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Table 17: Horizontal Initiative

Horizontal Initiative

1. Name of Horizontal Initiative:
Canada's Drug Strategy

2. Name of Lead Department:
Health Canada

3. Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative:
CDS started in 1987
CDS renewed in 2003-2004[1]

4. End Date of the Horizontal Initiative:

5. Total Federal Funding Allocation:
$ 1,568.20 M [2]

6. Description of the Horizontal Initiative:

Canada's Drug Strategy (CDS) was first introduced in 1987 to address substance use and abuse issues through coordinated activities by various federal departments, governments and non-governmental organizations. In 1992, following some initial successes in the areas of prevention and treatment, Phase II was launched with an emphasis on Driving While Impaired.  During Phase II of the CDS, changing government priorities resulted in less than half of the funding being applied to the Strategy making it difficult to fully address complex issues related to both supply and demand reduction.

CDS Renewed (approved by Cabinet in May 2003) is a comprehensive inter-departmental initiative to coordinate and enhance substance abuse programs, knowledge and partnerships in prevention, treatment, harm reduction and enforcement. For more information, please refer to[3]

Budget 2007 announced the establishment of a National Anti-Drug Strategy (NADS) that will focus on prevention, treatment and enforcement activities. Future reporting will be based on these focus areas.  

7. Shared Outcome(s):

Improved Leadership - Setting directions and creating environments that support local action and national action integrally linked to nationally defined objectives and priorities;

Enhanced knowledge generation and management - Providing strengthened capacity to improve evidence-based policy and decision making by promoting leading-edge research, statistical monitoring of drug trends and evaluation of program effectiveness;

Enhanced partnerships and interventions - Discouraging substance abuse, targeting illegal conduct that threatens the safety and security of Canadians, and assisting those at risk from the effects of drugs by supporting partnerships and programs that focus on prevention, harm reduction, treatment and enforcement activities;

Improved modernization of relevant legislation and drug policies - Ensuring that legal and policy approaches underpinning CDS are coherent with and support the Strategy, by reviewing legislation and regulations for responsiveness to current requirements.

8. Governance Structure(s):[4]

Health Canada (HC)

Health Canada is the federal lead for CDS. The Minister of Health is responsible for coordination across federal departments.  Health Canada also partners with provinces and territories to provide national leadership and coordination, manages programs that reduce and prevent harm associated with controlled substances and participates in international fora in support of health-related supply and demand reduction activities.

An Assistant Deputy Minister Interdepartmental Steering Committee is chaired by Health Canada.  Working groups focusing on Communications, Research and Surveillance, Evaluation and Risk Management and Emerging Issues have been established to support decision making by the ADM Steering Committee and Health Canada provides a Secretariat to support these structures.

Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)

The Public Health Agency of Canada, through its Centre for Infectious Disease Prevention and Control (CIDPC) and its Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder team, is responsible for conducting and disseminating  research and surveillance information on public health indicators and illness related to substance use/abuse and injection drug use, as well as on the linkages between alcohol use during pregnancy and fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.

Department of Public Safety Canada (PS)[5]

The Department of Public Safety Canada is responsible for: a) coordinating the Public Safety Portfolio's drug control policies and initiatives to ensure that they are consistent with and complementary to the broader goals and objectives of CDS; and b) providing strategic advice to the Minister in fulfilment of the Minister's policy leadership role in policing and corrections. The Department also participates in international fora in support of law enforcement-related supply and demand reduction activities.

Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP)

The RCMP offers a balanced approach addressing both supply and demand issues. RCMP officers investigate illegal drug activities and organized crime groups.  They disrupt criminal activities and networks related to the supply of illicit drugs.   They also deliver a number of drug awareness and prevention programs targeted at youth, Aboriginal communities, drug endangered children and parents. Additionally, they coordinate specialized training of police officers in Drug Recognition Expertise to detect drug impaired driving.

Correctional Service Canada (CSC)

CSC provides substance abuse treatment programs to federal offenders with substance abuse problems and controls the supply of illicit drugs in correctional facilities through various security measures.  In addition, the Addictions Research Centre of CSC conducts research on substance abuse issues of importance to federal corrections and develops programs to address the substance abuse needs of offenders.

Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA)

The CBSA contributes to reducing the supply of controlled substances and illegal drugs through their detection and interception at Canadian ports/borders of entry.

Department of Justice (DOJ)

The Programs Branch of the Department of Justice, in collaboration with the Office of Demand Reduction of Health Canada, administers funding and monitors implementation and evaluation of the six federally-funded drug treatment courts. These courts are alternatives to traditional prosecution that integrate both criminal justice and drug treatment responses. The Federal Prosecution Service of the Department of Justice prosecutes drug cases.  Drug cases comprise a significant part of the Prosecution's workload.[6]

Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada (DFAIT)

The Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade Canada represents Canada, in cooperation and coordination with other interested CDS partners, on the international aspects of CDS. The Department and its network of overseas embassies and consulates, covers major international meetings (United Nations, G-8, international regional organizations), represents Canada at international processes (Dublin Group, Paris Pact, transnational organized crime instruments), as well as advocacy, diplomatic and technical assistance activities with bilateral partners.  The Department manages Canada's umbrella contribution agreements to the UN Office on Drugs and Crime (UNODC) and the Organization of American States' Inter-American Drug Abuse Control Commission (CICAD), and other drug cooperation projects under the Public Safety Envelope of its Human Security Program.

9. Federal Partners Involved in each Program

10. Names of Programs

11. Total Allocation

12. Forecasted Spending for 2006‑07

13. Actual Spending in 2006‑07

Health Canada

Promotion / Prevention and Public and Professional

$ 14.83 M

$ 5.85 M

$ 5.85 M

RCMP Education / Training $ 18.46 M $ 5.26 M $ 5.26 M
Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) Programs / Activities $ 7.00 M $ 2.45 M $ 2.45 M
    $ 40.29 M $13.56 M $ 13.56 M

Planned Results for 2006-2007:

  • Increased awareness of the nature, extent and consequences of substance use/abuse within the school, workplace and Aboriginal communities and among youth, professionals and the general public.
  • Improved skills/competencies in the delivery of programs.

Achieved Results for 2006-2007:

Prevention activities under CDS include measures to educate people about the dangers of drug abuse and help them adopt healthy behaviours. 

  1. Increased awareness of the nature, extent and consequences of substance use/abuse within the school,    workplace and Aboriginal communities and among youth, professionals and the general public.
    • Number and nature of requests for information – Over 100,000 requests for information were registered by Health Canada.  This number is down from last year. In addition, the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse (CCSA) received approximately 2,500 requests for information, a similar number of requests as last year.  Correspondence and briefing notes prepared among CDS partners indicate that topics of particular interest were: harm reduction, costs of substance abuse, policy and legislation, public and professional resources, fetal alcohol spectrum disorder, supervised injection sites and marihuana for medical purposes. 
    • Number and nature of website hits – There were 92,355 hits to the CDS website with 21,437 unique visitors, compared to 20,395 visits in the previous year[7].  Top visited pages included the National Framework for Action, Partners and the National Research Agenda.  There were also 209,196 hits to the National Framework website and 417,042 web sessions on the Be Drug Wise website.  The website sessions for Be Drug Wise represent an increase from 198,343 or 110% from last year.  In addition, the total number of hits to the CCSA website was 566,431, up from 516,160 in 2005-06.  Top visited pages at the CCSA website were the Splash Page, news, and Legal Drinking Age by Province. The top downloaded files were: The Costs of Substance Abuse in Canada: Highlights, 2004; and Highlights, Crack Cocaine Fact Sheet.
    • CDS 101 Session – Health Canada hosted the first CDS 101 session with 40 participants from all CDS partners to enhance their knowledge of the activities/work of CDS. This provided an opportunity to raise awareness of drug use and abuse-related matters as well as to share lessons learned and best practices in effective drug-related program management.
    • Focus on Youth – The RCMP engaged in prevention initiatives aimed at increasing awareness of the nature, extent and consequences of substance use/abuse.  The Drug Endangered Children Program (DEC), which is intended to help reduce traumatic impacts for children affected by their parents' drug activities, was accepted by agencies and communities where the DEC concepts were introduced and resulted in enactment of the Drug Endangered Children Act in Alberta.  The DEC approach has also been recognized as a valuable approach within the United States, including Colorado and California, and has been presented to the Government of Mexico.  The RCMP also worked on refocusing the Drugs and Sports program in order to give coaches and trainers the tools and knowledge to deliver the program themselves, rather than being dependent on police officers. The revamped program will be available in 2007.   In addition, the D.A.R.E. program was implemented in over 1,600 schools encompassing 175 school districts and reached over 65,000 students, an increase of 5,000 students from last year. Similarly, the P.A.R.T.Y program was delivered to more than 1,100 high school students in New Brunswick and 1,500 in British Columbia and the Racing Against Drugs Program was delivered in over 626 Ontario schools to more than 2,900 grade 5/6 students. 
  2. Improved skills/competencies in the delivery of programs.
    • Training in the Area of Prevention and Treatment – In summer 2006, CCSA hosted its 4th and largest National Summer Institute on Addictions, training approximately 100 professionals working in  substance abuse and mental health fields on improving treatment outcomes.  Sixty-seven percent of respondents to a follow-up survey said that attending the conference provided them with tools and/or resources to help them reach out to and partner with organizations.  The RCMP continued to enhance the capacity of police officers and community partners to develop and implement community-based programs/initiatives through its Drug Awareness Officer Training (DAOT).  Two DAOT sessions were held in Vancouver and one in Edmonton, Regina, and St. John's to reach 130 candidates, doubling the number trained last year.  Course critiques and evaluations indicated that the training was successful in providing junior awareness officers with the tools required to adequately deliver information and presentations on drugs as part of their daily operations. In addition, the RCMP trained 161 D.A.R.E. officers and 24 community facilitators from eight Aboriginal communities were trained in the revised Aboriginal Shield Program that now reflects all Aboriginal cultures, instead of focusing on the Cree culture, and can easily be adapted to deal with specific issues in different communities.  Drugs and Organized Crime Awareness Services (DOCAS) coordinators worked on a youth mobilization project at Cegep de l'Outaouais to provide training and support to 180 students taking a full semester on drugs and dependence.  The project was integrated within the curriculum and helped turn the students into prevention ambassadors.  Students developed drug prevention tools and messages aimed at 12 to 17 year olds that promoted reflection and assets development.  The study related to the uptake survey of selected Health Canada best practices will be completed by September 2007.
    • Training in the Area of Enforcement – The Drug Analysis Service (DAS) of Health Canada provided  50 lectures and training sessions on precursor control, clandestine labs, expert witness testimony and clandestine lab hazards to law enforcement, Justice Department, judges and industry personnel.  DAS also distributed 112 drug dog-training kits for law enforcement, an increase from the 86 kits distributed last year.  The Office of Controlled Substances in Health Canada also offered 52 person-days of classroom training for new inspectors plus mentoring by experienced inspectors. The RCMP hosted First Responders training in Toronto and Thunder Bay to provide paramedics, fire fighters and front- line police officers with information on the latest trends and safety issues related to chemical drugs, marihuana grow operations (MGOs) and clandestine labs. A National Chemical Diversion Conference was held in Stratford, Ontario, targeted at educating members of the chemical industry and law enforcement partners involved in Chemical Diversion investigations
    • Training in the Area of Work Force Development – In 2004-05, the First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB) received $5.3 million over five years to enhance the capacity and skill level of the National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP) addictions workers with the goal of 66% work force certification by 2007-08.  At present, 57% of workers are engaged in the certification process or have obtained Level 1 certification or educational equivalent.  In addition, CCSA's National Advisory Group on Work Force Development developed a discussion paper to chart a strategy and initiated a ‘model' treatment continuum reflecting what is known about the type and scope of services best suited to different client populations. 

Health Canada

Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs / Activities

$ 347.20 M[8]

$ 87.10 M

$85.3 M[9]

Correctional Service Canada   $ 69.80 M  $ 19.10 M $19.20 M
Department of Justice   $ 10.20 M $ 3.80 M $2.30 M[10]
    $ 427.20 M $110.00 M $106.80 M

Planned Results for 2006-2007:

  • Enhanced access and motivation to participate in treatment for substance abuse.
  • Reduction in risk behaviours/decisions and overall assessed substance abuse treatment needs.

Achieved Results for 2006-2007:

Treatment-related activities under CDS focus primarily on provision of treatment programs and services to targeted populations such as offenders, women and youth, and First Nations communities.

