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ARCHIVED - RPP 2007-2008
Canadian International Development Agency

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1.1 Minister's Message

The Honourable Josée VernerCanada's New Government is taking a fresh approach to its engagement with developing countries. The Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) is the primary vehicle through which Canada delivers development assistance, and the focus for our new approach. Canadians-and aid recipients-insist that CIDA's work must deliver results. To achieve this, Canada's development effort must be focused, strategic, effective and accountable. It must also continue to reflect Canadians' compassion for those less fortunate and for the values we cherish- freedom, democracy, rule of law, and respect for human rights.

Our efforts are concentrated on countries and regions that are following sound development strategies. Governments committed to freedom, democracy and the rule of law can take advantage of Canada's support to achieve significant progress in development and poverty reduction. We are strengthening the delivery of Canadian aid to these countries by working closely with their governments to achieve their development goals.

CIDA will manage its $3-billion budget for 2007-08 to help Canada make a difference in the lives of impoverished and oppressed people around the world. Our aid priorities include democratic governance, private sector development, health, basic education, equality between women and men, and environmental sustainability. These are areas in which Canadian expertise can make a difference.

CIDA works to deliver on Canada's commitment to help fragile states, such as Afghanistan and Haiti, and to reduce suffering in troubled regions such as Darfur, in Sudan. In February 2007, we announced up to $200 million, over two years, for reconstruction and development activities in Afghanistan, the largest recipient of Canadian aid. This funding, on top of the annual allocation of $100 million, will support de-mining and road construction in addition to increasing the reach of the Agency's contribution to national programs that support thousands of community projects managed by elected village councils and credit services to low-income people, most of them women. This approach not only delivers vital services and opportunities to the people of Afghanistan; it also builds capacity in government institutions and civil society organizations that will last for decades to come.

Also in February, Canada's New Government showed its continued support for Haiti by pledging close to $ 90 million to support the government's efforts in areas such as health, job creation, education and nutrition for children in addition to a mechanism in the event of natural disasters.

We are also proud to complement our support to the International AIDS Vaccine Initiative and the African AIDS Vaccine Programme by being amongst the key proponents, with our federal department colleagues, of the Canadian HIV Vaccine Initiative (CHVI). Canada's $111 million to the CHVI will contribute to the global effort to develop a safe, effective, affordable and globally accessible HIV vaccine.

Civil society organizations are effective advocates and guardians of the public interest. They are a check and balance on governments, but also often partners of governments. In both cases, they advance the cause of development, and must be involved if our work is to achieve the intended results. As we strengthen our partnerships with civil society, we also seek to assume a leadership role in major multilateral organizations of which Canada is a member.

As Minister, I have also expanded programs to empower women through micro-credit, launched new efforts to fight HIV/AIDS in Africa and elsewhere, and promoted efforts to build entrepreneurship that creates jobs. These and other initiatives are reflected in CIDA's Report on Plans and Priorities for the 2007 - 2008 Estimates, which I am pleased to table for Parliament's consideration.

The Honourable Josée Verner, P.C., M.P.
Minister of International Cooperation and Minister for La Francophonie and Official Languages

1.2 Management Representation Statement

I submit for tabling in Parliament, the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) for the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA).

This document has been prepared based on the reporting principles contained in the Guide for the Preparation of Part III of the 2007-2008 Estimates: Reports on Plans and Priorities and Departmental Performance Reports:
  • It adheres to the specific reporting requirements outlined in the Treasury Board Secretariat guidance;
  • It supports the Department's Strategic Outcomes and Program Activity Architecture that were approved by Treasury Board;
  • It presents consistent, comprehensive, balanced and reliable information;
  • It provides a basis of accountability for the results achieved with the resources and authorities entrusted to it; and
  • It reports finances based on approved planned spending numbers from Treasury Board Secretariat in the RPP.
Name: Robert Greenhill
Title: President, Canadian International Development Agency

1.3 Canada's Commitment to Development

Canada's New Government made a commitment to ensure that programs aim to achieve results and optimize resources. In the 2006 Speech from the Throne and the Budget, the Government committed to strengthen the effectiveness of Canada's aid and double international assistance from 2001-2002 levels by 2010-2011. As the Prime Minister reiterated on February 6, 2007, Canada will continue to play a stronger role in international affairs and to make a positive difference in the lives of impoverished and oppressed people around the world. On this basis, the Government is reviewing all of its priorities, including the countries of concentration, to strengthen the focus of Canadian aid, to allocate resources where Canada's impact will be greatest, and to demonstrate tangible results, in a manner consistent with Canada's foreign policy objectives.

