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Analysis by Strategic Outcome

In this section:


How to Read this Section
  • Results Chain: Results chains are read starting from the bottom of the diagram. They start with the resources (dollars and people) used by each Program Activity to deliver the priorities and sub-activities shown in the box above. These priorities and sub-activities contribute to the expected results in the box above. The expected results come together to deliver the strategic outcome.
  • Web Links: Links to additional information (background, context, documents) are identified throughout this section by the following symbol:Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-8.png
  • Data Sources: Where available, data sources and reliability information are provided in footnotes.
  • Results Tables: This section includes three levels of results tables. Program Activity and Sub-Activity tables demonstrate results achieved against the expected results presented in the 2006-2007 Report on Plans and Priorities. Where available, performance indicators are included. Work is ongoing on improving the expected results and performance indicators for future Departmental Performance Reports. The Program Priority results tables demonstrate the progress towards achieving the commitments made in Section 1 of the 2006-2007 Report on Plans and Priorities.
  • Note: For the most part, explanations of financial variances can be found in the section, Supplementary Information, Tables 1 and 2.

Safe and Accessible Waterways

The strategic outcome Safe and Accessible Waterways is about providing access to Canadian waterways and ensuring the overall safety and integrity of Canada's marine infrastructure for the benefit of all Canadians.

This strategic outcome is delivered through three program activities:

  • Canadian Coast Guard;
  • Small Craft Harbours; and
  • Science.

Departmental activities and presence on Canadian waters help to ensure the safe movement of people and goods. As a sustainable development department, DFO integrates environmental, economic and social perspectives to ensure Canada's oceans and freshwater resources benefit this generation and those to come.

The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) provides many maritime services that contribute to the strategic outcome Safe and Accessible Waterways. In doing so, CCG has a number of arrangements with other government departments, as well as other countries in contiguous waters, that help ensure that Canadian waterways are safe, secure and open to commercial and recreational use.

Working closely with CCG, the Department's Small Craft Harbours (SCH) Program and Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) also make a significant contribution to ensuring safe and accessible waterways.

Small Craft Harbours contributes to the Safe and Accessible Waterways strategic outcome by operating and maintaining a national system of harbours to provide commercial fishers and recreational boaters with safe and accessible facilities. SCH is mandated to keep harbours critical to the fishing industry open and in good repair. The three main strategies used to achieve this mandate are to maintain a network of core harbours; to promote the formation of volunteer Harbour Authorities to ensure local control over management of commercial fishing harbours; and to dispose of non-essential harbours by transferring all recreational harbours to local communities and reducing the number of derelict and low-activity fishing harbours.

The Canadian Hydrographic Service is responsible for charting Canada's 243,792 kilometres of coastline, 6.55 million square kilometres of continental shelf and territorial waters and an extensive system of inland waterways. To ensure safe and efficient navigation in Canadian waters, CHS maintains an extensive portfolio of navigational products and services, including charts, sailing directions, tide tables and current atlases.

Results Chain

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-9.png

What Did DFO Spend?

Approximately 51% of the Department's total expenditures for 2006-2007 — or $835 million — was used to ensure safe and accessible waterways.


Financial and Human Resources, Safe and Accessible Waterways, 2006-2007
Financial Resources
(millions of dollars)
Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Canadian Coast Guard 565.5 565.2 547.5
Small Craft Harbours 95.6 99.0 101.2
Science in support of Safe and Accessible Waterways 35.5 38.9 55.2
Program Enablers1 141.1 142.8 131.1
Total 837.7 845.9 835.0
Human Resources
(number of full-time equivalents (FTEs)
Planned Actual Difference
Canadian Coast Guard 4,604 4,752 1482
Small Craft Harbours 125 124 -1
Science in support of Safe and Accessible Waterways 298 273 -25
Program Enablers1 869 839 -30
Total 5,896 5,988 92

Note: Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.

1Financial and human resources for Program Enablers have been prorated across program activities. The section, Other Items of Interest, provides further information on Program Enablers.

2 FTE overutilization under the Canadian Coast Guard program activity can be explained as follows:

  • Major Crown projects for which no FTEs were included in the planned figure were started.
  • FTEs for dredging were not included in the planned figure, as the program is fully cost recovered.
  • Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) FTEs were not included in the planned figure.
  • New Search and Rescue (SAR) stations for which no FTEs were included in the planned figure came on-line.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-10.emf

Program Activity: Canadian Coast Guard

The Canadian Coast Guard (CCG) delivers civilian marine services (vessels, aircraft, expertise, personnel and infrastructure) on behalf of other federal government departments or in support of federal agencies and organizations in the achievement of their own specific Government of Canada maritime priorities. CCG provides support to other parts of Fisheries and Oceans Canada (Science and Conservation and Protection), the Department of National Defence (DND), Environment Canada, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police (RCMP), the Department of Foreign Affairs, and Transport Canada, among others.