  1. Enhanced access and motivation to participate in treatment for substance abuse.
    • Offenders in Federal Institutions – A total of 3,858 offenders enrolled in substance abuse treatment programs in federal institutions.  This represented an increase of about 22% from the previous year.  Approximately 79% of the participants completed[11] the programs, similar to last year. The largest number of enrolments was for the National Substance Abuse Moderate Intensity Program (49%), and the National Substance Abuse Maintenance Program (19%). 
    • Offenders in Community Substance Abuse Programs – A total of 1,821 offenders enrolled in substance abuse programs in the community.  This represented a decrease of approximately 17% from last year.  This decrease is largely due to the replacement of the National Substance Abuse Maintenance Program with the Community Maintenance Program, which is not coded as a substance abuse program, the deletion of the Choices Program and the use of contracted programs, such as residential treatment centres and one-to-one counselling services. Overall, approximately 82% of  participants completed the programs.  The largest number of enrolments were for the National Substance Abuse Maintenance Program and the National Substance Abuse Low Intensity Program. 
    • Women and Youth – Health Canada's Alcohol and Drug Treatment Rehabilitation Program (ADTR) provided $13.2 million in cost-shared funding to the provinces for provision of treatment and rehabilitation services for youth and women or for general public programs that can accommodate youth and women. The primary focus of ADTR was on working with provinces and territories on reorientation of the program and on establishing new priorities and objectives, including development of a performance measurement and evaluation framework. As part of this process, the ADTR completed several studies, including an environmental scan of provincial performance measurement in an effort to enhance reporting of treatment impacts.  This study found that reporting practices vary across jurisdictions, mainly due to variations in reporting capacity as well as gaps with respect to strategies, infrastructure, data management, collection, and reporting.  As a result of the review, it was decided that the reoriented ADTR program will focus on investing in three main areas: implementation of evidence-informed practices, strengthening evaluation and performance measurement and linkage and exchange. 
    • Drug Treatment Courts (DTC) – All six federally-funded DTC were fully operational and two non-federally funded Drug Treatment Court models entered the early implementation stages.  The four newer sites (Ottawa, Winnipeg, Edmonton and Regina) maintained a base of approximately 15 clients with over 50 applications reviewed at each site, whereas the two established sites (Toronto and Vancouver) maintained a base of 50-60 clients with over 100 applicants reviewed at each site. 
    • First Nations and Inuit Youth, Adults and Families – The First Nations and Inuit Health Branch's (FNIHB) National Native Alcohol and Drug Abuse Program (NNADAP) continued to support prevention and treatment programs in First Nations and Inuit communities. This included a network of 50 treatment centres, two less than last year, with approximately 700 inpatient beds. NNADAP also supported nearly 600 community-based programs, delivered by trained prevention and promotion workers. 
  2. Reduction in risk behaviours/decisions and overall assessed substance abuse treatment needs. Work on development and validation of a generic evaluation framework for treatment programs continued.  Findings will be used to enhance ability to report on this planned result in future years.
    • Injection Drug Users (IDU) – The most recent data from PHAC, indicated a downward trend of some risk behaviours related to IDUs.  Data reports that 57.6% of male and 63.5% of female IDUs never used a condom with a regular sexual partner compared to 59% and 69.8% respectively in 2002-03, a 2.5% and 9.9% decrease. Among sex trade clients, 11.4% of males and 5.7% of female IDUs reported never using a condom in the most recent data. In 2002-03, these numbers were 28.2% for males and 0% for females.  Additionally, there was a 46% reduction (26.8% to 14.5%) in the number of IDUs who reported sharing needles/syringes.
    • Drug Treatment Courts – The DTCs have not been in operation long enough to assess this result. However, Justice and Health Canada worked on a centralized performance measurement information system that will aid in ongoing monitoring and development of these courts. This will permit collection of information on client retention, compliance, and treatment progress as well as utilization of community services and supports.
    • Computerized Assessment of Substance Abuse (CASA) – In 2006, CSC published a report on the audio-enhanced CASA system that was developed in 2001 to establish substance-abuse severity levels and match offender needs to the appropriate level of substance abuse treatment.  Results from research on the CASA demonstrated that offenders with the highest levels of substance abuse are  most likely to commit new offences and to be under the influence of drugs or alcohol at the time of their offence.  These results demonstrate the importance of providing the most intensive treatment to highest risk offenders.  The CASA assessments ensure that offenders receive the appropriate level of treatment for their needs thereby ensuring the efficient and effective use of treatment resources.  Information from the CASA also provides managers with increased knowledge of the drug and alcohol use patterns of offenders entering the correctional system to assist in the planning of future treatment needs.  The CASA will continue to be the primary tool of assessing offender substance abuse programming needs, and assist CSC in making accurate program referrals. Additionally, offender data collected through the course of the CASA interviews provided invaluable information on offender needs and profiles.

Health Canada

Research and Surveillance Programs / Activities

$ 42.46 M

$ 11.04 M[12]

$ 9.63 M[13]

PHAC   $ 4.50 M $ 1.50 M $ 1.50 M 
CSC   $ 8.10 M $ 2.00 M $ 2.10 M
CCSA   $ 6.40 M $ 1.30 M $ 1.30 M
    $ 61.46  M $ 15.84 M $ 14.53 M

Planned Results for 2006-2007:

  • Increased knowledge and understanding of emerging trends and related consequences in the area of substance abuse and what works in preventing and treating substance use/abuse.
  • More evidence-based responses to substance use/abuse.

Achieved Results for 2006-2007:

CDS invests in the generation of new knowledge and improved knowledge management to enhance capacity to address existing and emerging substance abuse/use trends by contributing to the development and sharing of knowledge on more evidence-based approaches to substance abuse.

  1. Increased knowledge and understanding of emerging trends and related consequences in the area of substance abuse and what works in preventing and treating substance use/abuse.
    • Prevalence of Substance Use/Abuse in Canada – The Canadian Addictions Survey (CAS) data from 2004 is the most recent from a general population survey regarding prevalence of substance use/abuse. The Office of Research and Surveillance (ORS) within Health Canada used this data to produce three reports on surveillance trends related to substance use/abuse – Public Opinion, Attitudes and Knowledge, Youth and Gender.  Report findings include: Canadians felt that existing efforts to address alcohol and other drug use and associated harms are not enough; alcohol was the psychoactive substance most commonly used by Canadian youth, with 90.8% of youth having used alcohol and 82.9% having used alcohol in the past 12 months; 61.4% of youth have used cannabis  and 27% have used it at least once in the past 12 months. Of youth who used alcohol in the past year, 20.9% reported driving under the influence of alcohol during the past 12 months while among youth who used cannabis in the past year, 39.8% reported driving under the influence of cannabis during the past 12 months.  The lifetime and past-year prevalence of cannabis use was greater among men than women: 50.1% of men had tried cannabis and 18.2% had used it in the past year while 39.2% of women had tried cannabis and 10.2% had used it in the past year. An ongoing approach to monitoring provides a better basis for tracking trends, identifying seasonal variations, adding new or cyclic questions and for better financial management than cyclical surveys, such as the CAS.  An ongoing monitoring survey, the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Use Monitoring Survey (CADUMS), will therefore be implemented. Part of the mandate of the National Surveillance Advisory Committee, which was created by ORS in 2005, is to advise the different elements of CADUMS.  In addition, an expert working group was created in fall 2006 for development of the questionnaire which is nearing completion.  It is anticipated that data will begin to be collected in fall 2007.  CCSA also analyzed CAS data and produced a number of reports.  One report compared the perceived seriousness and actual costs of substance abuse and concluded that public perceptions of the relative seriousness of substance abuse programs are incongruent with the actual costs they impose on society.  In particular, the public tended to amplify the seriousness of illicit drugs while diminishing the seriousness of problems associated with alcohol.
    • Surveillance of Canadian Street Youth – In 2006, a report on the findings from PHAC's enhanced surveillance of Canadian Street Youth was released.  Findings of this report and sub-reports were made available through PHAC's website (, and the Canadian Hepatitis C Information Centre.  This study found that street youth are 11 times more likely to die of drug overdose and suicide than youth in the general population. Approximately 40% of street youth reported recent alcohol intoxication with less than 10% reporting drinking every day.  However 95% reported having used non-injection drugs (marihuana, crack/cocaine, crystal methamphetamine and ecstasy) and 20% used injection drugs (cocaine, heroin, morphine and speedball).
    • Injection Drug Use in Canada and Related Harms – In August 2006, PHAC released its I-Track report on enhanced surveillance of risk behaviours among people who inject drugs in Canada, which reported on data collected from 2003-2005.  This report is available through PHAC's website ( The study found that 26% of the injection drug use population reported injecting drugs every day and 23.1% reported injected drugs once in awhile, but not every week. The most commonly injected drugs were: cocaine (77.5%), morphine (45.9%), Dilaudid (32.9%), crack (31.9%) and heroin (27.6%).  Approximately 26% of males and 30% of females started to inject drugs by the age of 16.  The study concluded that although risky behaviours have shown decline over the two phases of the I-track survey, the possibility of the spread of HIV and HCV in these populations still exists. 
    • Intensive Support Units for Federal Offenders – In 2006, CSC published a report outlining the impact of its Intensive Support Unit (ISU) programs for federal offenders with substance abuse problems.  ISU residency offers no special programs or privileges and offenders must sign a contract agreeing to remain drug-free. The study found that even with higher rates of individual cell and personal searches within ISUs, the rate of seizure of substance-related contraband was lower for the ISU group than for the non-ISU group, suggesting that there were fewer drugs and alcohol in the ISUs.  The study further found that in seven of the 11 months under study, no substance-related contraband was found during individual cell and personal searches within ISUs.  Random drug-testing results indicated a decline in drug use detection from 15% before admission to the ISU to 3% afterwards.  The study concluded that there is a potential savings of $8,000 per ISU participant based on decreased incarceration time and reduced likelihood of readmission. 
    • Focus on Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) – In September 2006, the Standing Committee on Health (HESA) tabled a report, Even One Is Too Many: A call for a comprehensive action plan for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder.  PHAC led the Government of Canada response, tabling their report in January 2007, and appearing before the Committee in February 2007.  New projects were funded under the FASD National Strategic Projects Fund to enhance tools and resources for diagnosing FASD. PHAC hosted the first national roundtable to develop a model for calculating the economic impact of FASD in Canada. This is a significant, long-term activity that involves health and allied professionals as well as provincial and territorial representatives.
    • Evidence-Based Treatment – CCSA prepared a report, Evidence-Based Treatment: Information for the Service Provider.  This report noted that although evidence-based treatment models exist and are available in Canada, some substance abuse programs lack a solid base in integrated theory and supporting evidence. In attempt to rectify this problem, CCSA highlighted those treatment techniques that have an evidence base. These include: skill development exercises, cognitive-behavioural relapse prevention training, high-risk identification training, social skills training, problem-solving training, coping skills training, goal-setting, motivational interviewing, employment skills training, behavioural marital counselling, stress management training, maintenance “booster” sessions and aftercare as well as community reinforcement and support services.
    • Driving Under the Influence of Cannabis – CCSA completed a study that examined the prevalence of driving while under the influence of cannabis (DUIC) in Canada.  It found that between 1988 and 2004, the percentage of drivers who reported driving after using cannabis more than doubled from 2.1% to 4.8%.   DUIC tends to involve a relatively young population who generally believe that their driving ability will not be as adversely affected by cannabis as it is by alcohol.
  2. More evidence-based responses to substance use/abuse.
    • Program Enhancements for Improved Outcomes –The RCMP continued to implement its revised programs based on program enhancements made last year, such as clarifying materials and use of more real life examples in presentations.  In addition, the RCMP conducted the first ever Canadian survey of the D.A.R.E program in November 2006 to obtain responses of students, parents, teachers and principals to assist in the future development of D.A.R.E. The D.A.R.E. survey focused on identifying how the program has increased awareness of the nature and consequences of substance use and abuse in schools and Aboriginal communities and among youth, professionals and the general public.  The final report is expected to be available in October 2007.The CCSA convened a Treatment Indicators Working Group for a two-year period beginning early in the fiscal year.  The purpose is to discuss and facilitate policy and technical initiatives to further the collection, dissemination and analysis of substance abuse treatment data.  A work plan for four projects being pursued by this working group was developed and CCSA hosted a working group meeting in October 2006.  CCSA also developed an expert working group for a coordinated approach to student drug use surveys.  A number of sub-groups were formed including: School Characteristics, Design and Analysis, and Core Indicators Working Groups.  To date, primary indicators of alcohol and cannabis use have been developed and discussions advanced regarding risks associated with use.
    • Interim Evaluation of CDS – Health Canada tabled the CDS Interim Year-2 Evaluation report and developed a management response to it. The evaluation focused on the Strategy's relevance, design, delivery and success.  More specifically, it was designed to: assess the ongoing relevancy of CDS's objectives; explore the extent to which CDS is organized to meet its objectives; and determine the Strategy's success and progress to date.  Some of the successes highlighted were: corroboration of the relevance of the overall Strategy's objective, especially with respect to prevention, treatment and enforcement; advancements in collaborative efforts among partners to address issues related to supply and demand for drugs; and the significant leadership role played by Canada internationally. Among areas identified for further review and improvement was the need to: strengthen the Strategy's capacity to conduct inspections in the area of synthetic drugs, analyze seized drugs and conduct enforcement activities; as well as enhance structures in support of horizontal and coordinated decision making.  As a result, work has commenced on implementing the recommendations, with a focus on enhanced evaluation and reporting.  Specifically, measures were initiated to streamline indicators, enhance capacity to evaluate the Drug Strategy Community Initiatives Fund (DSCIF) and other programs and develop collaborative models, such as the National Framework for Action to Reduce the Harms Associated with Alcohol and Other Drugs and Substances in Canada.  Reorientation of the Alcohol and Drug Treatment Rehabilitation (ADTR) program within Health Canada was under way with a focus on enhancing performance measurement, evaluation capacity and application of best practices.  The ADTR and the DSCIF began planning for their own performance measurement and evaluation strategy to enhance their ability to report on results.  Health Canada conducted workshops to review and streamline the CDS performance indicators to facilitate reporting on outcomes pertaining to treatment, prevention and enforcement.  It is expecting that these enhancements will be reflected in a reporting structure for the National Anti-Drug Strategy announced in Budget 2007.
    • Best Practices and Evidence-Based Responses – PHAC used results of the I-track study to plan and improve services at Needle Exchange Programs and to evaluate prevention programs.  Health Canada produced a new best practices document, Early Intervention, Outreach and Community Linkages for Women with Substance Use Problems.  Similarly, the RCMP Drugs and Organized Crime Awareness Services (DOCAS) in British Columbia continued its intelligence probe on chemical drugs and raves. Information on chemical drugs was disseminated to front-line officers who were well trained and used the information to effectively provide first-hand information and facts to youth and other partners. DOCAS helped facilitate community mobilization planning in eight Alberta communities by participating/leading discussions and planning with community partners on substance abuse related issues. 

