program in analysing violence against women in the media was developed and implemented in Jamaica; and in Guyana, the police force established a domestic violence unit, resulting in an increased level of public concern and a reduced tolerance for domestic violence.


Success story

The Caribbean Regional Technical Assistance Centre (CARTAC) plays a vital role in reducing the problems some Caribbean countries have in meeting challenges in macroeconomic and financial policy and management. It supports country-led reforms as well as regional harmonization, including laws, codes and practices. It also builds awareness of the need for reform.

The most visible impact of CARTAC's work has been in the Revenue Administration. Here, customs administration systems have been modernized. As well, the administration of tax departments has been improved. Most importantly, value-added tax systems have been introduced to replace revenue likely to be lost when the CSME is fully implemented.

The monitor's report of the 2005-2007 Phase II confirmed that CARTAC was a valuable and important part of the region's capacity-building resources. That progress was called "excellent." The report also noted the need for continued technical assistance, validated CARTAC as an effective mechanism for programming, and recommended a third phase (2008-2010).


2.4 Multilateral, international, and Canadian institutions


Program activity description

Through its engagement with multilateral, Canadian, and international institutions, CIDA seeks to influence institutional policies and practices to strengthen the ability of institutions and to maximize program effectiveness in order to enhance the capacity and effectiveness of partner institutions in achieving development goals. CIDA's engagement includes providing expertise and core funding, as well as participating on decision-making and advisory committees and boards.

Actual full-time equivalents for 2007-2008

Actual spending for 2007-2008

401

$1,235,072,645


Financial information: In 2007-2008, spending for this program activity totalled $1,235.1 million or 38 percent of the Agency's overall expenditures. Of this amount, $1,210.4 million was for net program expenditures and $24.7 million was allocated to this program activity for corporate services.

Performance overview

Conclusion against the expected result: Overall, by continuing to strengthen its partnerships with multilateral, international, and Canadian organizations, CIDA met its expected result for this program activity. Building on CIDA's previous support, CIDA's partners are contributing to development results across a wide range of countries and sectors. This contribution complements programming in countries where CIDA has only a modest bilateral presence. Aid effectiveness remains a consistent focus of CIDA's relationships with its partners.


Expected result: Enhanced capacity and effectiveness of multilateral institutions and Canadian/international organizations in achieving development goals

Selected performance indicators

  • Number of multilateral institutions and Canadian/international partners demonstrating a results-based management approach
  • Existence of strategies related to equality between women and men and the environment for partner institutions

CIDA uses Canada's influence to promote effectiveness and improve the policies and practices of multilateral organizations for the best results possible. During 2007-2008, CIDA continued to improve its assessments of key multilateral partners through the Multilateral Effectiveness and Relevance Assessment (MERA), and through its work with the Multilateral Organisations Performance Assessment Network (MOPAN). The MERA findings were used in CIDA's decision making about multilateral partners (such as CIDA's strategies for helping improve the management effectiveness of individual organizations).

As a member of MOPAN, Canada participated in the 2007 MOPAN survey, which covered the African Development Bank, the UNDP, and the World Health Organization (WHO). These three organizations found the survey findings to be a positive and useful source they could use to enhance the impact of their operations at the country level. Canada was also actively involved with other MOPAN members in developing a stronger approach for assessing the effectiveness of multilateral organizations. This approach is expected to increase the scope, quality, and reliability of information, enhance donor harmonization, and reduce the costs of doing business between donors and multilateral organizations.

As part of its careful examination of each project (called "due diligence"), CIDA requires partners to define the results of their programs. They are also required to provide CIDA with reporting on the results achieved. As well, CIDA's partners must demonstrate that their programs have appropriately integrated considerations related to equality between women and men and environmental sustainability. To deliver on these requirements, CIDA and its partners are continually reviewing and improving their capabilities. For example, using CIDA's Framework for Assessing Gender Equality Results,9 CIDA has prepared assessments of the ability of various multilateral partners to plan, achieve, monitor, and report on gender equality results.

As part of its renewed partnership with Canadian civil society, CIDA supported capacity development workshops for voluntary sector organizations. In 2007-2008, 140 partner organizations benefited from 10 workshops delivered across Canada in collaboration with provincial Councils for International Cooperation. Workshops covered general knowledge of CIDA and its Canadian Partnership Branch, project and program budgets, CIDA reporting requirements, results-based management, and public engagement. The workshops also included summaries of development topics such as equality between women and men and the environment (including environmental assessments). According to the participants' evaluations, the workshops increased their overall capacity to design and implement projects and programs, especially results-based management, gender equality, and environmental assessment.