The Canadian Coast Guard program activity has one of the departmental program priorities — Coast Guard Rejuvenation — and is delivered via nine program sub-activities: Aids and Waterways Services; Marine Communications and Traffic Services; Icebreaking Services; Search and Rescue Services; Environmental Response Services; Coast Guard College; Maritime Security; Contributing to Other Government Objectives; and Coast Guard Fleet Services.


Financial and Human Resources, Canadian Coast Guard, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Aids and Waterways Services 117.9 121.8 86.5
Marine Communications and Traffic Services 90.9 94.1 99.4
Icebreaking Services 45.0 47.0 43.8
Search and Rescue Services 100.9 104.5 106.1
Environmental Response Services 10.4 10.8 14.6
Coast Guard College 7.5 7.8 13.3
Maritime Security 0.0 0.0 14.5
Contribution to Other Government Objectives 0.0 0.0 17.5
Coast Guard Fleet 192.8 179.1 151.6
Sub-total 565.5 565.2 547.5
Program Enablers 112.2 113.2 104.5
Total 677.7 678.4 652.0
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Aids and Waterways Services   937  
Marine Communications and Traffic Services   696  
Icebreaking Services   380  
Search and Rescue Services   1151  
Environmental Response Services   101  
Coast Guard College   101  
Maritime Security   10  
Contribution to Other Government Objectives   7721  
Coast Guard Fleet   606  
Sub-total 4,604 4,752 1482
Program Enablers 699 675 -24
Total 5,303 5,427 124

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.

Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.

1 The cost of operating the Coast Guard Fleet (including FTEs) has been allocated to the various CCG activities that the Fleet supports. The costs of supporting the Department's enforcement and science activities are captured under Contributing to Other Government Objectives.

2 The planned FTE total is understated because of several increases that were omitted or unknown at the time the plan was developed. These items include ships' officers and ships' crews related to the work for the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) Patrol and the FTE related to new funding received after the planned number was developed for the Great Lakes Marine Security Operations.

Notes on Variances:

  • Excluding Program Enablers (whose costs are attributed to the CCG program based on the CCG as a % of the total DFO authorities and spending), CCG expended 97% of its total authorities in 2006-2007. Of the 3% not expended, over half is related to the planned carry-forward of funds from 2006-2007 to 2007-2008 to complete a variety of activities and projects.
  • Within the CCG program activities, the large positive variance for Aids and Waterways Services is offset in large part by expenditures beyond total authorities in Marine Communication and Traffic Services, Search and Rescue Services, Environmental Response Services, and Icebreaking Services reflecting both the initial allocation of contract settlement funding to Aids and Waterways that was subsequently allocated and spent in other CCG program activities, as well as the shift of major capital between program activities as a result of adjustments to and approvals for planned major capital projects. In addition, for Icebreaking Services, spending was lower than total authorities, reflecting an unusually light ice year, which resulted in lower fuel and other operating expenditures.
  • The reported spending in Maritime Security and Contribution to Other Government Objectives without reported total authorities reflects, in large part, activities undertaken by the Coast Guard Fleet and Marine Communications and Traffic Services (MCTS) in these sub-activities that are not predetermined before the commencement of the fiscal year and for which financial authorities are incorporated in either CCG fleet or MCTS.
  • Spending in the Coast Guard College sub-activity was higher than the authority, largely reflecting a large increase in the intake of cadets as part of the Coast Guard's succession planning.

Expected Results — Canadian Coast Guard Results Achieved
Minimal loss of life, injuries and property damage resulting from marine incidents
  • Saved 96.7% of lives at risk
  • There were 190 vessel collisions, strikings and groundings in 2006-2007, representing a 9.5% decrease in the average number (208) during the period 2001-2005
Effective and efficient management of waterways that support marine commerce
  • Monitored and maintained waterways, provided information on navigation conditions, and regulated vessel traffic
Sustainability of the marine and freshwater environment through timely and effective response to marine pollution incidents
  • Responded to 1,295 marine pollution incidents, which is close to the average number of incidents for the past three to four years
A marine infrastructure that provides efficient services to all clients
  • Maintained, and where possible improved, ship- and shore-based infrastructure within existing resources to provide marine programs to Canadians

In 2006-2007, the Coast Guard received $39 million in additional funding, $12 million of which was for capital expenditures. The balance of the resources was to offset cost increases related to vessel fuel and shortfalls in Marine Communications and Traffic Services. The Coast Guard's capacity to deliver was further advanced through an additional $6 million for vessel support for DFO's Science and Conservation and Protection programs. Overall, a total of $45 million in additional funding kept the Coast Guard operational and ready to serve. Furthermore, the March 2007 budget provided $324 million for procurement, operation and maintenance of four new mid-shore patrol vessels, one additional off-shore fishery science vessel and one off-shore oceanographic science vessel.