Canada's aid program seeks to help people conquer extreme poverty and experience the freedom of democracy and human rights. Canadians have provided leadership and built an international reputation for excellence in international development in a number of important areas: the promotion and integration of equality between women and men into all aspects of development cooperation; the early implementation and promotion of aid effectiveness principles; and the formulation and adoption of good humanitarian donorship principles.

In line with the Government's commitment, the Canadian International Development Agency (CIDA) has already demonstrated concrete actions with respect to aid effectiveness. Over the past several months, the Agency has made a number of high-return leadership investments to strengthen the results of Canadian aid. In Afghanistan, CIDA has committed additional funding of a minimum of $100 million per year to 2010-11. In February 2007, the Prime Minister announced up to $200 million, over two years, in additional funds, for reconstruction and development activities in Afghanistan. Real results from this investment are already being realized, for example, greater access to schooling (particularly for girls), expanding economic opportunities for the poor through micro-credit and small infrastructure at the village level.

Canada is a central player in the eradication of polio. In addition, at the July 2006 G8 Summit, the Prime Minister announced that Canada will contribute $450 million to support efforts to strengthen health systems in Africa, $25 million to the Education for All-Fast Track Initiative to help developing countries establish sound national education plans, and $57 million to support the international response to avian influenza, and to prepare for potential future pandemics.

In October 2006, CIDA established an Office for Democratic Governance (ODG), which was created in response to the new Government's strong focus on democracy, human rights, and the rule of law. The ODG complements the Agency's increasing emphasis on the importance of democratic governance to poverty reduction and sustainable development.

Box 1: CIDA and Democratic Governance

The ODG builds on CIDA's capacity for effective practice in democratic governance and serves as a focal point by which CIDA can actively engage the community of Canadian and international experts, institutions and other government departments (OGDs) whose work focuses on democratic governance. The ODG will concentrate its work in four essential areas of democratic governance: freedom and democracy; human rights; rule of law; and accountable public institutions.

CIDA and Democratic Governance

The Office has promoted a whole-of-government approach by establishing framework arrangements with Statistics Canada and the Office of the Auditor General of Canada. It has also established mechanisms that facilitate greater coherence between Canadian and international organizations when sending election observers abroad.

Through its support to institutions such as the World Bank, the ODG is building the capacity of national statistics organizations and supreme audit institutions in numerous developing countries. It is also providing assistance to the Organization for Economic Co-operation and Development's (OECD) Development Assistance Committee's (DAC) Human Rights Measurement Initiative and Carleton University's Country Indicators for Foreign Policy Project, both of which will provide accurate, timely and effective governance indicators for evidence-based programming. In addition, ODG is working to establish knowledge networks on democratic governance that strengthen collaboration, exchange and coordination between and among experts, both within and outside of the Agency.

The Development Challenge

Concrete progress has been seen in a number of areas of human development in the last generation: life expectancy has increased by nine years, despite the ravages of HIV/AIDS; the percentage of people living in extreme poverty (less than $1 per day) has fallen from 27.9 per cent to 19.4 per cent1 thanks in part to rapid growth in Southeast Asia, China and India; access to basic education has increased dramatically, especially for girls in Africa; and democratic governance is strengthening in all regions of the world. This progress was achieved primarily through the efforts of developing countries themselves, often with the technical and financial support of donors such as Canada.

However, developing countries still face profound challenges in poverty reduction, basic education, control and reduction of disease, equality between women and men, democratic governance and environmental sustainability. While economic growth and poverty reduction are taking place across all regions, inequalities and disparities remain a challenge to development.