Health Canada

Contributions Programs

$ 33.88 M

$ 14.78 M

$12.90 M[14]

Foreign Affairs Canada   $ 10.8 M $  2.90 M $ 2.90 M
Public Safety   $ .51 M   $    .10 M $  .10 M
    $ 45.19 M $ 17.78 M $ 15.90 M

Planned Results for 2006-2007:

  • Increased capacity/ability to identify, understand and address issues pertaining to the demand for and supply of illicit drugs and harmful substances.

Achieved Results for 2006-2007:

  1. Increased capacity/ability to identify, understand and address issues pertaining to the demand for and supply of illicit drugs and harmful substances.
    • Drug Strategy Community Initiatives Fund (DSCIF) – DSCIF received 38 new applications for funding.  Seventeen projects were approved but one was withdrawn. A total of 175 DSCIF projects have been funded and all include active partnerships and dissemination plans to share products and results.  Health Canada published a descriptive list of all projects on its website, including contact information, to encourage information sharing.  A total of $2,912,599 has been spent on national DSCIF projects. This has generated just under $2 million from other sources.  Similarly, regional DSCIF projects have received $6,557,425 in funding and generated over $2 million from other sources.  Although all 175 projects were successfully operating, the majority were not complete. Impact of these projects will be assessed as part of the DSCIF evaluation scheduled in 2007-08. 
    • Funding to CICAD – DFAIT coordinated negotiation and implementation of Canada's $943,000 umbrella cooperation agreement with CICAD, including $400,000 in general funding to the organization and support to the Organization's Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism review process.  Project highlights included seminars on port security, container profiling and investigative techniques (with a focus on Venezuela, Colombia, Mexico and Guatemala).  Support provided to global programs also led to an evaluation of substance abuse programs and capacity building in the area of addiction studies for the Caribbean region.  A number of these projects were pursued with the support of CDS partners. Training was continued, in Canada, for enforcement authorities from countries of Latin America and the Caribbean through the RCMP's International Observer Attachment Program.  The RCMP supplies Subject Matter Experts and instructors to provide training to police officers in Latin America, as well as Central and South America.  Public Safety Canada (PS) also funded CICAD through two contribution agreements for a total investment of $100,000.  PS held four meetings with partners to discuss gap analysis and potential projects to spend its remaining $80,000 allocation. It was determined that projects to be funded would include those that: promote a balanced approach between reducing supply of, and demand for drugs; contribute to protection of Canadian territory from illegal drug trafficking; give enhanced profile to CDS efforts; strengthen Canada's role, leadership and influence in multilateral organizations dealing with the drug problem; and enhance Canada's cooperative efforts with key bilateral partners on drug-related issues.
    • Funding to UNODC – DFAIT coordinated negotiation and implementation of Canada's $2.3 million umbrella cooperation agreement with the UNODC, including a $500,000 contribution to UNODC's drug program, and a series of projects reflective of the CDS balanced approach of addressing the supply of and demand for drugs, and also taking into consideration foreign policy priorities. Highlights included country-specific training programs such as the Afghanistan/Pakistan precursor control workshop, a drug investigation techniques workshop held in Cambodia, and building capacity for demand reduction in Afghanistan.  Support provided to regional programs aimed to improve container controls in Pakistan and Ecuador, improve collection and monitoring of demand reduction data, and improve prevention programs targeted at youth.

Health Canada

Coordination and Collaboration Programs/Activities

$ 13.16 M

$3.37 M

$ 3.37 M

Public Safety   $ 2.51 M $  .63 M $ .45 M[15]
    $ 15.67 M $4 M $ 3.82 M

Planned Results for 2006-2007:

  • Increased collaboration/involvement of stakeholders.
  • Improved coordination/direction of efforts among CDS partners/stakeholders.
  • Enhanced credibility/influence of CDS in setting directions/policies in the area of supply and demand reduction.

Achieved Results for 2006-2007:

  1. Increased collaboration/involvement of stakeholders.
    • Consultations – Key consultations included those with provincial health representatives regarding  ADTR program reorientation to support system-level treatment activities and those among CDS partners to identify gaps in federal programming regarding treatment, prevention and enforcement efforts, with a focus on illicit drugs.  Public Safety Canada conducted five presentations and provided support materials for 10 international meetings related to substance use/abuse.  Public Safety Canada also contributed by presenting 29 issues to Portfolio partners, such as drug impaired driving, precursor control regulations and Canada-U.S. drug threat assessment.
    • National Thematic Workshops – The last of the National Thematic Workshops was held on Improving the Quality, Accessibility, and Range of Options to Treat Harmful Substance Use including Substance Use Disorders.  Work continued on implementing recommendations out of the National Thematic Workshops held last year.  Furthermore, work continued to develop a National Alcohol Strategy.  This led to a report, Reducing Alcohol Related Harms in Canada: Towards a Culture of Moderation.  As a result of this report, work was initiated on National Drinking Guidelines.  Drafts of these will be available in 2007-08.  The National Treatment Strategy Working Group began developing a report and recommendations for optimizing health services' response to substance use problems, consensus was reached on priority areas, and statements drafted on concepts and indicators for research on psychotropic pharmaceutical abuse. 
    • FASD – The FASD team continued to develop linkages with other federal departments working in the area of FASD and led a Health Portfolio Working Group and an Interdepartmental Working Group on FASD.  The Health Portfolio, through the FASD team and FNIHB FASD team, built relationships with provincial and territorial representatives working in the area and with Canada Northwest FASD Partnership, Atlantic Intergovernmental FASD partnership, and Fetal Alcohol Intergovernmental Action Network of Ontario.  While contributing to sharing information, best practices and resources, and strengthening inter-governmental, cross-jurisdictional alliances, these partnerships also ensure that FASD efforts are consistent throughout Canada.
  2. Improved coordination/direction of efforts among CDS partners/stakeholders.
    • ADM Steering Committee – As per the CDS Interim Evaluation recommendation, the ADM Steering Committee governance was reviewed and revised.  It was determined that it was only necessary to bring ADMs together when there are substantive issues to discuss, while Directors General would meet on a regular basis.  The ADM Steering Committee met once and approved the Management Response to the Interim CDS Evaluation and the 4th Submission of the Multilateral Evaluation Mechanism (MEM).  ADMs also agreed to a definition of harm reduction to be utilized by the Strategy as a public health approach that places priority on reducing negative consequences of drug use, rather than on eliminating drug use or abstinence.
    • Emerging Issues Working Group – This interdepartmental working group met once on issues related to CDS partners, rather than Health Canada.  This group provides a forum for partners to share emerging concerns or activities, leading to enhanced coordination of activities and commonalities. 
    • Joint Initiatives – CDS partners were involved in many joint initiatives as a way to coordinate efforts and improve efficiency.  DSCIF of Health Canada was part of four initiatives: MOU with National Homelessness Initiative for Action for Neighbourhood Change; MOU with Justice Canada for funding six Drug Treatment Courts; MOU with NCOC for North American Opiate Medication Initiative (NAOMI) – Community Impact Study; and an MOU with the National Crime Prevention Centre for a Geo-coding project in Toronto.  In addition, the ADTR program had 10 cost-sharing agreements for treatment and rehabilitation services and the Office for Research and Surveillance participated in five joint initiatives for surveys. 
    • Interdepartmental International Working Group – CDS partners regularly met to coordinate positions and priorities for international meetings. For example, Public Safety Canada and Health Canada chaired CICAD steering group meetings and Health Canada coordinated preparations for the annual Commission on Narcotic Drugs.  DFAIT regularly chaired these meetings to coordinate Canadian programming priorities, advocacy efforts or instructions for international meetings such as for the ongoing process under UNODC and bilateral consultations with major partners such as the U.S.
  3. Enhanced credibility/influence of CDS in setting directions/policies in the area of supply and demand reduction.
    • Nationally – The Office for Research and Surveillance (ORS) received requests for scientific information to feed into policies, legal affidavits/regulations, fact sheets, best practices and publications/presentations.  A significant amount of work was accomplished related to drug-impaired driving, leading to the tabling in Parliament of Bill C-32 by the Minister of Justice.
    • Internationally – Canada secured a seat on the UN Commission on Narcotic Drugs and was elected as rapporteur to the Organization and will be represented by Canada's Permanent representative to the UN organizations in Vienna.  Canadian input is being sought on numerous international policies and issues such as the National Framework for 2006 Report on the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights and the International Narcotics Control Strategy.  Health Canada was asked to provide input into issues such as the UNODC Drug Strategy, drug-related resolutions for the UN General Assembly, CICAD's Anti-Drug Strategy, International Affairs Directorate on alcohol resolution at World Health Assembly, and resolutions for the G-8 summit. Approximately 40% of  visitors to the CDS website were international.  A Canadian resolution was adopted by the General Assembly on measures to establish by 2009 the progress achieved in implementing the declaration.  Canada was also asked to provide input on resolutions related to Afghanistan, Brazil, the United States, Australia, Japan, India, Argentina, Russia, Switzerland and Mexico.  DFAIT reported regular engagement with representatives of the administrative and legislative branches of the U.S. Government to advocate and further Canadian views and perspectives on drug issues.  As Chair of the Expert Group on Demand Reduction for CICAD, Health Canada provided leadership in a standardized evaluation framework to be used in the hemisphere in ongoing evaluation of prevention programs in substance use and abuse. Additionally, ORS within Health Canada had 10 abstracts accepted for presentations at scientific conferences, many of which were international, and had two papers published in international scientific journals.

Health Canada

Policy and Legislative Review and Development Programs/ Activities

$ 5.70 M

$1.55 M

$ 1.55 M

Planned Results for 2006-2007:

  • Improved policy and regulatory responses to the demand for and the supply of illicit drugs and harmful substances.

Achieved Results for 2006-2007:

  1. Improved policy and regulatory responses to the demand for and the supply of illicit drugs and harmful substances. Under CDS, all federal partners are involved in development and monitoring of policies and procedures to enhance the effectiveness of the operations of each partner and, therefore, the overall effectiveness.
    • Strategic Policy – Health Canada continued its efforts to improve the policy and/or regulatory response to alcohol and controlled substances.  CCSA, Health Canada and partners worked together to see the National Framework for Action to Reduce Harms Associated with Alcohol and Other Drugs and Substances in Canada formally endorsed by 43 organizations and provincial governments. The National Alcohol Strategy Working Group that was formed last year continued to meet.  A multi- stakeholder approach helped establish the foundation for a national strategy to prevent abuse of psychoactive pharmaceuticals.
    • Regulations for the Production and Distribution of Controlled Substances – Health Canada initiated and/or continued to work on multiple regulatory initiatives aimed at modernizing the controlled drugs and substances legislative and regulatory framework.  Of note is the completion of a Policy Framework and draft regulations proposing the designation of additional classes of health professionals as practitioners under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act.  Five Regional Compliance officers were hired to monitor and investigate compliance of persons and companies licensed to distribute controlled drugs or precursors with the requirements of the Regulations. A total of 14,321 licences, import/export permits, authorizations and exemptions were issued compared to 13,764 last year.  This included 1,416 licences granted for controlled drugs, precursors or industrial hemp, 1,470 precursor import/export permits, 3,754 import/export permits for controlled drugs, 1,330 scientific exemptions, 4,118 methadone exemptions and 1,735 authorizations to possess under the Marihuana Medical Access Regulations (MMAR).  Health Canada received 1,028 loss and theft reports, compared to 929 last year.  Health Canada also modified the arrears policy for the Marihuana Medical Access Program to stop shipments to clients who have been in arrears for more than 30 days (the previous policy allowed clients to be in arrears for more than 90 days). The FPT committee on substance use and abuse conducted a review of current legislation, regulations and policy governing administration of controlled substances drug therapy in management of opioid dependence to identify perceived and actual challenges under the current regulatory framework. A draft review report was produced and additional work on this project will be completed by December 2007.  This includes a survey of key stakeholders with the intention to integrate findings from the review report with the survey data in order to identify options for renewed mechanisms.  Health Canada also prepared position papers, fact sheets, speeches and talking points on Alcohol Warning Labels related to Bill C-251. 