The Coast Guard completed an internal A-Base Review of all of its programs and activities. The review mirrored many of the findings of the Auditor General in a report issued in early 2007, which indicated that the Coast Guard was still not functioning effectively as a single national Agency. It also indicated that the Coast Guard had not yet found the right balance between national consistency for planning, administration and reporting and regional flexibility for operations. In many areas the policies, frameworks and systems necessary to transform the Coast Guard into a true national institution had not been fully developed. The report further noted a number of weaknesses in maintenance and asset management, implementation of new technologies and management of its human resources. In addition, Coast Guard employees identified several areas for improvement through the Public Service Employee Survey.

The Coast Guard's 2007-2010 Business Plan outlines the Agency's measured and incremental approach to responding to the challenges identified by the A-Base Review, the Auditor General, and the Public Service Employee Survey.

The Coast Guard met expectations on performance against its varied international commitments. Coast Guard has a comprehensive and productive working partnership with the United States Coast Guard through joint exercises, planning, operations and service delivery to mutual clients. In 2006, Coast Guard hosted the annual Canada-United Stated Coast Guard Summit in Halifax, Nova Scotia. The Agency fully participated in annual Canada-U.S. Contingency Plan, Search and Rescue (SAR) joint exercises and international SAR skills competitions. Coast Guard successfully led, on behalf of the Government of Canada, multi-departmental teams to the North Pacific Coast Guard Forum March 2006 Experts Meeting and the October 2006 Summit Meeting hosted by China.

Coast Guard also worked with multiple international organizations to pave the way for the global implementation of the Long Range Identification and Tracking of ships. In support of the International Polar Year, CCG received funding to provide Coast Guard Fleet icebreaker support for marine research projects. CCGS Louis S. St-Laurent carried scientists conducting the first field season of the ship-based seismic/bathymetric survey of the Beaufort Sea and southern Arctic Ocean.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-11.png

Canadian Coast Guard - http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/main_e.htm

Auditor General Report - http://www.oag-bvg.gc.ca/domino/reports.nsf/html/20070204ce.html

CCG 2007-2010 Business Plan - http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/busplan-planactivite/main_e.htm

Program Priority: Canadian Coast Guard Rejuvenation

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Partially met

Five priorities guide the continuing evolution of the Coast Guard Agency and support its rejuvenation agenda. These priorities, organized within three themes — Focus on client service, Focus on efficiency and effectiveness, and Focus on people — are:

  • Full implementation of Special Operating Agency status;
  • CCG support for the Government of Canada's Maritime Security Agenda;
  • Fleet renewal;
  • Continued implementation of modernization initiatives; and
  • Effective management of people.

Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
CCG Priority 1 - Full Implementation of Special Operating Agency Status
Establish a new governance structure within the federal government for relations with the various departments and agencies that receive support or services from the Coast Guard
  • Established a new Strategic Advisory Council at the Deputy Minister level with federal government departments that use Coast Guard services
Establish advisory bodies with external clients and stakeholders, such as the commercial shipping industry and ports, recreational boaters and the fishing industry, at both the national and regional levels
  • Established national and regional marine advisory bodies with the commercial shipping industry to provide input on business plans and priorities to the Agency
  • Coast Guard has been considering ways to re-engage the National and Regional Canadian Marine Advisory Councils and Recreational Boating Advisory Councils led by Transport Canada to more fully interact with fishers and recreational boaters
Establish a permanent memorial at the Coast Guard College to honour those who lost their lives carrying out Coast Guard duties
  • Completed the design and planning of a memorial to employees who lost their lives in service to the Coast Guard and Canada; the memorial will be unveiled at the Canadian Coast Guard College in 2007
Review the Coast Guard uniform policy.
  • Established a new CCG Management Board Uniform Sub-Committee to develop guidelines for wearing the CCG uniform
CCG Priority 2 - CCG Support for the Government of Canada's Maritime Security Agenda
Implement the Great Lakes and the St. Lawrence Seaway system Marine Security Enforcement Team initiative with the Royal Canadian Mounted Police
  • 2006-2007 marked the third year of joint CCG/RCMP delivery of the interim measures portion of the Marine Security Enforcement Teams (MSET) initiative; three dedicated program vessels operate from April to December; the MSET initiative provides the RCMP with a reliable platform from which to conduct on-water enforcement and response activities
  • Delivered training to CCG ships' officers and crews participating in the RCMP and CCG Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway MSET initiative to increase security awareness and response capability
CCG Priority 3 - Fleet Renewal
Proceed with Fleet Renewal to acquire two new off-shore fisheries science vessels and eight new mid-shore patrol vessels
  • Secured approval for the procurement strategy of eight new mid-shore patrol vessels and preliminary project approval for two new off-shore science vessels
Implement the Integrated Technical Services Strategy for more effective life-cycle management of the Fleet
  • Developed the Integrated Technical Services Organizational Vision for an efficient, nationally consistent organizational structure to deliver life-cycle management
  • Finalized regional organizational structures and wrote 20% of the required national model work descriptions
  • Developed, approved and implemented four of five national processes to ensure efficient and consistent delivery of life-cycle management and supporting systems
  • Developed approximately 20% of the guidance manuals, operating procedures and standards that define the application of life-cycle management at the working level; the remaining maintenance documents will be developed over the next four years
CCG Priority 4 - Continued Implementation of Modernization Initiatives
Address levels of service, service standards, costs of services and fees in an open and transparent fashion with all internal and external clients and stakeholders
  • CCG established a dedicated team to lead a comprehensive Levels of Service Review in consultation with clients and stakeholders
  • Established a Marine Services Fees industry/CCG Working Group to develop options for the future of Marine Services Fees to present to the federal government
Seek new authorities to facilitate the multi-year management of capital funds for the Fleet and to better align refits with operational requirements
  • Undertook considerable work on new authorities for the Fleet vessel refit that will be considered in 2007
Implement the Marine Aids Modernization initiative to reduce the cost of providing aids to navigation without reducing the levels of service.

Note: In 2006-2007, Coast Guard replaced the Marine Aids Modernization initiative with Aids to Navigation of the 21st Century (AtoN21), which adds a move towards innovation and new technologies

  • Continued the Marine Aids Modernization initiative. The following results were achieved:
  • Upated 4 of 17 of Aids to Navigation Operational Directives
  • Eliminated 126 large steel buoys (8% reduction)
  • Converted 222 lighted buoys to Light Emitting Diode (LED) technology (81% of buoys have now been converted)
  • Replaced seasonal lighted buoys on the St. Lawrence Seaway with 72 year-round lighted spar buoys
CCG Priority 5 - Effective Management of People
Implement collective staffing by increasing the use of a pre-qualified pool, developing a Ships Crew Recruitment strategy, and working with unions to establish permanent relief pools
  • Established a Workforce Development Unit and an HR Sub-Committee to assess and monitor human resource issues.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-12.png-AtoN21 - http://www.ccg-gcc.gc.ca/atn-aln/aton_21/main_e.htm


Program Sub-activity: Aids and Waterways Services

The Aids to Navigation program involves the provision of short-range marine aids numbering more than 17,000, including visual aids (lighthouses and buoys), sound aids (fog horns), as well as radar aids (reflectors and beacons) and long-range marine aids including electronic aids such as the Differential Global Positioning System. The benefit to mariners is safe, accessible and effective vessel transit in Canadian waters. The Waterways Management program provides waterways management to ensure the accessibility of waterways. Through this program, Canadian Coast Guard manages channel maintenance and dredging of the Great Lakes connecting channels and the St. Lawrence River, monitors channel bathymetry, and controls water level fluctuations in the St. Lawrence River. The program also enables CCG to provide marine safety information to users, including water depth forecasts. Waterways Management sustains navigable channels, reduces marine navigation risks and supports environmental protection. This program is delivered with the support of CCG's operationally capable and ready fleet.


Plans

  • Rejuvenation Agenda — Proceed with the Marine Aids Modernization project to ensure that DFO provides an effective and efficient service responding to users' changing needs
  • Reinvest in strategic assets to address compliance with Canada Shipping Act standards
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Safe and effective vessel transits and movements and access to ports Number of incidents attributed to aids to navigation and waterway conditions
  • There are no statistics available for 2006-2007 since the Transportation Safety Board no longer attributes incidents on Canadian waters to specific causes; no incidents were reported between 1999 and 2003
Public/stakeholder confidence in aids and waterways services Level of public confidence1
  • Public assessment (Navigation Services) — 7.6 out of 10
  • Public assessment (Waterways Development) — 7 out of 10

Program Sub-activity: Marine Communications and Traffic Services

The Marine Communications and Traffic Services (MCTS) program provides marine distress and safety communications, conducts vessel screenings, regulates vessel traffic movement and provides information systems and public correspondence on a 24/7 basis. Through the MCTS program, search and rescue responders have increased knowledge of persons or vessels in distress, mariners at risk have greater opportunity to be detected, and the Canadian Coast Guard has enhanced information on vessel transit for maritime security domain awareness. MCTS improves the safety of life at sea, the efficient movement of shipping in waterways, and the provision of essential information to mariners.