Overall, challenges are posed by the number and diversity of CIDA's multilateral, international, and Canadian partners. For example, the quality of how partners use results-based management varies from one organization to another. As well, the capability of partners to integrate considerations related to equality between women and men and the environment into their programs also varies. This situation underlines the need for CIDA to continue to influence its partners to improve their use of results-based management and to improve their knowledge of equality between women and men and environmental sustainability. In addition, it reinforces the need for CIDA's due diligence processes, as well as the need for the capacity development workshops, knowledge-sharing opportunities, and programming tools offered by CIDA.


In 2007, CIDA evaluated the University Partnerships in Cooperation and Development (UPCD) program. The evaluation concluded that UPCD has significantly contributed to the academic capacity of developing-country institutions. It emphasized that the program can build civil society's ability to promote good governance and hold government accountable. However, the evaluation also recognized that the program's range of countries and sectors lacked consistency with CIDA's geographic programming. The evaluation also questioned the sustainability of results in poorer countries whose universities lack the institutional capacity and resources to maintain any gains made in academic capacity. Therefore, the evaluation stressed the importance of ensuring adequate support to developing country institutions. CIDA agreed with the evaluation. It is currently reviewing the program to ensure greater focus and aid effectiveness.


 


In 2007, CIDA evaluated the Industrial Cooperation Program(CIDA-INC). CIDA-INC was created to encourage Canadian firms to establish long-term business relations with developing countries. The evaluation highlighted opportunities for improvement. It also recommended that CIDA continue to draw on Canadian private sector experience and innovation through a revitalized business partnership program. The evaluation found that a combination of factors had reduced the private sector's interest in the program. The evaluation recommended that CIDA hold consultations to assess the appropriateness of the program's mechanisms, eligibility criteria, and organizational structure. The evaluation also recommended that CIDA strengthen the program's reporting and monitoring functions. CIDA agreed with these recommendations, and has begun consulting other government departments and interested participants about a revitalized program.


Following are two report cards (Asian Development Bank and Volunteer Cooperation Program) to further demonstrate the contribution of this program activity to the objectives of the Canadian aid program.

CIDA's support to the Asian Development Bank

Context

Through CIDA, Canada provides funding to the African, Asian, Caribbean, and Inter-American development banks to help them carry out their mandates that support poverty reduction and the MDGs. CIDA leads Canada's relationship with the banks, in collaboration with DFAIT, and the Department of Finance. CIDA advises the banks' Canadian Executive Directors, and influences the orientation, policies, and overall management of the banks.

Development results

Canada's funding for the Asian Development Bank (ADB) has contributed to results such as: repairing and building roads, irrigation works, and electrical networks in Afghanistan; rebuilding houses, roads, schools, and electrical networks in areas of Pakistan affected by the 2005 earthquake; improving and maintaining roads in Bangladesh to connect poor rural communities to national markets, schools, and health facilities; and improving Indonesia's investment climate and government reform programs through development policy loans coordinated by the World Bank. In its relationship with the ADB, Canada has emphasized managing for development results and integrating equality between women and men.

Results-based management

Although the ADB did not formally recognize the importance of results-based management until 2004, it has actively learned from others and adopted best practices. CIDA (along with Norway and the Netherlands) provided the ADB with some start-up funding in 2004. More recently, CIDA staff has shared knowledge with bank staff on policy, training, tools, and practical experience in implementation. A 2007 evaluation10 of the ADB's efforts concluded that its progress and challenges were comparable to those of other multilateral development banks. However, the ADB has emerged as a leading organization among donor agencies in terms of focusing on clear results. This is indicated by the fact that they currently co-chair the OECD-DAC Joint Venture on Managing for Development Results (which is the leading international forum on this topic).

Gender equality

Since 2003, CIDA (along with Norway, Denmark, and Ireland) has funded the ADB to accelerate the implementation of its gender equality policy and action plan. This funding has supported recruiting and retaining locally engaged gender specialists in the ADB's offices in several countries. These specialists have substantially contributed to emphasizing gender equality in the ADB's programs. A 2007 report11 concluded that the ADB has strengthened its capacity, as well as that of its partners, to mainstream gender considerations in their policies, programs, and projects to reduce gender disparities and to promote women's empowerment. The bank is now strengthening its commitment by implementing a renewed action plan.