Health Canada

Enforcement Programs/ Activities

$ 55.74 M

$ 14.26 M

$ 14.26 M

RCMP   $ 310.01 M $ 79.07 M $ 79.07 M
Canada Border Services   $ 327.60 M $ 81.90 M $ 81.90 M
Correctional Service Canada   $ 23.90 M $ 5.90 M $ 5.80 M
Justice   $ 255.44 M $ 64.50 M $ 60.24 M
    $ 972.69 M $ 245.63 M $ 241.27 M

Planned Results for 2006-2007:

  • Improved understanding and knowledge of drugs, related trends, and production and diversion methods.
  • Enhanced ability to detect and respond to the supply of illicit drugs and harmful substances.

Achieved Results for 2006-2007:

Enforcement activities under CDS include measures to halt the unlawful import, export, production, distribution and possession of controlled substances.

  1. Improved understanding and knowledge of drug production and diversion methods and related trends. Under CDS, improved understanding of the issues and contexts that contribute to real and potential growth in  production and distribution of illicit drugs and harmful substances is key to development of more effective responses to production and diversion concerns.  A number of federal partners collaborate to address these issues.  
    • Trends in Drug-Related Crimes and Charges – A total of 36,226 new drug-related files were opened, an increase of approximately 17% from 2005-06.  During the same time period, 66,449 drug-related charges were laid against 43,303 accused compared to 64,048 charges laid against 37,428 accused in 2005-06.  Comparing drug prosecution activity from 2004-05 to 2006-07, the level of drug trafficking cases billed has increased 40%, from 1,343 cases to 1,878.  The number of Possession for the Purposes of Trafficking cases has also increased by 40% from 4,835 to 6,758.  The rise in cases is believed to be due in large part to Ontario's Guns and Gangs initiative.
    • Trends in Seizures within Federal Correctional Institutions – Drug-related seizures in federal institutions decreased slightly. The number of incidents of offenders with drugs and/or drug paraphernalia seized was 8.4 per 1,000.  Last year's rate was 9.7.  Similarly, the number of incidents where drugs and or drug paraphernalia was seized from visitors decreased from 91 last year to 59 this  year. 
    • Trends in Modes of Transportation – Trend analysis identified that the primary modes of transportation of illicit drugs and harmful substances continued to be post/courier, highway and air passenger. Postal/courier transportation increased by 19% from last year, whereas highway transportation increased by 2% and air passenger decreased by 19%.
  2. Enhanced ability to detect and respond to the supply of illicit drugs and harmful substances.
    • Seizures – The RCMP spent 73,070 officer hours on investigations which led to the disruption of 372 MGOs (approximately 165,000 plants were seized for a total of just over 277 kg) and 31 clandestine labs.  This represents a decrease in MGO seizures from 2005-06 of approximately 6% and an increase in clandestine lab seizures of approximately 4%.  RCMP CDS-funded teams arrested 149 individuals and 14 criminal organizations on drug-related charges.  The RCMP also continued their intelligence probe on chemical drugs and raves and, as a result, made numerous seizures including 31 tablets being held out as ecstasy at one rave on Hallowe'en.  The RCMP trained MGO teams to respond in an ancillary role to clandestine drub laboratories in order to increase capacity to respond to CDS responsibilities. This will ensure that teams have the ability to investigate or participate in investigations regarding synthetic drug operations.  This initiative was under development and it is expected that approximately 20 officers will be trained in 2007. 
    • Seizures at Canadian Borders/Ports – There was a slight increase in drug and alcohol seizures at Canadian borders/ports compared to 2005-06 while there was a decrease in precursor seizures.  A total of 8,078 drug-related seizures were made in comparison to 3,052 alcohol-related seizures and 174 precursor-related seizures.  Drugs seized included Catha Edulis, cocaine, ephedrine, hash oil, hashish, heroin, ecstasy, marihuana, opium and steroids.
    • Analysis of Seized Drugs – Health Canada's Drug Analysis Service (DAS) was involved in 41 clandestine lab investigations, the same number as last year, and contributed to the safe dismantling of 37 labs.  A total of 104,185 exhibits were sent to DAS for analysis from law enforcement agencies with a total of 91,842 certificates and/or reports produced for police and/or Crown lawyers.  DAS also made 118,006 authorizations for destruction of seized substances, an increase of approximately 9% from 2005-06.  Similar to last year, DAS officials appeared in 40 court cases to report on results of their analyses. 
    • Detection of Illicit Drugs and Harmful Substances in Federal Institutions – Positive urinalysis  rates remained relatively stable with 12% positive test results, the same rate as last year.  The highest rate of positive results was found at medium security institutions while the lowest rate was found at minimum security institutions. 
    • Prosecution of Drug-Related Offences/Offenders – Ontario's Guns and Gangs initiative created more work for in-house counsel at the Toronto office.  It is anticipated that additional police enforcement behind this initiative will be around 170 FTEs, resulting in an increase of 15-20% in the inventory of the intake court with a consequent need to reinforce 13 staff counsel deployed to that court.  Toronto is forecasting an overall prosecution gap of 8.5 FTEs creating a need to outsource work.  The Department of Justice regional office in Calgary was also forced to outsource more drug cases due to a shortage of staff.  There was about an 11% decrease in drug-related acquittals, a 24% decrease in charges declined, a 14% decrease in discharges and an increase of 43% in diversion sentences for drug-related offenders, compared to last year.
    • Potential Diversion of Drugs and Chemical Precursors – Health Canada continues to assume primary responsibility for monitoring the licit production and distribution of drugs and chemical precursors.  Responses to the potential for diversion included 1,028 loss and theft reports, up from 929 in 2005-06 but down from 1,055 in 2004-05. 

Total $1,568.2 M 

Total $408.36 M

Total $397.43 M

16. Comments on Variances:

Comments on variances are provided in footnotes at the bottom of each relevant section.

17. Results Achieved by Non-federal Partners:

18. Contact Information:

Colleen Ryan

Manager, CDS Evaluation, Risk Management and Reporting

(613) 957-2867

19. Approved by:

Andrew Adams

20. Date Approved:

1 CDS was initiated in 1987 and has undergone a number of reiterations in the past 17 years. CDS Renewed was approved in May 2003.

2 The financials presented reflect a start date of May 2003 and an end date of 2006-2007. The funding allocation during this four year period is inclusive of both the enhanced funding received under CDS Renewed ($245 million over five years and ongoing) and A-base funding pertaining to activities undertaken in demand and supply reduction.

3 In light of the announcement of a National Anti-Drug Strategy in Budget 2007, the CDS website, which is a component of the Health Canada website, is in the process of being updated.

4 The governance structure may change under the NADS.  Any changes will be discussed in the 2007-08 DPR.

5 The Department of Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada has been changed to Public Safety Canada. 

6 On December 12, 2006, the Federal Prosecution Service of Justice Canada became the new federal Public Prosecutions Service of Canada (PPSC) as a result of the Federal Accountability Act and related enactment of the Director of Public Prosecution Act.  The PPSC is now independent of the Department of Justice and reports to Parliament through the Attorney General of Canada.

7 The CDS website was launched in August 2005.  As such, statistics from last year were only available for August to December 2005.

8 During 2006-07, this total was revisited and .68 M was moved from Treatment and Rehabilitation Programs to Contributions Programs to reflect Health Canada’s component of the Drug Treatment Courts.

9 $800 K was removed from the original $14 M budget under the Health Canada component as part of the $1 B Expenditure  Review.

10 The difference of $1.5 M between forecasted and actual spending reflects the amount allocated to Health Canada’s contribution to the Drug Treatment Court Funding Program.

11 Completions include those offenders who remain until the end of the program, both successful completions and those who attend all sessions.

12 The identified amount represents a combination of the enhanced funding provided to Health Canada under the renewal of CDS in addition to funds already being invested in research and surveillance activities prior to the renewal and prior to the separation of the Public Health Agency of Canada from Health Canada.

13 The difference of $1.41 M between forecasted and actual spending  is due to a lapse of funds related to operational delays in delivery of research and surveillance activities, including approximately $500 K in lapsed funds related to delays in the contracting process with PWGSC for the Canadian Alcohol and Drug Monitoring Survey and approximately $900 K for projects that were postponed or cancelled due to changing priorities and delays in the approval process at the provincial/territorial level; monies unspent due to publications not receiving Ministerial approval; as well as monies not being transferred to other agencies due to delays in production of their reports.

14 Health Canada figures represent total allocation amounts for the Drug Treatment Court Funding Program ($2.78 M) and the Drug Strategy Community Initiatives Fund ($12 M). The variance is due to a lapse in funding for DSCIF in the amount of $223,104 due to unspent funds at year-end under contribution agreements; monies not dedicated to specific projects;  monies unspent due to projects not receiving Ministerial approval as well as the $182 K reduction from the $1 B Expenditure Review and transfers from other departments. The variance for DTCFP was $1.5 M due to a $1.5 M contribution to the Expenditure Review.

15 Due to unusual operational delays in obtaining required information and approval related to planned contributions, a percentage of the contribution funding could not be expended.  In addition, human resource-related issues resulted in less than complete use of operational funds.

Table 17 Horizontal Initiative

1. Federal Strategy on Early Childhood Development (ECD) for First Nations and Other Aboriginal Children 2. Health Canada, First Nations and Inuit Health Branch
3. Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative:
ECD - October 2002
Early Learning and Child Care (ELCC) - December 2004
4. End Date of the Horizontal Initiative:
ECD - 2006-07 and ongoing
ELCC - 2007-08 and ongoing
5. Total Federal Funding Allocation:
ECD in 2002 - $320 M over 5 years ($65 M ongoing) to enhance and expand various federal ECD programs
ELCC in 2004 - $45 M over three years ($14 M ongoing) to increase integration, coordination, access and quality of two ECD/ELCC programs

6. Description of the Horizontal Initiative: The Federal Strategy on ECD for First Nations and Other Aboriginal Children was announced on October 31, 2002. The Strategy provides $320 million over five years to: improve and expand existing ECD programs and services for Aboriginal children; expand ECD capacity and networks; introduce new research initiatives to improve understanding of how Aboriginal children are doing; and work towards the development of a "single window" approach to ensure better integration and coordination of federal Aboriginal ECD programming. In December 2004, as the first phase of a "single window," Cabinet approved an additional $45 million over three years ($14 million ongoing) to improve integration and coordination of two ECD programs, (Aboriginal Head Start On-Reserve and the First Nations and Inuit Child Care Initiative), beginning in 2005-2006. The objectives of these funds are to increase access to and improve the quality of ELCC programming for First Nations children on-reserve, and improve integration and coordination between the two programs through joint planning, joint training and co-location. Joint planning will also include Indian and Northern Affairs Canada (INAC) funded child care programs.

7. Shared Outcome(s):
The federal ECD Strategy complements the September 2000 First Ministers F/P/T ECD Agreement. It seeks to address the gap in life chances between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal children by improving the developmental opportunities to which Aboriginal children (and their families) are exposed at an early age (0-6 years). These outcomes are shared by the following federal departments: Health Canada - First Nations and Inuit Health Branch, Public Health Agency of Canada, Human Resources and Social Development Canada (Aboriginal Affairs Directorate and Social Policy Development Directorate) and Indian and Northern Affairs Canada.

The funding, approved in December 2004, to enhance child care and work towards the first phase of a "single window", complements funding released to provinces and territories under the March 2003 Multilateral Framework for Early Learning and Child Care to improve access to early learning and child care programs and services.

8. Governance Structure(s):  Interdepartmental ECD Assistant Deputy Minister Steering Committee; Interdepartmental ECD Working Group.

9. Federal Partners

10. Names of Programs for the Federal Partners

11. Total Allocation

 12. Planned Spending for 2006-07i

 13. Actual Spending in 2006-07

 14. Planned Results for 2006-07

 15. Results Achieved in 2006-07

a)  Health Canada (HC)

(a) Aboriginal Head Start On-Reserve (AHSOR)

$21.5 M

$7.0 M

$20.6M 1

$8.3 M

$26 M

Program expansion and enhancement

See details below  

$15 M

$14.9 M

$14.3 M

 Program expansion and enhancement

See details below

(c) Building Capacity and Networks

$1.02 M

$.95 M

$.66 M

Building capacity and networks

See details below

(d) Horizontal Training

$1.3 M

$1.3 M

$1.3 M


See details below

b)  Public Health Agency of Canada (PHAC)

(a) Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities

$ 12.6 M

$12.6 M

$12.6 M

Program expansion and enhancement

See details below

(b) Building Capacity and Networks

$500 K

$500 K

$500 K

Program expansion and enhancement

See details below

c)  Human Resources and Social Development Canada (HRSDC)

(a) First Nations and Inuit Child Care Initiative (FNICCI)

$9.14 M

$7 M

$9.14 M

$7 M

$16.14 M

Program expansion and enhancement
Increased integration, coordination, access and quality.