Box 2: Progress Towards the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs): A Mixed Picture 2

Since 1990:

Poverty: in Eastern Asia, the poverty rate declined from 33 per cent to 14.1 per cent, but in Sub-Saharan Africa, while the poverty rate declined only marginally, the actual number of people living in poverty increased by 140 million;

Hunger: the proportion of people going hungry declined, but the actual number of people with chronic hunger has risen from 800 million to 824 million;

Education: the world net enrolment in primary education increased from 79 to 86 per cent, but one in six boys and one in five girls are still not in school;

Equality between women and men: women hold 17 per cent of parliamentary seats worldwide; for example, in Afghanistan they represent 27 per cent. However, they are still seriously underrepresented in Northern Africa and West Asia, with less than 10 per cent;

Child mortality: has dropped from 106 deaths per 1,000 live births to 87; however, more than 10 million children die each year before they reach their fifth birthdays, 500,000 from measles alone;

Maternal health: births attended by skilled health care personnel rose from 43 per cent to 56 per cent; however, only marginal improvements occurred in South Asia and Sub-Saharan Africa; and more than 200 million women lack access to contraception;

Infectious diseases: as many as 39.5 million people are HIV+ (63 per cent in Sub-Saharan Africa, of which 59 per cent are women); however, access to treatment has gained 2 million life-years; tuberculosis rates are declining or stable in five of six World Health Organization (WHO)-designated regions of the world, the exception being Sub-Saharan Africa;

Environment: the proportion of the world's land area covered by forests dropped by 1 per cent; energy use per unit of gross domestic product (GDP) dropped but CO2 emissions remained constant; access to safe drinking water rose from 71 per cent to 80 per cent, but 1.1 billion have no access to safe water and 2.6 billion lack sanitation services.

The Global Context

As part of the international community, CIDA, other donors and developing countries are focusing on closing the gaps and overcoming barriers to human development with a global development partnership based on three pillars:

  • The Millennium Development Goals (2000)3 , a set of time-bound targets in poverty and hunger reduction, and improvements in health, HIV/AIDS, education, gender equality, environmental sustainability and global partnerships;

  • The Monterrey Consensus (2002)4 on the financial and non-aid foundation necessary for development, including a new development compact based on the understanding that developing countries bear primary responsibility for their own development while industrialized countries are committed to providing effective aid; and

  • The Paris Declaration on Aid Effectiveness (2005)5, which reflects the international consensus on five principles of effective development - local ownership, harmonization, alignment, results and mutual accountability - and provides targets, indicators and strong mechanisms for accountability.

This partnership provides a framework to guide the international development community toward global poverty reduction.

Meeting the Development Challenge

1.4.1 Canada's Aid Effectiveness Agenda

CIDA's plans and priorities over the coming years support the implementation of its Four-Part Aid Effectiveness Agenda to capitalize on the initial efforts and lessons learned and to maintain consistency with the Government's direction.

Canada's Aid Effectiveness Agenda

1) Strategic focus - Canada can make the most difference when its resources are concentrated in critical countries and regions. It can increase its impact through greater country concentration of learning and expertise, influence, cost-effectiveness and a critical mass of predictable resources. Countries are carefully selected on the basis of level of poverty, need or risk, the country's ability to use aid effectively, and Canada's capacity to make a difference.

CIDA targets high-impact sectors (democratic governance, private sector development, health (including HIV/AIDS), basic education, equality between women and men, and environmental sustainability), consistent with local and Canadian priorities, and in keeping with the Millennium Development Goals. These sectors were chosen on the basis of need and coherence with CIDA's program priorities and the level of expertise that Canada can contribute.

Particular emphasis will be placed on democratic governance and equality between women and men, as both are key elements to achieving sustainable development. CIDA plans to increase the number of initiatives that specifically address equality between women and men.