Plans
  • Rejuvenation Agenda — Install an Automatic Identification System at 80 remote sites, interfacing the system at MCTS centres and implementing a Long-Range Vessel Identification and Tracking (LRIT) capability; replace the Communication Control System at 22 MCTS centres and provide training at the Coast Guard College; implement the Global Marine Distress and Safety System via Very High Frequency Digital Selective Calling at selected sites, including the St. Lawrence River and Great Lakes Basin; continue to migrate to a single national Vessel Traffic Management Information System to link and filter all data to government agencies and the marine industry
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Reduced number and severity of maritime incidents with human, property and environmental consequences Number of incidents2 and shipping accidents — collisions, groundings and strikings
  • Of 1,683 incidents, 190 were shipping accidents; this represents a 9.5% decrease from the 2001-2005 average due, in part, to improved vessel traffic management and advances in navigation technology
Efficient movement of shipping Vessel movement per incident
  • Data not available
Public/stakeholder confidence in marine communications and traffic services Level of public confidence3
  • Public assessment — 7.6 out of 10
Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-13.png- 2001 SAR Report - http://ccg-gcc.ncr.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/sar/pubs/annrep/2001_Report/2001_Report(E)(F)/Annual_reports_e.htm

Program Sub-activity: Icebreaking Services

The Icebreaking program of the Canadian Coast Guard provides icebreaking and related services to facilitate the informed, safe and timely movement of maritime traffic through and around ice-covered Canadian waters for the benefit of industry and communities. This program activity includes escorting ships through ice-covered waters, freeing beset vessels in ice, conducting harbour breakouts, providing advice and ice information and reducing the risk of flooding on the St. Lawrence River through monitoring, prevention and breaking up of ice jams. The Icebreaking program contributes to Arctic sovereignty through the re-supply of Northern communities, providing support to other government agencies and organizations in ice-infested waters, and a visible federal government marine presence in the Canadian North. This program is delivered with the support of CCG's operationally capable and ready fleet.


Plans
  • Ongoing operations
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Safe, timely and efficient vessel transits and movements through ice-infested waters Number of vessels damaged by ice
  • 2 vessels damaged by ice, a decrease from 2005-2006
  Number of route assistance and ice information requests
  • Responded to 704 requests for route assistance, an increase from 2005-2006
  • Responded to 109 ice reconnaissance requests, an increase from 2005-2006
  Icebreaker availability
  • Deployed 6 icebreakers from all regions, including Pacific, in the Arctic between June and November 2006
  • Deployed 20 icebreakers across Canada, except for the Pacific Region, in the winter ice season
Reduced flooding caused by ice jams (further resulting in less property damage and shore erosion) Number of flood control taskings
  • 332 flood control taskings, an increase from 254 in 2005-2006
Enhanced Arctic sovereignty Northern re-supply cargo delivered in metric tonnes
  • Carried and delivered 1,489 tonnes of bulk and dry cargo to Eureka and to Kugaaruk, Nunavut; this represents an increase in cargo carried from 2005-2006; conducted the first field season of the ship-based seismic bathymetric survey of the Beaufort Sea and the southern Arctic Ocean onboard CCGS Louis St. Laurent.
Public/stakeholder confidence in icebreaking services Level of public confidence4
  • Public assessment — 7.6 out of 10

Canadian Coast Guard on the Job

Ice Things to Do

As climate change reduces the amount of sea ice in northern waters, it is expected that commercial shipping will increase in the Northwest Passage and the longer ice-free seasons will allow access to undeveloped oil and gas reserves in the High Arctic. However the reduction of seasonal first-year ice, which keeps in place the dangerous multi-year ice, means that this thicker, harder multi-year ice will drift through the Arctic Archipelago, becoming a significant hazard to navigation.

In 2004-2005, the Climate Change Technology and Innovation Initiative funded a study involving commercial and Canadian Coast Guard icebreaker commanding officers to identify key research areas that would improve year-round transportation in the Arctic. They unanimously picked the detection of multi-year ice as an essential research area.