A renewed partnership

Based on the ADB's overall performance to date and a new strategic plan for 2009-2012, Canada and other member countries agreed in May 2008 to replenish the Asian Development Fund (including the approval of a special allocation for Afghanistan). The new plan includes a commitment to reinforce the ADB's corporate results management system, and to mainstream managing for development results throughout the Bank's programming. CIDA will continue to monitor the ADB's work and to influence organizational and development effectiveness within the Bank.

Volunteer Cooperation Program

Context

Since 1968,CIDA has supported the overseas programs of several Canadian Volunteer Cooperation Agencies (VCAs), as well as their public engagement work in Canada. CIDA's Volunteer Cooperation Program (VCP) pursues two objectives: to build the capacity of civil society in developing countries; and to engage the Canadian public in international development cooperation. Through volunteer cooperation, and by building the capacity of their developing country partners to improve economic and social well being, the VCAs are contributing to sustainable development and poverty reduction.

Commitment to aid effectiveness

The VCP was formally established in 2004, when CIDA adopted a program approach to its support for international volunteers (in line with the principles of aid effectiveness and local ownership, in particular). Through volunteer exchange programs and placements of qualified volunteers, the VCAs help meet local needs in a sustainable manner. By engaging a large and diverse spectrum of Canadian volunteers, the VCAs promote a better understanding of international development issues to the Canadian public. The contribution of volunteers continues to be an essential element of Canada's aid program.

Geographic and sectoral focus

Programming through the VCP corresponds well with CIDA's geographic and sectoral priorities. The VCAs have made considerable effort to reduce the number of countries in which they work. They also continue to focus a major portion of their programming in Africa (about 50 percent) and have started increasing their focus in the Americas (about 25 percent). Since 2004, CIDA's spending through the VCP has averaged $44 million per year. About one-third of this spending supports basic human needs (such as health and education), while democratic governance and private sector development each account for about one-quarter of spending.

Development results

The 2005 review of the VCP12 concluded that the program has contributed to significant results in developing countries. The VCP has enabled significant assistance to organizations in developing countries, particularly in, for example, training and technical capacity development, administrative and program management, and external communications. The VCAs are successfully improving local ownership of development programming. As well, they are improving the capacity of their partners to respond to the needs of their beneficiaries. The VCAs support their partners' capacity building efforts in several ways, including: entering into strategic alliances; focusing geographically and sectorally; broadening the influence of the results of their work; and promoting domestic volunteer programs and promoting South-South linkages.

Gender equality

All VCAs incorporate gender-equality considerations into their programs and strategies. For example, some programming focuses on the human rights of women, while others help improve women's economic conditions. Women are the heads of a large number of the VCAs' partner organizations.

Strengthened partnerships

The VCAs are contributing to development results in an aid-effective manner to have the maximum impact with resources provided by CIDA. CIDA and the VCAs will continue to build on the strengths and value-added of the VCP.

2.5 Engaging Canadian citizens


Program activity description

This program activity provides opportunities for Canadians to increase their awareness, deepen their understanding, and engage in international development. Canadian engagement is a vital element of effective development. It enables CIDA and its partners to draw from a broad range of expertise and financial resources across the country to implement aid initiatives. It also provides an ongoing basis for commitment on the part of the Government of Canada to international development cooperation.

Actual full-time equivalents for 2007-2008

Actual spending for 2007-2008

75

$53,909,438


Financial information: In 2007-2008, spending for this program activity totalled $53.9 million or 1.7 percent of the Agency's overall expenditures. Of this amount, $49 million was for net program expenditures and $4.9 million was allocated to this program activity for corporate services.

Performance overview

Conclusion against the expected result: CIDA has shown progress toward evaluating the impact of its activities. For example, while the Public Engagement Fund target for 2007 was to reach 10,000 Canadians; the actual number of Canadians reached was 52,000. Canadian expertise in democratic governance has been judiciously used: 84 Canadian election observers were provided, and a new mechanism provided just-in-time technical assistance in democratic governance to nine CIDA country partners and regional programs.