Box 3: Strengthening the Strategic Focus on Equality between Women and Men

CIDA will strengthen its programming toward equality between women and men to reflect the critical importance of enabling women's full potential for contributing to sustainable development. The Agency's objectives are: more equal participation of women with men as decision makers; women and girls more able to realize their full human rights; and reduced inequalities between women and men in access to and control over the resources and benefits of development.

Canada's long-term commitment to the promotion of equality is grounded in the recognition that equality between women and men and the rights of women are not only a matter of simple justice, but also essential to the achievement of the Millennium Development Goals. Programming in this area is critical to aid effectiveness. Despite many advances toward equality between women and men in recent years, progress has been uneven. Discriminatory laws and practices still exist and, in still too many cases, laws, policies and programs are not sufficiently implemented, or resources are not sufficiently available to generate the intended results.

To support programming toward equality between women and men, CIDA uses both specific and integrated approaches:

  • Integrated programming includes equality between women and men among its significant objectives and results, but not as a program's principal objective or focus. For example, a water project in Honduras included equality training and a requirement for a 30 per cent representation of women in water committees and sub-committees. As a result, the health of both women and men improved, and women increased their leadership, decision-making and project management capacities.

  • Specific programming refers to programming where equality between women and men is the principal objective and result. For example, CIDA's Gender Equality Fund in Colombia has enhanced women's roles in decision making by building the capacity of 1,150 women elected to regional, municipal and local government bodies through training on equality issues, public administration and citizenship.

In its engagement in the global battle against HIV/AIDS, for example, CIDA is concentrating on four key areas: prevention, including prevention technologies; strengthening health systems; promoting women's empowerment; and promoting children's rights and protecting children infected and affected by HIV/AIDS. In addition to ongoing funding, $120 million in new resources over the next three years will support initiatives in areas such as vaccine and microbicide research, implementation of country strategies, and increased efforts in prevention, education, and care.

2) The Agency is strengthening its program delivery. Aid effectiveness is maximized when the lessons and principles that make aid work are integrated systematically across country programs and delivery channels. This includes implementation of effectiveness-oriented reforms, based on international best practices, into CIDA's programming through bilateral, multilateral and partnership approaches.

The Agency will continue to use program-based approaches (PBAs), which are built upon a solid relationship between developing countries and donor organizations, and are characterized by coordinated support for a locally owned programme of development. The initial decision to engage in a PBA is founded on a careful assessment of a number of factors, such as democratic governance, including strategies to fight corruption, the existence of a national development strategy, the quality of donor-government relations, and the Agency's priorities in the country. Several key lessons have emerged from CIDA's experience to date, which will continue to inform its practice and enhance the effectiveness of Canadian aid.

The integration of diplomacy, defence and development into Canada's response to global challenges emphasizes the importance of a whole-of-government approach. CIDA cooperates with OGDs to ensure that Canadian policies and programs are coherent, complementary and effective, as evidenced by Canada's intervention in Afghanistan and Sudan. In the Provincial Reconstruction Team (PRT) based in Kandahar, civilians from CIDA, the Department of Foreign Affairs and International Trade (DFAIT) and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police are working alongside Canadian Forces personnel.

Canadian support for, and engagement in, Canada's development assistance program is a vital ingredient in effective development. Civil society, both international and domestic, plays a critical role in development as advocate, public watchdog and delivery agent. It is a key partner, with donors and developing countries, in the international effort to reduce poverty. During this fiscal year, CIDA will focus discussions with partners and the international community on the recognition of the critical added value of civil society in aid effectiveness.

CIDA will continue the process to renew partnership programming with Canadian partners by strengthening its relationships with Canadian civil society and private sector organizations, through a principles-based approach that characterizes effective partnerships. This approach includes principles such as facilitating south-driven development and recognizing the crucial role of non-state actions in development. This will include pursuing a strategic approach to partnership programming at a country level, strengthening CIDA's civil society policy capacity, and clarifying and sharing accountability and results with Canadian partners.

3) CIDA will make more effective use of resources by strengthening field presence, where required, and adapting human and financial resources to challenges as they evolve.