CCGS Henry Larsen off Greenland, Aug 14, 2006CCGS Henry Larsen off Greenland, August 14, 2006

A comprehensive research project was developed by the Canadian Hydraulics Centre (National Research Council), Canadian Ice Service (Environment Canada), Transport Canada, DFO Science and the Canadian Coast Guard Icebreaking Program. For Coast Guard, the objective is to develop an 'ice hazard detection radar' for Arctic navigation. The first phase of the Ice Radar project was trialed on board the icebreaker CCGS Henry Larsen in August 2006 in Nares Strait.

The system converts the radar signal into a high-resolution image similar to a satellite image, which allows the user to identify ice patterns and small icebergs that are nearly impossible to see with conventional radar. In the photos below, the ice radar (left) provides more clarity of ice features, such as the shape of multi-year floes, than the standard radar (right).


Ice radar photo         imageonright-1.png

So what does multi-year ice look like close up? Have a look at the photo below, and you can judge the thickness of the ice by comparing it with the heads of observers peering down over the side of CCGS Henry Larsen. No wonder that particular type of sea ice drifting in the Arctic is a navigation hazard!

The heads of observers on the Henry Larsen can be seen (bottom left) against the impressive backdrop of multi-year ice.

The Coast Guard Icebreaking Program has two other ice projects on the go, in support of improved ice information for ships. CCGS Terry Fox is evaluating the IceNav Virtual Marine Radar System, which incorporates satellite imagery and enhanced shipboard radar images in an electronic navigation system. The third project, ICEggs, was developed by Quebec Region to prepare ice observation charts on a georeferenced laptop computer, producing high-quality, accurate ice charts much quicker that the traditional method. It is now used nationally on CCG icebreakers, helicopters, and ice reconnaissance aircraft and in Ice Operations Centres.

Program Sub-activity: Search and Rescue Services

The federal Search and Rescue (SAR) program, led by the Minister of National Defence, is a co-operative effort by federal, provincial, and municipal governments. The CCG SAR program leads, delivers, and maintains preparedness for the 5.3 million square kilometre maritime component of the federal SAR system, in conjunction with its partner the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary. This program is delivered with the support of CCG's operationally capable and ready fleet.

Approximately one-quarter of SAR coverage is provided by the Canadian Coast Guard Auxiliary, which consists of about 4,500 volunteer members using 1,300 vessels.


Plans

  • Rejuvenation Agenda — Update the search and rescue program needs analysis to identify demand and determine an equitable approach to deliver search and rescue services across Canada; renew the service delivery partnering arrangements with the CCG Auxiliary
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Minimized loss of life and injuries to people at risk in marine incidents Percentage of lives saved relative to lives at risk
  • 96.7% — one of the best records in the world
Reduced number and severity of search and rescue incidents Indicator under development
  • In 2004, CCG co-ordinated and responded to approximately 6,000 maritime incidents and saved approximately 2,900 lives5
Public/stakeholder confidence in search and rescue services Level of public confidence6
  • Public assessment — 7.8 out of 10

Canadian Coast Guard on the Job

One of Pacific Region's Own Receives the Cross of Valour

First Officer Leslie Palmer received the Cross of Valour, Canada's highest civilian honour for bravery, from the Governor General on October 13, 2006, for his role in saving the lives of two fishermen off the shores of Greenville Channel, near Prince Rupert, British Columbia. The Cross of Valour is awarded for acts of the most conspicuous courage in circumstances of extreme peril and Mr. Palmer is only the 20th Canadian to receive this award since its inception in 1972 and the first from the Canadian Coast Guard.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-17.png

In January 2004, the two fishermen were stranded after their shrimp boat, the Larissa, was struck by severe 100-knot winds, heeling the vessel to the point where she began to take on water, forcing the men to abandon their craft. Fortunately, the crew managed to grab their survival suits before washing ashore in their life raft.

The Canadian Coast Guard cutter, CCGC Point Henry, and the Canadian Coast Guard ships, CCGS John P. Tully and CCGS Sir Wilfred Laurier, responded to the distress call. The Point Henry was first on the scene and was met with extreme weather conditions, with heavy snow, freezing spray and winds gusting to 90 knots.

The Point Henry launched its small rigid-hull inflatable, with First Officer Palmer on board. Severe winds and breaking surf on the beach forced First Officer Palmer to land half a kilometre away from the survivors.

In a brutal winter storm, through winds of up to 185 kilometres an hour and 30-below temperature, eyes freezing shut and the heavy shore spray icing the outer shell of his suit, First Officer Palmer braved hip-deep snow and sheer ice footing on a rocky shoreline and hiked half a kilometre for an hour in total darkness to administer medical care to the survivors.