See details below

(b) Aboriginal Children's Survey

$3.44 M ongoing

$6 M2

$6 M (est)2

Consultations, finalize content development, collection, data processing and promotional activities development.

See details below

(c) Understanding the Early Years - Aboriginal component

$700 K

$700 K


Understanding the Early Years Call for Proposals to encourage applications from Aboriginal communities

Held consultations with national First Nations, Metis and Inuit organizations

d) Indian Affairs and Northern Development


(a) "Single Window" Work

$0.879 M


$0.879 M

Better coordination and integration

See details below

(b) Building Capacity and Networks

$0.131 M $0.131M $0.131 M


See details below





Total    $80.21M

Total  $82.27M






 16. Comments on Variances
Aboriginal Head Start On-Reserve:
All available funding was allocated to meet regional health program needs, including those services that First Nations have identified as priorities.

2 Aboriginal Children's Survey:
Planned spending figure reflects the fact that 2006-2007 was a data collection year. Actual spending figure for 2006-2007 of $6 million is an estimate as actual spending has not been finalized.

3 Understanding the Early Years (UEY) - Aboriginal component:
In late 2004, when the national UEY initiative was announced and assigned to HRSDC's Income Security and Social Development Branch, the management of the Aboriginal component of UEY was also transferred, along with an allocation of $700 K on an ongoing basis.  The implementation of Aboriginal UEY was intended to coincide with the fielding of the first data collection of the Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS).  Since the ACS was not fielded until fall 2006, the Aboriginal component of UEY was delayed.

17. Results Achieved by Non-federal Partners - see details below
18. Contact Information
Geoffrey Gurd, Manager, ECD,
First Nations and Inuit Health Branch,
Health Canada Postal Locator 1920D
Tunney's Pasture, Ottawa
Telephone: (613) 952-5064
Fax:  (613) 952-5244
19. Approved by
Kathy Langlois
Director General
Community Programs Directorate
First Nations and Inuit Health Branch
20. Date Approved

i The allocations, planned spending and actual spending figures (above) include only incremental funding provided under two initiatives: the 2002 Federal Strategy on ECD for First Nations and Other Aboriginal Children and the 2004 initiative to enhance child care and working towards the first phase of the "single window."  These figures do not include base allocations to programs. 

Aboriginal Head Start On-Reserve (AHSOR):
Details on results achieved in 2006-2007 are not available, as the AHSOR National Office will not receive the AHSOR regional progress reports until November 2007.  In  2005-2006 reports, regions committed to some of the following activities:

  • promote integration and cooperation between AHSOR and other early childhood programs both at the community level and at the regional level;
  • continue to organize training in different areas to help maintain and improve the quality of the AHSOR program;
  • improve reporting and communications between HC and communities;
  • continue to develop and improve on outreach/home visiting programs.

The following can be said regarding 2006-2007:

  • Approximately 9,000 children participated in AHS programs.
  • Integration of sites and cooperation among different programs such as Health Canada's AHSOR, HRSDC's FNICCI, INAC's daycares in Ontario and Alberta, as well as local and provincial programs continued to take place at community and regional levels.
  • AHSOR capital infrastructure was enhanced through the support of capital projects.
  • AHSOR funding was expanded to a further 96 First Nations communities in Ontario. The majority of funding was used for program preparation and development including training and minor capital.
  • Training was provided in some regions for AHSOR outreach and home visit workers for unserved and underserved communities

Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder - First Nations and Inuit Component:

Key accomplishments include: 30 First Nations Mentoring programs established across Canada; three national training sessions delivered to approximately 45 front-line staff and program supervisors.  An additional 41 First Nations and Inuit facilitators trained in the community planning tool "Asset Mapping."  Finally, 11 new community coordinator projects have started in First Nations communities.  Community coordinators will support children to access diagnostic services earlier through connecting families to services and professionals.

Building Capacity and Networks: 
As part of the 2002 Federal Strategy's capacity-building component, Health Canada funding is provided annually to five national Aboriginal organizations: the Assembly of First Nations (AFN), Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Congress of Aboriginal Peoples, Mtis National Council, and Native Women's Association of Canada.  As well, Indian and Northern Affairs Canada is providing annual funding to Pauktuutit Inuit Women of Canada.   This funding enabled these national Aboriginal organizations to contribute through strategic planning and capacity building in their own organizations.  

Funding also continued to support development of an Aboriginal service providers' network, called the Aboriginal Children's Circle of Early Learning (ACCEL).  Departments were assessing the effectiveness of the network, and started to explore alternate ways of meeting community needs for networking and providing access to program resources. Culturally specific ECD materials were developed by the Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami and the Mtis National Council for inclusion on the ACCEL website. 

Horizontal Training:

Most of this funding goes to regions to support training for ECD workers in AHSOR and FNICCI sites. A working group has been established with representation from AFN, INAC, HC and HRSDC and is developing a laddered ECD training strategy.  This will lead to culturally appropriate certification of providers of ELCC programming for First Nations children living on-reserve and supports coordination between AHSOR, FNICCI and INAC funded daycares in Alberta and Ontario.  A scan of available ECD training and providers has been completed. 

Aboriginal Head Start in Urban and Northern Communities (AHSUNC):

  • Improve access for children: 130 sites serving 4,500 children in 2007.
  • Enhance special needs training, new resources
  • Strengthen community capacity and support networks: According to the 2003-2005 Impact Evaluation, AHS has increased social networking among parents and staff.  In some communities, the networking is linked to the community having increased cultural activities.  Additionally, the volunteer and employment opportunities have led to more people in the community contributing to the local economy.
  • Optimal development of children's school readiness: The 2005 Impact Evaluation indicates that Kindergarten teachers report high levels of personal and social development in AHSUNC children and that school readiness findings are comparable to outcomes reported in similar early intervention studies.
  • Parental involvement, social support, health promotion, nutrition: From the 2005 Impact Evaluation, parents of AHSUNC three and four year olds note positive changes in their children's physical development, health and nutritional practices and personal/social development.  Positive changes are noted in family nutrition and health practices, in particular with the serving of more nutritious food in the home and children improving dental and other hygiene practices.
  • Impact Evaluation feedback to communities was undertaken.
First Nations and Inuit Child Care Initiative (FNICCI):

HRSDC collaborated with other departments on Aboriginal Early Childhood Development to explore options, and develop a "single window" service delivery approach while supporting quality child care programs on-reserve and in the North. Program expansion and enhancement took place through joint planning, training and capital.

Aboriginal Children's Survey (ACS):

Results include consultations for the ACS, finalizing the content of the questionnaire, formatting the questionnaire, preparation of interviewer material, preparation of communication materials, collection of national survey, data capture, data processing and preparation of a dissemination strategy.

Understanding the Early Years (UEY) - Aboriginal component:
In preparation for the 2006 UEY Call for Proposals and fielding of the ACS, UEY staff consulted with federal colleagues in HRSDC, INAC, PHAC and HC to discuss a strategy for encouraging proposals from Aboriginal communities.  A communications strategy was launched with key national organizations: Assembly of First Nations, Inuit Tapiriit Kanatami, Pauktuutit, Mtis National Council and Native Women's Association of Canada, Congress of Aboriginal Peoples and the National Association of Friendship Centres.

"Single Window" Work:

INAC began work, in conjunction with federal partners, on Single Window Service Delivery Demonstration Projects which would explore integration and coordination of ECD Programs within existing authorities.  Over 50 First Nations communities expressed interest in participating and 17 were recommended for these projects.  Those selected will be testing in 2007-2008 either streamlined reporting and a single funding mechanism; streamlined reporting, a single funding mechanism and community coordination/integration and development; or streamlined reporting only.  Results will enable departments to assess which approach best increases accountability, provides community-level flexibility, streamlines financial reporting, improves coordination, and enhances the quality of ECD programming.  In 2006, the ECD Working Group held meetings with national Aboriginal organizations to further work on the Single Window. In March 2007, Orientation and Training sessions on these demonstration projects were held for members from each participating community.  Sessions were also held with regional employees from the federal departments involved to discuss their role in these activities.

Table 17 : Horizontal Initiative

1. Building Public Confidence in Pesticide Regulation and Improving Access to Pest Management Products
2. Name of Lead Department: Pest Management Regulatory Agency (PMRA) - Health Canada (HC)
3. Start Date: 2002–2003 4. End Date: 2008–2009

6. Description of the Horizontal Initiative

The initiative is a part of the federal government’s commitments as outlined in the Treasury Board submission Building Public Confidence in Pesticide Regulation and Improving Access to Pest Management Products. The submission and its associated Results-based Management and Accountability Framework (RMAF) describe the integrated approach by which initiatives will be measured, managed and reported throughout their life cycle. An important element of the commitments made is that stakeholders and the public will be kept informed through a transparent management system.  Participating departments will work together for shared outcomes; measure performance on delivery; and review progress achieved. This initiative incorporates six federal government partners to increase public and stakeholder confidence in the pesticide regulatory system, to protect health and environment, and to increase the competitiveness of the agri-food and forestry sectors. Research and monitoring in the area of pesticides is being coordinated with their regulation.

The presence and effects of pesticides in the environment, in marine and freshwater ecosystems, and in the forest environment are being monitored. The initiative enhances monitoring and enforcement of pesticide residue limits in foods, in feed, of pesticide residues in fertilizers, and pesticide guarantee verification for fertilizer-pesticide combinations. Reduced-risk pesticides and biological pesticides for forestry are being developed and their use facilitated. Commodity-based risk reduction strategies for the agriculture and agri-food sector are being developed and implemented. Programs improving access to agricultural minor-use pesticides and reduced-risk pesticides for agricultural use are being established. Research to support introduction of minor-use pesticides that pose a reduced risk to the environment is being conducted. A reporting system to track adverse effects of pesticides has been developed, and information will be collected and recorded. Collectively, this work is being conducted to achieve public confidence in increased conservation and protection of human health and the environment while contributing to the competitiveness of Canada ’s agricultural sector.

The information in this table has been organized along three main themes:

1. Research and Monitoring, carried out by Agriculture and Agri-food Canada (AAFC), the Canadian Food Inspection Agency (CFIA), the Department of Fisheries and Ocean (DFO), Environment Canada (EC), Health Canada’s PMRA, and Natural Resources Canada (NRCan)

2. Developing and Implementing Commodity Specific Risk Reduction Strategies, carried out by AAFC and HC’s PMRA

3. Generation of Data to Support Registration of Reduced-Risk and Minor-Use Pesticides for the Agricultural and Agri-food Sector and Reduced-Risk Pesticides and Biopesticides for Forestry, carried out by AAFC, HC’s PMRA and NRCan

7. Shared Outcomes:

Immediate Outcomes:

  • Increased knowledge by PMRA about pesticides and alternatives
  • Registration of reduced-risk and minor-use pesticides
  • Access to safer pest management practices and products
  • Compliance for safer food, feed, fertilizers and fertilizer-pesticide combinations

Intermediate Outcomes:

  • A regulatory system that better protects health and environment and contributes to the competitiveness of the agri-food and forestry sectors
  • Use of safer pest management practices and products
  • Increased transparency of pesticide regulation

Final Outcome:

Increased public and stakeholder confidence in pesticide regulation, protected health and environment as well as increased competitiveness of the agri-food and forestry sectors

8. Governance Structures:

  • PMRA (HC)—Executive Director
  • EC—Director General, Conservation Strategies Directorate and Director General, National Programs Directorate
  • DFO—Director General, Fisheries, Environment and Biodiversity Science
  • NRCan—Director General, Science Branch, Canadian Forest ServiceAAFC—Assistant Deputy Minister of Farm Financial Programs Branch and Assistant Deputy Minister of Research Branch, Executive Director, Pest Management Centre
  • CFIA—Vice President, Programs
  • Deputy Minister Committee—Deputy Minister from Health and AAFC
  • AAFC/PMRA Joint Management Committee: Assistant Deputy Minister of Farm Financial Programs Branch, AAFC, Assistant Deputy Minister of Research Branch, AAFC, Executive Director, PMRA, Health Canada, Treasury Board Secretariat (ex-officio member)

9. Federal Partners

10. Names of Programs

11. Total Allocation

12. Planned Spending for 2006–2007

13. Actual Spending for 2006–2007

14. Expected Results for 2006–2007

15. Actual Results for 2006–2007



(a) Conducting research to support introduction of minor-use pesticides that pose a reduced risk to the environment.


$8.0 M





$2.0 M

$ .04 M AL

.01 M EBP

1.50 M NPO


Following evaluation of research projects, continued funding for some as appropriate.  Final reports and next steps for implementation of research results under way for projects completed in March 2006.

Initiation (in April,2006) of approximately 20 projects in Minor-Use Research and Biopesticide Initiatives as a result of November 2005 Project Call. Results of one year of research work on these projects to be reported upon (April 2007).