In 2007-08, CIDA will continue its efforts to capitalize on opportunities afforded by the new enabling legislative framework, the Public Service Modernization Act (PSMA) to recruit and develop the best talent for business effectiveness and high performance.

4) Clear accountability for results. CIDA is focusing on its ability to demonstrate concrete results to Canadians. As such, it will build on the progress achieved in the previous year and implement a new performance management framework and the Government's action plan on accountability.

In 2007-08, CIDA's new Management Resources and Results Structure (MRRS) will form the basis for planning, decision making and reporting at all levels of activities. It reflects Canada's strategic direction and priorities, while clearly linking financial and human resource allocations to results. In line with Treasury Board Secretariat's (TBS) MRRS Roadmap, the Agency is working towards the full implementation of its new structure. CIDA has defined a sample of key indicators to track its performance, which it will test over the coming year. This tool is a cornerstone of strengthened accountability.

1.4.2 CIDA's Operating Environment

CIDA's goal is to reduce poverty, promote human rights and increase sustainable development. Its policies and programs contribute to the Government 's overall performance agenda. The Agency collaborates with other federal departments in full recognition of the interdependence of development, security and economic prosperity, and the importance of a well-integrated international agenda for Canada.

The annual Management Accountability Framework6 (MAF) assessment provided by the Treasury Board (TB) portfolio informs CIDA's management priorities. The MAF assessment, through which management performance is reviewed, based on a series of indicators and measures, defines areas for improvement. The most recent MAF assessment shows that CIDA has made improvements or is performing well in areas such as integrity of the corporate management structure; level of organizational engagement (e.g. appropriateness, leadership, resource commitment) on horizontal initiatives; and generally, in results and performance. This assessment also indicates opportunities for improvement, including ongoing efforts to improve the integration, use and consistent reporting on performance expectation and the effectiveness of the Agency's audit function.

CIDA employs close to 1,700 people. One of its emerging challenges is impending staff retirements. The anticipated gap in CIDA's workforce and loss of corporate knowledge is being addressed by efforts to integrate and plan capacity, and by capability strategies to ensure continued effectiveness, high performance and sustainability.

Organizational Engagement on Horizontal Administrative Initiatives

CIDA continues to participate as a member of the Information Financial and Material System Program Office, which works with the Shared Services Organization to establish standard business processes in finance and material management. It will also continue to be an active contributor to shared/common information technology (IT) services through its participation in the Chief Information Officer Council.

The International Assistance Envelope

CIDA's budget is funded from the International Assistance Envelope (IAE), which provides a coordinated and flexible approach to Canada's international assistance. It is jointly managed by the Ministers of Finance, Foreign Affairs, and International Cooperation in support of coherent priority setting across all government departments participating in the aid program; transparency in the allocation of new resources; and flexibility to respond to new initiatives.

As per the Budget 2006 commitment to double the IAE by 2010-11, from 2001-02 levels, resources in the envelope will reach nearly $5 billion in 2007-08; CIDA is expected to manage 71 per cent of the amount, or $3 billion.

1.5 Summary Information

Goal: To reduce poverty, promote human rights, and increase sustainable development.

Benefits to Canadians: The aid program plays an important role in Canada's global reach and influence; provides a concrete expression of values that Canadians cherish; builds long-term relationships with some of the fastest-growing economies in the world; and helps make the world more secure for Canadians.

Alignment to Government of Canada Outcomes:7 Canada's aid program contributes directly to the Government of Canada's strategic outcome of global poverty reduction through sustainable development.
Departmental Priorities
Departmental Priorities Type
1. Strategic focus Ongoing
2. Strengthened program delivery Ongoing
3. Effective use of resources Ongoing
4. Clear accountability for results Ongoing

Financial Resources 2007-08
(total planned spending)
Human Resources
$3,069,354,000 1,676 FTEs

CIDA's Strategic Outcomes

  Selected Performance Indicators
1. Increased achievement of development goals consistent with Canadian foreign policy objectives
  • Progress towards the MDGs
  • Progress towards democratic governance (freedom and democracy, human rights, rule of law and accountable public institutions)
2. Sustained support and informed action by Canadians in international development
  • Level of public support
  • Level of awareness, support and engagement related to Canada's development program