Expected result: Increased awareness, deepened understanding, and greater engagement of Canadians with respect to international development

Selected performance indicator

  • Number of Canadians involved in international development efforts

Canada's aid program relies on Canadians' understanding of development challenges to involve them in Canada's international development agenda. CIDA engaged Canadians in a variety of ways in 2007-2008. For example, the Public Engagement Fund (PEF) and the Development Information Program (DIP) support Canadian programs to enhance the public's awareness and understanding of international development. They also provide opportunities for the public to become actively involved. To improve public knowledge of international development, CIDA funds the provincial and regional Councils for International Cooperation, and supports events and kiosks across Canada. In addition, CIDA continues to increase awareness, deepen understanding, and involve more Canadians in the issues of democratic governance.

In 2007-2008, recipients of PEF funding reported reaching over 52,000 people directly through workshops, speaking tours, participatory theatre, training youth leaders, art and multi-media contests, leadership development, lectures, and films. This exceeds the target set in 2007 of reaching a minimum of 10,000 Canadians.

In 2006-2007, based on the broadcast audience figures from the Bureau of Broadcast Measurement Canada, and print circulation figures from the Canadian Newspaper Association and the Canadian Circulation Audit Board, DIP-funded information products (such as print articles, websites, etc.) potentially reached a Canadian audience of about 27 million. Canadians could see these products through network broadcasts, print articles in magazines and dailies, online publishing, educational resources and development activities for students and teachers. According to a 2007 internal evaluation, DIP partners think that the program has broadened Canadians' understanding of international development issues and stimulated global education in schools. However, the evaluation also highlighted that DIP has not taken full advantage of new media in cross-promoting its products to reach more Canadians. In the future, the program will make better use of new media and other distribution sources.

According to an internal evaluation in 2006, the Councils for International Cooperation succeeded in achieving their anticipated results. These results included coordinating public engagement activities within their province or region and strengthening the public engagement capacity of their members. The evaluation also indicates that these results were achieved in a cost-effective manner. In 2007-2008, the Councils continued to organize activities with and for their members that contributed to greater public engagement capacity within member organizations. For example, during International Development Week in February 2007, the Councils organized events that reached over 250,000 Canadians.

CIDA has three regional offices (Vancouver, Edmonton, Moncton) and four "satellite" offices (Calgary, Saskatoon, Winnipeg, Halifax). Through these offices, Canadians outside the National Capital Region have direct access to:

  • information about CIDA;
  • advice on how to partner with CIDA; and
  • guidance for those wishing to become more involved in international development.

Regional offices reach 4,400 Canadians directly each month via electronic newsletters.

CIDA also supports other activities to involve Canadians in international development. In 2007-2008, events and kiosks organized by CIDA across Canada reached approximately 20,000 Canadians. As well, an e-newsletter, posted on the CIDA website, was sent monthly to 1,271 subscribers.

Engaging Canadians in democratic governance

CIDA works in democratic governance by involving a wide variety of experts in democratic governance programming. For example:

         84 Canadian election observers (15 long-term and 69 short-term observers) were deployed in 2007-2008. Canadians joined the missions of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe, the Commonwealth Secretariat, and the European Union to observe elections in eight countries, including Pakistan, Ukraine, and Kenya.

         The newly launched Deployment for Democratic Development (DDD) allowed 11 Canadian expert resources (CERs) to be recruited to provide just-in-time democratic governance technical assistance to nine CIDA country partners and regional programs. In the coming year, the DDD expects to fulfill 23 new requests for technical assistance in democratic governance, which will send out about 60 CERs.

         CIDA continues to support the "Governance Village", a virtual meeting place for knowledge sharing related to democratic governance. In 2007-2008, 19 new partners, including the Parliamentary Centre, the Institute on Governance, Journalists for Human Rights, Queen's University Centre for the Study of Democracy, IDRC, OECD, and the UNDP have joined. Thanks to the collaboration of these partners, 3,100 new documents have been catalogued in the library this year, for a total of 7,000 documents. Twelve sub-communities have been created and seven blogs are active. The Governance Village averages 9,050 page views per month. This is an increase of 4,000-page views per month over 2006-2007.

Measuring Canadian engagement remains a challenge because surveys and other evaluation tools are costly or can be anecdotal. More work is, therefore, needed to refine methods to evaluate the impact of CIDA's activities on Canadian engagement.