Research planning, coordination continued with MOU Research Working Group.

Continued funding approved for 10 of 12 projects evaluated during February 2006 Evaluation Workshop for fourth (final) year. Two projects completed as of April 2006 resulted in:

1) Integrated Pest Management (IPM) plan for  management of leek moth, including submissions for registration of reduced-risk  products Btk and spinosad and,

2) Identification of RR herbicide options for use in special crops, and data to support registration of sulfentrazone and carfentrazone-ethyl.

Final reports for 10 ongoing projects due Q1 2007-2008.

As a result of the November 2005 Project Call  for Proposals, new projects were selected in 2006 for funding (under Minor-Use Research, Biopesticides, and Screening Trials Initiatives). A total of 30 projects were funded (20 new, 10 ongoing; the remaining project was selected in March 2006 and begins April 2007); 97% (29 of 30 projects) have met milestones to the end of March 2007.

Research priorities and results were shared at two meetings of AAFC/PMRA Minor-Use Research Working Group (July, November) and one meeting of 5NR Pesticide Working Group (October) and the 5NR Environmental Assessment Workshop (February 2007).

Extra activity 1: Biopesticides work with registrants.

Submission of data package to support Category A registration of BlightBan A506 to PMRA.  Submission of a bio-fungicide package to the registrant anticipated before end of May 2007. Submission of data package to registrant to support label expansion of Surround. Assistance provided to registrant for preparation of data package to support Category A submission of Met 52.

Also as a result of promotional activities with U.S. and Canadian biopesticide companies, there is new interest in Canadian registrations.  Several companies have made new submissions directly to PMRA.

Extra Activity 2: Selection of projects where pest solutions don’t appear to exist.  Developed and piloted a proposal with Minor- Use Program personnel, resulting in funding of two projects to screen for reduced-risk solutions (green mould in mushrooms and weeds in ginseng).


(b) Enhanced monitoring and enforcement of pesticide residue limits in food and feed.

$2.95 M

$0.25 M

$0.25 M

Identify food commodities consumed by targeted subgroup (children).

Lab testing of approximately 1,500 samples per year.

Follow-up inspections for non-compliant test sample results.

Publish annual report of findings of National Chemical Residues Monitoring Program (NCRMP).

Food recalls, as required, for risk mitigation and removal of hazardous foods from marketplace.

Program targeted traditional and organically labelled baby foods.

Method used in analysis of samples was  perfected by CFIA as a result of funding received in this initiative.

Increased sensitivity was achieved in these analyses.



(c) Enhanced monitoring and enforcement of pesticide residues in fertilizers and pesticide guarantee verification in fertilizer-pesticide combinations.

$2.15 M

$0.25 M

$156 K

lapsed funding to be used in next fiscal year

Develop monitoring and surveillance policies and processes to guide and advise operational staff on fertilizer-pesticide combinations and pesticide contaminated fertilizers.

Increase interaction with PMRA to obtain the most up-to-date pesticide safety and labelling information.

Update the Compendium of Fertilizer-Use Pesticides, which contains information regarding registration, guarantees and proper labelling.

Work to develop regulatory changes to facilitate updating of the Compendium, and, if successful, provide updates more regularly to producers of mixtures and to CFIA’s inspection staff.

Advise CFIA Operations on appropriate follow-up procedures and recommendations regarding the significance of sample analytical results.

Sample fertilizer-pesticide combinations to verify guarantees.

Sample fertilizers suspected to be contaminated with pesticides.

Verify fertilizer-pesticide labels.

Conduct investigation and compliance activities (anticipated based on sampling and inspection frequencies).

Analyze samples submitted by inspectors.

Inspection Memorandum I-4-93, a document identifying inspection activities and sample quotas for the year, was provided to inspection staff. To facilitate label verification in the field and maintain consistency, a list of all registered fertilizer-pesticides and labels was updated and distributed to inspectors. Inspectors were guided on appropriate non-compliance follow-up when needed.

The pesticide guarantee verification program has been redesigned, with the help of stakeholders, to improve compliance rate.

CFIA’s tolerance for pesticide residues in fertilizers was reviewed and amended.

Enforcement procedures in response to non-compliance were developed through a National Training Initiative to promote consistency in enforcement actions across Canada.

CFIA and PMRA are jointly working to develop sub-agreements to an existing Memorandum of Understanding on regulation and/or registration of products under the Fertilizers Act and Pest Control Products Act, as well as a process to increase communication between the two agencies.

CFIA is participating in the Building Public Confidence TB Initiative Evaluation Working Group.

CFIA is participating in the 6NR Pesticides and Pest Management Working Group.

The 3rd edition of the CFUP is pending in Canada Gazette, Part II.  CFIA is looking into regulatory changes and expedited mechanisms to allow for more frequent updates.  A new format is being created to facilitate public availability, and updates were distributed.

Inspectors took 140 samples of fertilizer-pesticides for pesticide guarantee verification, and 80 samples of fertilizer products for the presence of pesticide residues. This is more than a three-fold increase for both programs over the average number of samples taken from 2000-01 to 2002-03.  Follow-up actions on 49 non-compliant samples included warning letters, product detentions and investigations. Inspectors reviewed 137 fertilizer-pesticide labels for compliance with the Fertilizers Act and Regulations.

Number of samples analyzed was 131 for pesticide guarantee verification and 63 for pesticide contamination audit.

Analytical methodologies for the guarantee verification of 32 pesticides were reviewed to ensure that they are current and properly executed.

Work is being done with the Calgary Lab on a method development for testing pesticide residues in organic fertilizers, like compost.Number of samples analyzed was 131 for pesticide guarantee verification and 63 for pesticide contamination audit.

3. DFO


(d) Monitor and research  presence and effects of pesticides in marine and freshwater ecosystems.

$7.9 M

$1.0 M

$1.0 M

Provide PMRA with final reports on four regional National Fund projects:

1) Impacts of forest spray programs on trout/salmon, Newfoundland-Labrador;

2) Effects of pesticides on fish reproduction, Quebec;

3) Impacts of pesticides on salmon habitat and on neurological development, Pacific;

4) Potential for biological effects from episodic release of pesticides into the aquatic environment, Gulf and Maritimes.

Provide PMRA with a status report from DFO’s Centre for Environmental Research on Pesticides (CERP).

CERP will conduct studies to quantify impacts of exposure to pesticide residues in two model systems in Canada: one representative of prairie land use and another indicative of southern Ontario land use pattern.  Impacts will be quantified in terms of reproductive success of native fish populations as well as overall population numbers.

After consultation with PMRA, DFO will design and initiate new research projects related to the theme -“Population Level Impacts of Pesticides on Fisheries Resources”.

Contribute to Formative Evaluation of the Building Public Confidence in Pesticide Regulation and Improving Access to Pest Management Products Horizontal Initiative.

DFO presented reports to PMRA at 5NR Workshop In Ottawa February 25-27, 2007.

Summary written reports being assembled for submission to PMRA as a single document

Comprises a portion of the summary report above.

CERP conducted studies in Ontario and initiated collaboration with Dr. Annemieke Fairenhorst (University of Manitoba) to examine impacts in prairie wetlands.

Four projects under this theme have been funded for 2007-2008.

DFO contributed to development of a Memorandum of Understanding under which pesticide research results will be shared among the 5NR departments. Furthermore, DFO contributed to development of an integrated workplan for the 5NR departments.

4. EC

(e) Monitor and research  presence and effects of pesticides in the environment.

$7.0 M

$1.0 M

$1.0 M

  • Start a new cycle of research and monitoring projects;
  • Support up to six new research and monitoring project themes to determine environmental concentrations and impacts of in-use pesticides in the environment;
  • Produce a summary document on highlights of research and monitoring investigations covering the first cycle of work (2003-2006);
  • Produce an annual report and make it available to PMRA;
  • Provide science advice to meet regulatory data gaps and knowledge deficiency as well as to improve risk assessment methods.

EC leads in specific research and monitoring themes have provided EC’s Pesticide Program Coordinating Committee with a document highlighting each theme’s results for the first three-year cycle of work.  Themes include air and water surveillance; fish, amphibian and multitrophic aquatic effects; and plant, mammal and bird terrestrial effects.  Following three years of research we will obtain answers to questions regarding knowledge generation with highlights of findings, contribution to the initial Pesticide

Under Environment Canada's new management structure, the Pesticide Program falls under the Clean Water Result and is  coordinated by the EC Pesticide Program Coordinating Committee. We have maintained and are continuing activities addressing the following:

  • science policy;
  • research and monitoring;
  • issue management and communications;
  • enforcement and compliance promotion.
  • Embarked on a new cycle of the Pesticide Science Fund (PSF) to further support research and monitoring projects.
  • Supported 10 new research and monitoring project themes.  These projects build on existing knowledge from related projects.
  • Consistently produced an annual report of PSF activities and submitted to PMRA.  There is a delay in delivery of this year’s report but EC will rectify the situation shortly.
  • Produced a draft summary public document that highlights research and monitoring activities during the first cycle of work (2003-2006).  This is being reviewed by senior management and will be released shortly.
  • Participating in the Building Public Confidence MC - TB Formative Evaluation.
  • Formalized PMRA’s representation on National Agri-Environmental Standards Initiative (NAESI) Pesticides theme steering group.

4. EC






Science Fund (PSF) objectives (e.g. national in scope and linked to regulatory decision-making priority, advanced knowledge of pesticide fate and effects), contribution to future departmental priorities, links within EC and to interdepartmental research/monitoring activities, leverage of complementary work and building of partnerships, scientific (or other) publications and finally, the theme’s top five priorities for PSF (including research, monitoring, methods development, risk assessment and modelling).

These documents were used by the Committee to prioritize research and monitoring activities for a second cycle of work beginning in 2006-2007.  Environmental priorities will be set according to the fundamentals of detecting change, understanding why it is occuring, better understanding what we can do about it, and using this information to inform decision makers and Canadians. Collected knowledge will be used in the context of EC’s Competitiveness and Environmental Sustainability Framework (CESF) and applied to pesticides. This will support decisions related to national competitiveness, protection of the health and safety of Canadians as well as to conservation of ecosystem functions.

Continue to provide science advice to PMRA to meet regulatory data gaps, reduce  knowledge deficiencies, and improve risk assessment methods. EC provided significant input into PMRA’s

  • Environmental risk assessment and Track 1 assessment for Endosulfan; 
  • Re-evaluation note on uses of 2,4-D on lawn and turf grass.

Showcased PSF achievements at national and international venues to facilitate the exchange of information that will allow achievement of  PSF objectives and use of this information to inform decision makers and Canadians.

  • Presented PSF at Society of Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry (SETAC) and Aquatic Toxicity Workshop (ATW) at special session on pesticides
  • Presented PSF to senior EC management. Several meetings were held among senior management at EC, PMRA and AAFC in an ongoing effort to further efficiencies and coordination.
  • Coordinated with International Affairs Branch for issues financed under the Montreal Protocol that address the use of fumigants (methyl bromide, methyl isothianate and other alternatives).

Co-hosted 5NR Pesticide Research and Monitoring Workshop - EC presented on 11 topics.

Hosted pesticide water monitoring workshops to present current data and better link with PMRA needs. Proceedings were produced.

4. EC






To better integrate and coordinate research with regulation, EC will continue to work with PMRA in  implementation of the EC/PMRA MOU. The MOU has four components: Science Policy, Knowledge Generation, Issue Management and Compliance Promotion and Enforcement.  EC will continue providing leadership in development and implementation of a coordinated federal pesticides science strategy for research and monitoring. As well, EC will continue to contribute to PMRA’s pesticide assessments where appropriate and will continue to provide science/policy advice on key Government of Canada policies as they relate to pesticide management and use.

Met with industry to promote development of Canadian Environmental Quality Guidelines on pesticides.

Establishing Canadian Council of Ministers of the Environment (CCME) sub-committee to focus solely on pesticide-related issues.

Drafting 6NR MOU and workplans to establish mechanisms that facilitate exchange of scientific information and advice and promote strong working relationships among six federal partners.

5. HC (PMRA)

(f) Linking pesticide regulation and research.

$4.2 M

$0.8 M

$0.8 M

Identify PMRA’s research and monitoring priorities annually and communicate to 5NR partners through regular meetings and other avenues as needed. Facilitate discussion among the 5NR on identifying actions to address specific priorities, including collaborative research.

Discuss with the 5NR how the results of their research and monitoring are used in regulatory decisions to build better linkages between research and regulation.

Facilitate two-way communication and coordination between governments within Canada (through PMRA’s FPT Committee) and internationally as well as with the private and academic sectors, through presentations linking research and regulation at regional, national and international meetings e.g. through SETAC, CSA, IUPAC.

To strengthen the framework in linking pesticide research and monitoring, develop a MOU amongst the 5NR.

Improve risk assessment procedures particularly in  environmental fate prediction e.g. water modelling and exposure assessment. Continue to improve and expand the use of probabilistic risk assessments.