Program Activities by Strategic Outcome

    Planned Spending
  Expected Results 2007-08
Strategic Outcome: Increased achievement of development goals consistent with Canadian foreign policy objectives
Countries of concentration Enhanced capacity of countries of concentration to achieve development goals $ 826,205,000
Fragile states and countries in crisis Reduced vulnerability of crisis-affected people; Restored capacity of public institutions and civil society $ 618,242,000
Selected countries and regions Enhanced capacity of selected countries and regions to achieve stability and/or development goals;
Contribution to international interests of the Government of Canada
$ 631,244,000
Multilateral, international and Canadian institutions Enhanced capacity and effectiveness of multilateral institutions and Canadian/international organizations in achieving development goals $ 919,004,000
Strategic Outcome: Sustained support and informed action by Canadians in international development
Engaging Canadian citizens Increased awareness, deepened understanding and greater engagement of Canadians with respect to international development issues $ 74,659,000*

*Note: From this amount, the Office for Democratic Governance receives $40 million, in large part for institutional capacity building

  Allocation formula to program activities
Corporate services** Provide support services that are not specific to any individual channel of program delivery

**Note: Both financial and human resource requirements for Corporate Services have been incorporated as part of the requirements of the other programs activities, as required by TBS.

CIDA Planned Spending by Program Activity ($ millions) 2007-2008

Total: $3,069.4

CIDA Planned Spending by Program Activity ($ millions) 2007-2008

1.6 CIDA's Plans and Priorities

Program and Management Priorities

Over the planning period, CIDA's efforts will aim at enhancing the effectiveness of the aid program in line with its Four-Part Agenda. More specifically:

Strategic Focus

  • Target resources in critical countries and regions.
    • Play a leadership role in the development and reconstruction of Afghanistan;
    • Sustain long-term multi-faceted support to Haiti; provide targeted support to Sudan and Lebanon;
    • Deepen engagement with Latin America and the Caribbean;
    • Maintain a robust and focused Canadian response in Africa; and
    • Reach consensus on geographic concentration to allow long-term predictable financial commitments.

  • Focus on high-impact sectors. Increase emphasis on both democratic governance (including anti-corruption), a priority sector in all major country programs, and the rights and equality of women.

Strengthened Program Delivery

  • Recognize the role of civil society in aid effectiveness. Canada will play a leadership role to integrate civil society into the international partnership to strengthen aid effectiveness.

  • Renew and strengthen CIDA's partnerships with Canadian partners. Based on principles for effective partnerships, CIDA aims to strengthen the Agency's relationships with Canadian civil society and private sector organizations that strengthen and accompany their Southern counterparts.

  • Assess the effectiveness and relevance of key multilateral institutions and develop an investment strategy. Use of tools such as the Multilateral Effectiveness and Relevance Assessment (MERA), developed by CIDA to assess the relevance and effectiveness of institutions, and identify key areas requiring improvements.

Effective Use of Resources

  • Invest in a sustainable workforce. CIDA will realign the competency requirements, recruitment, and development methods and tools for the New Development Officer function. In ensuring a sustainable workforce, it will address potential skills shortages that may occur due to the expected high departure rate to retirement.

  • Support public service renewal. CIDA will increase its support of executive renewal, including succession management, more creative recruitment strategies, with an emphasis on meeting and maintaining a representative executive workforce, and the application of modern performance management methods and practices.

Clear Accountability for Results

  • Implement the Accountability Act Action Plan. CIDA will strengthen auditing and accountability by supporting the President's designation as accounting officer by putting in place the Chief Financial Officer model; creating a strengthened and independent audit function; and fully implementing CIDA's MRRS, including strengthened annual reporting. In particular, CIDA will:

    • Measure progress towards internationally agreed aid effectiveness principles and indicators; and
    • Develop a strengthened sector-based results measurements system as an integrated dimension of CIDA's MRRS.