First Officer Palmer's heroic courage and determination in the rescue of the two survivors, despite a very real threat to his own well-being, is a testament to all the men and women of the Canadian Coast Guard.

Program Sub-activity: Environmental Response Services

The Canadian Coast Guard is the lead federal agency for ship-source oil-spill response that mitigates marine pollution and oil spills in Canadian waters and other countries under international agreement. Following the notification of a spill, CCG will monitor the effectiveness of the private-sector response, assume control of the incident if necessary or directly use CCG resources such as vessels and other specialized pollution countermeasures equipment when the polluter is unknown, unwilling or unable to respond. Environmental Response Services, through preparedness and response, contribute to decreased environmental, economic and public safety impacts of marine spills, increase awareness, and demonstrate due diligence by the Canadian and global marine community to prevent pollution. This program is delivered with the support of CCG's operationally capable and ready fleet.


  • Rejuvenation Agenda — Renew CCG's role as a response organization to ensure that CCG enhances its efficacy as the lead federal agency for managing responses to marine pollution incidents; invest in a rejuvenated training and exercise program plan as well as a national environmental response strategy
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Minimized adverse impacts of marine pollution incidents Effectiveness of response to number of spills
  • Responded to 1,295 pollution incidents, which is stable in comparison to 2005-2006
Public/stakeholder confidence in environmental response services Level of public confidence7
  • Public assessment — 7.2 out of 10

Canadian Coast Guard on the Job

Pollution? Coast Guard Verifies and Responds... Fast

The Canadian Coast Guard Regional Operations Centre (ROC), in Central and Arctic, performs many tasks. One of them is the monitoring of an emergency line for reporting pollution. Calls concerning such reports are daily occurrences. Because ROC staff needs to authenticate pollution, it must ask verification from a local authority (marina personnel, local police, or CCG vessels and their certified crew). Sometimes there is not any sheen or trace of a pollutant to be found or very little or nothing recoverable. Sometimes there is!

So what did the Captain (Brian Riddell) and crew of CCGS Cape Dundas recently find? On the night of May 7, Cape Dundas was tasked to verify the report of an oily, tar-like substance on the water about 2 nautical miles from the CCG Base Amherstburg, near the General Chemical plant outfalls. A reservoir was discovered filled with thick oil that escaped into a 100-foot-long bay. CCG Emergency Response and the Spills Action Centre were advised and the clean-up operations were undertaken.


Oily, tar-like substance found in the bay.

Oily, tar-like substance found in the bay

    This is section of boomed-off area, near Amherstburg.

A section of boomed-off area, near Amherstburg

    Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-18.jpg

Makeshift recovery device scooping up the paint


That very same day, the ROC had another report concerning a gallon of paint spilled off a scaffold of a commercial vessel in Goderich harbour. The water was cold and the wind and wave conditions were favourable for recovery operations. The paint blew in against the wharf alongside the CCG Search and Rescue base. The Captain (Erin Vincent) and crew of the Cape Discovery used their ingenuity to recover the solidifying, coagulated globs of blue paint. They improvised, inventing a makeshift recovery device, fastening a sifter to a boathook with electrical tape. The majority of the paint was recovered.

Thanks to all CCG staff who helped live on that day — as on many others — our motto of safe, healthy productive waters and aquatic ecosystems.

Program Sub-activity: Coast Guard College

Operating as the Canadian Coast Guard's national, bilingual, degree conferring training institution, the Canadian Coast Guard College (CCGC) educates the world-class marine professionals necessary to deliver the mandated programs of CCG in support of its mission and mandate in marine safety, security and environmental protection. Located in Sydney, Nova Scotia, CCGC was also responsible for strategic human resource planning for CCG in 2006-2007.


Plans

  • Rejuvenation Agenda — Develop a more focused and businesslike institution with a renewed mandate to supply officers and technical experts to the CCG fleet; attain financial sustainability through a resource review and the adoption of appropriate management frameworks
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Highly qualified Canadian Coast Guard personnel providing safe and effective delivery of the Canadian Coast Guard programs and services Indicator under development
  • Graduated 50 officers in navigation and marine engineering
  • Graduated 23 professional marine communications and traffic services officers
  • Provided courses to 231 Coast Guard personnel
  • Accepted 40 new Canadian Officer Cadets into the four-year degree program; this is almost double the number of new Cadets in 2005-2006
A Canadian Coast Guard ready to face current and future demographic changes Indicator under development
  • Began work on human resource and succession planning
National and international recognition for excellence in delivery of specialized marine training and expertise to Canadian and international partners and clients Indicator under development
  • 15 foreign nationals out of a class of 50 graduated from the Coast Guard Officer Training Program; graduates came from Kuwait, Norway, and Bermuda