PMRA hosted a 6NR workshop that included provincial and industry representatives. The workshop provided a forum where pesticide regulators and researchers from the 5NR departments could exchange information on pesticide research and monitoring and how these fit into the regulatory framework; PMRA assessment and mitigation of pesticide risk to the environment and results of recent 5NR pesticide research in environmental toxicology and environmental fate, and environmental monitoring. 

There was discussion on future research and monitoring priorities, and linkages to the current PMRA re- evaluation schedule.

Subsequently, a draft 6NR integrated workplan was completed and circulated to the 6NR departments for comments (to be finalized in spring 2007).

A 6NR DG level committee was formed, an MOU was produced and circulated amongst the members for approval (spring 2007).

A new NAFTA project on degradation kinetics was initiated. This will provide tools and guidance for both assessment and modelling purposes.  A tiered approach to aquatic exposure assessment has been fully implemented.

The Directorate is improving its capacity for using and assessing probabilistic risk assessment methods on several fronts. First, an introductory course on probabilistic risk assessment was delivered to the entire directorate in February 2007. In addition, four scientists within the Directorate have been chosen to form a probabilistic technical working group. This group will receive advanced training on probabilistic methods this fiscal year and will provide expert advice and/or analytical support on issues related to probabilistic risk assessments.  A probabilistic approach has been used in two recent assessments.           

5. HC


(g) Conducting research to support introduction of minor-use pesticides that pose a reduced risk to the environment.

$3.5 M

$0.9 M

$0.9 M

Advance risk assessment methodologies through:

1 - Further refinement and application of environmental protection goals;

2 - Publication of draft guidance on environmental risk assessment methods;

3 - Research to support harmonization of risk assessment methodology with international partners e.g. occupational exposure assessment, ground water modelling, pesticide degradation kinetics.

Facilitate access to reduced-risk products, specifically low risk products, through developing, and publishing for external comment, guidance on registration of low risk products.

Continue to develop a database on environmental toxicology and fate to guide decisions, internally and externally, on comparative risk and reduced-risk products.

Finalize and publish a Best Management Practices guide to reduce spray drift by applicators.  Publish for public comment a document identifying various options to better communicate buffer zones on labels to applicators.

A 6NR integrated workplan is under development.

A draft guidance on environmental risk assessment methods within the Directorate is being revised.

To facilitate residue chemistry assessments, crop group schemes to incorporate additional Minor Use crops (NAFTA/CODEX) were developed or expanded. Also crop profiles were developed with AAFC for ornamentals. Additionally, Dietary Risk Assessments (DRA) were facilitated for Minor Use crops.

Agricultural statistics were updated based on most recent consumption data for DRA and Maximum Residue Limits (MRL) setting that is undergoing validation. (HED)

A new NAFTA project with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) on degradation kinetics was initiated. A NAFTA project with the U.S. EPA on ground water model selection, scenario and guidance  development continues.

Guidance document on low risk pesticides has been drafted and discussed with PMAC, FPT and numerous industry associations.  Guidance document is in editing/translation.

Development and transfer of database from Microsoft Access to the Agency Pesticide database (Oracle) was initiated. An MOU with AAFC for providing data for their National Agr-Environmental Health Analysis and Reporting Program (NAHARP) indicator project was developed and approved.

Finalization and publication of the documents has been delayed due to submission workload

6. NRCan

(h) Research and monitor pesticides in the forest environment.

$3.5 M

$0.4 M


$0.4 M

Third and final year of research work for four projects will be completed. Provide results to clients/stakeholders and PMRA in reports and publications. Research projects are:

1) Environmental fate and ecological effects of a systemic insecticide for control of exotic wood boring insect pests. Completion of second year field research program (GLP study comparing fate of imidacloprid following soil and stem injections);

2) Development of a biological treatment for control of root rot pathogen and impact on microbial biodiversity;

3) Advanced methods for monitoring impacts of pest control products on key microbial communities of forest soils. Publish guidelines that demonstrate the use of cutting edge molecular methods to study environmental fate of microbes;

4) Monitoring status of spruce budworm population to improve forest protection programs, integration of information on mortality agents in infestation forecasting and spray decision making for spruce budworm.

Refine research priorities and plan for request for new proposals, January 2007.

Final Reports and publications were completed and data submitted for the four projects, in support of product registration.

Research presentations were made at a session entitled Enhanced Pest Management Perspective, Forest Pest Management Forum (December 2006).

Participated in the 6NR Environmental Information Exchange on Pest Management Research and Monitoring in Canada 2007 (February 2007) hosted by PMRA. The main objective was to provide a forum for sharing of information and data.  The following papers presented were by NRCan-CFS:

  • An overview of NRCan-CFS Enhanced Pest Management Program;
  • Systemic insecticide imidacloprid as a reduced-risk pesticide for control of invasive forest insect pests. Indications are that imidacloprid if used as a systemic insecticide for control of emerald ash borer in ash trees will pose less risk of harm to decomposer organisms when applied as stem injections than when applied as soil injections;
  • Efficacy trials of the biological agent Phlebiopsis Gigantea to control annosus root rot;
  • Monitoring impacts of pest control products on key microbial communities of forest soils. A database (EdIRT) to catalogue indicators of microbial function and diversity in forest soils was developed;
  • Ecotoxicological assessment of glyphosate-base herbicides’ potential effects on amphibians; and
  • Fate of naturally occurring and recombinant spruce budworm nucleopolyhedroviruses in outdoor aquatic microcosms.

A new cycle of proposals is to be initiated in 2007-2008.





(a) Commodity-based risk reduction strategies.

$19.3 M

$2.5 M

$0.40 M SAL

0.07 M EBP

1.53 M NPO

.45 M PWG


$2.45  M Total

Process to engage stakeholders in crop prioritization based on risk and needs assessments developed.

Next wave of about 10 crop profiles to be finalized and published.

Develop up to five risk reduction strategies and support implementation of priority projects as established with Technical Working Group/stakeholders.

Fund research and implementation projects from November 2005 Call for Proposals.

Follow-up from workshop on barriers to grower adoption of IPM practices.

Analyze data from pilot pesticide use survey.

Continued implementation of AAFC/PMRA joint communication plan.

More than 30 meetings held with stakeholders of priority commodities to determine key pest management issues for risk reduction and to develop strategies to deal with these issues.

Twelve crop profiles published on website (4 new crop profiles and 8 updates completed). This brings to 26 the total number of crop profiles web published as of March 31, 2007.

Strategy consultations undertaken for 19 crops. More than 30 pest management issues for risk reduction identified and 20 strategies  developed.  Strategy development commenced for 16 others.

Oversight and funding provided for 34 ongoing projects.

Five projects completed and final reports submitted in April 2006. An action plan for communication and technology transfer of the results is in progress.

Call for Proposals launched in fall 2006 requiring establishment of new process with PWGSC was open to AAFC and external research/contractor community. Peer review of proposals completed, resulting in selection of 35 new projects for funding which address key pest management issues identified in pesticide risk reduction strategy consultations. Announcement regarding new projects planned for Q2, 2007-2008.

The IPM Working Group wrapped up its activities at the end of March 2007.  The group held four meetings to develop a national approach to support grower adoption of IPM practices and to develop guidelines for pilot projects. Recommendations of the group were presented to the PRR Program and its Technical Working Group and are being taken into consideration in the context of future directions of the Program.

Delays due to the complexity of the data collected have slowed analysis of the crop protection survey. A draft publication has been prepared and will be completed early in 2007-2008.  A new approach is being developed for analysis of IPM data in the questionnaire. Various communications products were released (fact sheets, reports, CDs, etc.).

2. HC (PMRA)

(a) Commodity-based risk reduction strategies (RR)

$25.7 M

$4.0 M

(2.0 M for commodity strategies / 2.0 M for RR product review)

$4.0 M

Planned staffing actions of indeterminate positions.

Ongoing consultations with stakeholders; work share with other government departments and 5NRs.

Work on pesticide risk indicator: consult, build and validate database.

Refine, together with AAFC, prioritization criteria for determining priority crops for the program.

Work share with AAFC on crop profiles.

Risk reduction strategies have been developed for pulse crops and canola. A long-term fireblight management strategy has been developed for apples. Steering committee and working groups have been meeting to develop solutions to identified priorities and implement steps to resolve these issues.  Substantial progress has been made in developing strategies and forming steering committees to lead the strategies for a number of other crops: greenhouse vegetables, grape, peach, potato, strawberry and apple.  Pursue risk reduction program for honey, Richardson ground squirrel and develop a work plan for forestry uses and needs.

Consolidate and integrate all information collected with this program into the registration stream of PMRA.

Continue review of reduced-risk pesticides submitted for registration.

Two NAFTA microbial Joint Reviews completed.

Pesticide Risk Indicator (CaPRI):

1- FPT consultation completed.

2- First report circulated within FPT and comments addressed.

3- Two documents being written are to be published in 2007.

 4- Improvement of model under way for publication of second report which is expected to be made public , followed by consultations in 2008.

5- Three databases needed (human health data, environmental data, and pesticide use/sale data) are being completed to assess the pesticide risk trend of all provinces (as opposed to only Quebec and Ontario.


Registered two new microbial products for control of fireblight disease on apples.

Ongoing: six microbial, two pheromone and five low risk (biochemical) products.







(a) Improving access to agricultural minor-use pesticides, and reduced-risk pesticides for agricultural use.

 $33.7 M

$12.0 M


$6.5 M

$2.0 M


$1.94 M SAL

0.39 M EBP

3.04 M NPO

0.85 M PWG

$6.25 M Total

$2.0 M A-base

Thirty-six pest-crop combinations will be identified at annual national stakeholder meeting hosted by AAFC.

Manufacturer (registrant) written support will be obtained by July 2006 for each pest-crop pair, then sent to PMRA for review by October with the majority by August (PSCR 3.1). Subsequently, data requirements (DACO) for each pest-crop pair will be issued by PMRA to AAFC according to PMRA-established timeline (97 days from receipt).

AAFC will convert DACOs to study plans by January 2007 and assign trials that complete the study plans, to contractors and collaborating AAFC personnel across Canada.

Good laboratory practice (GLP) trials require quality assurance oversight that is provided by contractors and AAFC headquarters staff.

[PMRA/HED] Participated in National Priority Setting meeting

In addition to 38 priorities established during AAFC’s MU Priority Setting Workshop (March 26-28, 2007), we selected 25 joint AAFC/U.S. minor-use projects during IR-4's planning meeting (November 1-3, 2006).

D3.1s (AAFC) 26 presubmissions and 11 sets of trial requirements were issued. (HED)

Registrant written support was obtained and Pre-Submission Consultation Requests (PSCR) were submitted to PMRA for each priority by October 2006.  DACO’s were not all received by January 2007. As a result this activity continued to year-end.  It was determined that since AAFC is working with both registered and unregistered compounds,  PMRA does not want AAFC to submit PSCRs for unregistered compounds.  Study plans are being written and data collection is being initiated for 354 field trials.

All residue trials respected GLP requirements without any significant observations.  Also, in January 2007 a Standard Council of Canada GLP audit was conducted on our facility.  There were no major observations, only minor clarifications.   A response was provided to SCC by the required deadline. PMC accreditation to OECD GLP standards will continue.







Data generation from field trials in 2006 and laboratory analysis of residues proceeds to final report stage in  spring–summer 2007 and are submitted to PMRA.  PMRA provides a decision on use 247 days later. Total process takes about 36 months.

D3.2s (AAFC) 7 submissions (HED)

More than 400 field trials from 2006 were completed and final reports are being written and assessed in order to be submitted to PMRA.

Completed and submitted 41 AAFC projects or registrants for submission to PMRA.

2. HC (PMRA)

(a) Improving access to agricultural minor-use pesticides, and reduced-risk pesticides for agricultural use.

$20.8 M

$4.0 M

$4.0 M

Product evaluation work—review presubmission proposals from AAFC and provincial coordinators and issue data requirements.

Register new minor crop uses, including minor-use and reduced-risk products and uses.

Harmonization work and regulatory projects—Joint Reviews in collaboration with U.S. EPA, AAFC and U.S. Department of Agriculture IR-4 Program, further work on crop groupings and on Maximum Residue Levels (MRL) promulgation.

Increase communication and provide feedback to AAFC, to improve quality and use of scientific rationales.

Minor-Use Submissions:

D3.1 - 92 presubmissions

D3.2 - 28 submissions

JR’s - 2

Minor-Use Registrations/MRLs:

28 label expansions

13 registrations resulted in MRL recommendations

Meetings with AAFC regarding study report format, rationale preparations - ongoing

Technical Gap Submissions - approximately two+ conventional chemicals, five microbial and six low risk (biochemical) new products registered. (HED)

3. NRCan


















(b) Develop and facilitate use of reduced-risk pesticides and biological pesticides for forestry.

$4.1 M

$0.3 M

$0.3 M

Review final reports of nine projects funded for three years and plan strategy and priorities for future funding.

NRCan will continue work to integrate and coordinate activities with 5NR partners and stakeholders.

The NRCan-CFS Minor-Use Advisor hired under this fund will continue to work in collaboration with AAFC to facilitate registration of reduced-risk/minor-use pest control products against pests on outdoor woody ornamentals and forests. Coordinate and report on six projects for minor-use pesticides in Canada.

Support 2006 National Forest Pest Management Forum.

Support forest projects on reduced-risk pest control products. 

Completed NRCan-CFS Enhanced Pest Management Methods Science & Technology Program Review 2002-2006 (March 2007).

NRCan exchanged and shared information and data at 6NR departments’ Pesticides Committee meetings. Contributed to BPC Formative Evaluation Report (2006).

NRCan-CFS Minor-Use Advisor housed at AAFC Pest Management Centre obtained support for minor-use products on two Christmas tree projects and a reforestation nursery that were useful for both forestry and agriculture. A group of three borers including emerald ash borer and Asian long-horned beetle were selected for screening of potential control products. A Data Package and Application for Registration for use of the insect growth regulator MIMIC against gypsy moth, were submitted to PMRA.

A balsam fir sawfly nucleopolyhedrovirus, Abietiv™, received conditional registration from PMRA in April 2006, and was used operationally for control of the sawfly in Newfoundland.

Provided financial and research support for  2006 National Forest Pest Management Forum which consists of pest managers, researchers, industry, regulators, and others interested in pest management.

PMRA registered one new microbial pesticide and one new pheromone.



$154.96 M





17. Results Achieved by Non-federal Partners: n/a

18. Contact Information:

19. Approved by:


20. Date Approved:

Table 17: Horizontal Initiative

1. Name of Horizontal Initiative:
Federal Tobacco Control Strategy
2. Name of Lead Department:
Health Canada
3. Start Date of the Horizontal Initiative:
4. End Date of the Horizontal Initiative:
2006-07 and ongoing
5. Total Federal Funding Allocation:
$560 M
(See note about Health Canada total funding in #11.)

6. Description of the Horizontal Initiative:

The Federal Tobacco Control Strategy (FTCS) establishes a framework for a comprehensive, integrated, and multi-faceted approach to tobacco control. The FTCS is the federal contribution to the national tobacco control plan endorsed in 1999 by all Ministers of Health. It focuses on four mutually reinforcing components: protection, prevention, cessation and harm reduction, supplemented by effective use of public education campaigns to reach all Canadians.

7. Shared Outcome:

The FTCS has five 10-year objectives (2001-11):

  • Reduce smoking prevalence to 20 percent from 25 percent (level in 1999).
  • Reduce the number of cigarettes sold by 30 percent.
  • Increase retailer compliance regarding youth access to tobacco from 69 percent to 80 percent.
  • Reduce the number of people exposed to environmental tobacco smoke in enclosed public places.
  • Explore how to mandate changes to tobacco products to reduce health hazards.

8. Governance Structure:

Resources for implementation were allocated to a number of departments and agencies. Health Canada (HC) is the lead department and is responsible for regulating the manufacture, sale, labelling and promotion of tobacco products as well as developing, implementing and promoting initiatives that reduce or prevent the negative health impacts associated with smoking.

The partner departments and agencies are:

  • Public Safety Canada (PS) (formerly Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada) -- administers contribution funding for monitoring activities to determine levels of contraband tobacco activity. The Department also provides policy advice and support on smuggling issues.
  • Office of the Director of Public Prosecutions (formerly Department of Justice) -- Is responsible for monitoring federal fines imposed in relation to tobacco and other types of offences, and for enforcing and recovering outstanding fines.
  • Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP) -- is responsible for the enforcement of laws in relation to the international movement of tobacco products including the illicit manufacture, distribution or possession of contraband tobacco products.
  • Canada Revenue Agency (CRA) (formerly Canada Customs and Revenue Agency) -- is responsible for ensuring the assessment and collection of tobacco taxes and monitoring tobacco exports.
  • Canada Border Services Agency (CBSA) (previously part of the former Canada Customs and Revenue Agency) -- is responsible for monitoring and assessing the level of contraband tobacco in Canada and internationally, reporting to the Dept. of Finance to assist in the development of sound tax policies.

9. Federal Partners Involved in each Program

10. Names of Programs

11. Total Allocation 2001-02 to 2006-07

12. Forecasted Spending for 2006-07

13. Actual Spending in 2006-07

14. Planned Results for 2006-07

15. Achieved Results in 2006-07

1. HC


$482.5 M

(Note: this original allocation has been affected by several cuts since the FTCS began.

$80.8 M

(Tobacco Control Program: $67.8 M)
(First Nations & Inuit Health Branch:$12 M)

$75.6 M

(TCP - $66.6 M)
(FNIHB - $8.3 M)

See text below.

See text below.

2. PS


$3.2 M

$0.6 M

$0.6 M

See text below.

See text below.



$10 M

$1.3 M

$1.3 M

See text below.

See text below.



$10.5 M

(To offset seven analytical FTEs and five technical support FTEs)

$1.5 M

$1.5 M

See text below.

See text below.

5. CRA


$43.1 M

(Total allotment to CRA, includes Customs/CBSA $30.7 M and Assessment and Benefit Services

$1.7 M and Legislative Policy and Regulatory Affairs Branch $10.7 M)

$10.4 M

(Allocated between Customs/ CBSA and two CRA areas)

$10.4 M (Allocated between Customs/ CBSA and two CRA areas)

See text below.

See text below.

Assessment and Client Services (previously Assessment and Collections) See above. See above. $.2 M (Included in above) See text below. See text below
Excise and GST/HST Rulings Directorate/ Legislative Policy and Regulatory Affairs Branch   See above. $.5 M (Included in above) See text below. See text below.

6. CBSA Intelligence Directorate and Travellers Division


$21.1 M

$5.1 M for activities plus $4.3 M for loss of duty-free licensing

$5.1 M for activities plus $4.3 M for loss of duty-free licensing

See text below.

See text below.




$560 M


$104.0 M


$98.8 M



16. Comments on Variances:

The Health Canada variance is mainly the result of a budget reduction sustained as part of the 2004 government-wide Expenditure Review exercise and a reallocation of FTCS resources to Health Canada's responsibilities with respect to the Canadian Environmental Protection Act. This reduction is permanent.

As part of the September 2006 Expenditure Review, the FNIHB portion of the FTCS funding was eliminated. This reduced Health Canada's overall budget by $10.8 M over the next two years (reduction of $2.5 M in 2006-07; $8.3 M in 2007-08; $10.8 M in 2008-09 and ongoing).

17. Results Achieved by Non-federal Partners:

Through funding provided by the FTCS, the Akwesasne Mohawk Police (AMP) have been able to increase their surveillance and monitoring of tobacco smuggling. The AMP has reported participating in joint forces operations that have led to charges and seizures, including tobacco. All tobacco seizures made by the AMP are turned over to the RCMP for prosecutions and reported through the RCMP Cornwall Detachment.

The AMP have enhanced their capacity in intelligence development and specialized criminal investigation techniques through their work with Canadian and U.S. law enforcement partners in the context of the Integrated Border Enforcement Team in the Cornwall area. In addition, they have had an opportunity to lead and participate in Joint Forces Operations related to cross-border criminal activities and organized crime.

An evaluation is being conducted by Consulting and Audit Canada under contract to PS. The final evaluation report is anticipated by July 30, 2007.

18. Contact Information:

Dave Semel

(613) 952-3367

19: Approved By: 20. Date Approved:
  14. Planned Results for 2006-07 15. Results Achieved in 2006-07
1. Health Canada (HC) Complete an evaluation to assess the impacts of the first five years of the FTCS. A summative (impact-based) evaluation was conducted of the FTCS (2001-06) including all Tobacco Control Program components i.e. contribution-funded projects, regulatory interventions, research and policy development; First Nations and Inuit Health Branch (FNIHB); International Affairs Directorate (IAD); and federal partners.
Work with eight regional offices and partner with several National Aboriginal Organizations across Canada for program delivery and development. HC supported over 100 First Nations and Inuit projects at the national, regional and community level aimed at cessation and tobacco awareness with a particular emphasis on youth, young adults and pregnant women.
2. PS Enhanced partnership arrangement with Akwesasne Mohawk Police. See Results Achieved by Non-federal Partners above.
3. ODPP 1) Prioritize fine recovery for fines ordered under cigarette contraband and tobacco sales to youth convictions. 1) The number of cigarette contraband and other tobacco-related fines has gone from 1,920 files in 2002 to 892 files as of March 31, 2007, a reduction of over 53.5 percent. There were 826 files in the inventory in 2005-06. This year's figure is mostly due to the increase in convictions for selling tobacco to minors and an increase in cigarette contraband which has resulted in more convictions.
2) Increase the number of fines satisfied by a minimum of 15 percent. 2) The number of fines that were satisfied as of March 2007 was 423 as compared to 491 in March 2006, a reduction of 14 percent. This may be due to the fact that additional emphasis is being given to attempting to recover long-standing fines which by nature are more difficult to recover.
3) Analyze trends and prioritize the most effective and least costly recovery methods. 3) Priority is given to the most cost-effective methods of recovery, in particular, demand letters, telephone calls and negotiating payment agreements. To date, approximately 27,000 interventions have been made, resulting in the recovery of over $32 M in past-due fines as of March 2007.
4) Prioritize payment of fines over incarceration, but enhance enforcement measures when appropriate. 4) Incarcerations for non-payment of fines totalled 66 in 2007 as compared to 60 in 2006. Of these 66 offenders, 15 subsequently opted to pay their fine rather than remain in incarceration.
5) Reduce costs to client departments in regards to fees incurred for Crown counsel attending motions for extensions in the delay to pay a fine. 5) Crown counsel assigned to Fine Recovery Units oppose all motions for payment extensions heard at court, resulting in a decrease in counsel fees to client departments for these hearings.
4. RCMP 1) Provide the Department of Finance, Health Canada and other partners with current updates on illicit tobacco trade activities. 1) Regular reports on the illicit tobacco situation were provided to Finance and Health Canada. Side bar reports provided to other partners and key Ministerial entities upon request. Tobacco analysts attend regular meetings to brief the Department of Finance.
2) The RCMP monitors illegal activities at and along the Canada/U.S. border through the use of strategic detection and surveillance equipment. 2) Improved border security through the use of sophisticated technology which permits detection and monitoring of illegal border intrusions, resulting in vital intelligence.
3) Expand cooperation with international and national law enforcement partners. 3) Co-hosted the 2006 Joint U.S./Canada Tobacco Diversion Workshop with American and Canadian agencies. The RCMP holds biannual Joint Smuggling Initiative conferences across the country to address current trends and ongoing investigations into the illegal tobacco trade. Partners are invited to share information and to build key partnerships to enhance investigations.
5. CRA 1) Systems adjustments and maintenance to reflect the legislative changes that affect rates, reporting and refunds as well as program changes to include duty-free shops and ships stores. 1) Systems maintained as required. Reporting capabilities were reviewed and enhanced to meet program requirements.
Assessment and Benefit Services (previously Assessment and Collections) 2) Verify export activity. 2) The Tobacco Enforcement Verification Program (field) effectively monitored the movement of exported tobacco products.
Excise and GST/HST Rulings Directorate/ Legislative Policy and Regulatory Affairs Branch 3) Ensure legislative compliance with remittance requirements as well as stamping and marking. 3) Excise duty officers increased the number of compliance and audit visits to licensed manufacturers to ensure compliance with remittance requirements as well as stamping and marking.
  4) Work with stakeholders to monitor and assess the effectiveness of measures used to reduce contraband tobacco. 4) Participated on a number of committees dealing with the monitoring and control of tobacco products, including those dealing with interprovincial issues. Co-hosted the 2006 Tobacco Diversion Workshop with Canadian and U.S. participation.
  5) Provide the Department of Finance with advice to assist in the determination of the magnitude and timing of future tax increases. 5) Met with the Department of Finance as required. Provided industry and product information.
  6) Support RCMP enforcement activity. 6) Supported RCMP enforcement activity by providing information about specific tobacco transactions as well as expert testimony and affidavits.
Intelligence Directorate
1) Provide advice to Department of Finance on matters that will impact the future tax structure on tobacco. 1) Attended monthly meetings with Department of Finance and partners to discuss and serve as a reference for questions on tobacco issues.
  2) Monitor and report on the contraband tobacco situation in Canada. 2) Provided monthly analysis of the national contraband situation by compiling reports received from the Regions. Partnered with RCMP in annual risk assessment of the nature and extent of tobacco contraband activity. Coordinated development of tobacco intelligence in the Regions. The capabilities of our officers/analysts to infiltrate the marketplace, gather intelligence, liaise with other agencies and process their files has resulted in: an increase in targets for examination, both companies and individuals; identification of possible risk elements not previously perceived; awareness of emerging trends and threats.
  3) Expand cooperation with international and national law enforcement partners. 3) Participated in Joint Force Operations with law enforcement partners across the Regions. Co-hosted the 2006 Tobacco Diversion Workshop with American and Canadian agencies. Developed and maintained contact with international tobacco enforcement personnel.
Travellers Division Collection of the tobacco duties imposed on personal importations of returning Canadians. CBSA front-line officers collected duties and taxes from previously exempted personal importations of tobacco.