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-21.png Coast Guard College http://www.cgc.gc.ca/CGC.php


Program Sub-activity: Maritime Security

The Canadian Coast Guard supports the Government of Canada's maritime security priorities and contributes to addressing gaps in Canada's maritime security. CCG provides on-water platform support and maritime expertise to national security and law enforcement agencies, and a wealth of maritime traffic information. In conjunction with interdepartmental partners, CCG contributes to the analysis and creation of information in support of enhanced maritime and national security. The Coast Guard Maritime Security program leverages safety-related CCG programs and services to provide collateral benefit to the Canadian and international maritime security community. This program is delivered with the support of CCG's operationally capable and ready fleet.


Plans

  • Ongoing operations
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Recognition of CCG/DFO as a value-added and proactive partner in the delivery of multi-agency solutions for enhanced maritime security Number of public security and anti-terrorism initiatives DFO/CCG is involved in
  • Involved in 17 initiatives, including project development of maritime security initiatives such as the construction of shore infrastructure for the Automatic Identification System and the development of both a domestic and international Long Range Vessel Identification and Tracking System.
  Level of confidence of federal security community
  • CCG/DFO continued to be a value-added contributor to the federal maritime security community

Program Sub-activity: Contributing to Other Government Objectives

The Canadian Coast Guard delivers civilian marine services (expertise, personnel and infrastructure (vessels and aircraft)) on behalf of other government departments or in support of agencies and organizations in the achievement of the Government of Canada's maritime priorities.


Plans

  • Ongoing operations
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Client service requirements met in a safe and efficient manner Indicator under development
  • Provided services to internal and external clients; see the Coast Guard Fleet Services program sub-activity for details

Canadian Coast Guard on the Job

Operation Lancaster

The Canadian Coast Guard provided essential support to the Department of Defence during Operation Lancaster, a military exercise in the Western Arctic. This exercise was to enhance military capabilities and the working relationships between other government departments.

Over the course of the 12-day exercise, soldiers landed on surf-pounded beaches and practised boarding techniques. DND's HMCS Montreal, HMCS Goose Bay and HMCS Moncton were involved in the operation while CCG provided assistance by deploying CCGS Terry Fox and CCGS Henry Larsen. This multi-faceted exercise, which was led by DND, also featured co-operation from the Canadian Ice Service, Parks Canada, Fisheries and Oceans, and the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-22.jpgCCGS Terry Fox fuelling a Navy vessel taking part in Operation Lancaster

CCG provided support by fuelling the Navy vessels taking part in the operation and by providing a platform for interception and boarding exercises. CCG also assisted with ship-to-shore transportation for DND personnel during the operation. The Coast Guard also hosted a formal dinner for 35 dignitaries and special guests aboard CCGS Henry Larsen.

The Coast Guard was also involved in another DND-led exercise in the Beaufort Sea. Both missions accomplished their goals and proved to be valuable learning experiences.

Program Sub-activity: Coast Guard Fleet Services

The Canadian Coast Guard co-ordinates and manages the Coast Guard Fleet, on shore and at sea, to ensure the delivery of at-sea services to support Canada's core marine services.


Plans

  • Rejuvenation Agenda — Continue the Fleet replacement strategy, including the acquisition of 8 mid-shore patrol vessels and 2 off-shore fisheries science vessels; implement vessel life extension projects to return vessels to a baseline condition; bring Fleet Renewal Plan of 2011-2015 forward for approval in 2006-2007 to replace various types of vessels; develop a human resource plan for seagoing personnel; introduce a plan for rotational crewing system for discussion; improve fleet information management, as well as fleet financial planning, pricing and costing
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Client service requirements met in a safe and efficient manner Safe delivery (in accordance with the International Safety Management (ISM) Code)

Number, type and level of risk of hazardous occurrences8

  • In delivering 32,000 operational days, CCG had 289 hazardous occurrences, of which 99 were disabling injuries9; total hazardous occurrences have been slowly decreasing over time
  Number and nature of non-conformities on CCG platforms
  • Of 852 non-conformities to the Fleet Safety and Security Management System, 638 were minor, 4 major, and 210 observations10; overall, non-conformities have been increasing, which is to be expected as vessels are added to the system and Fleet personnel grow more accepting and effective in reporting non-conformities
  Efficient delivery — vessel utilization  
  Actual availability versus planned availability
  • 95% vessel availability — increasing trend over three years
  Percentage, vessel non-assignment (vessel available but not assigned to a program)
  • 1% vessel non-assignment — stable over three years
  Percentage, actual maintenance (vessel time spent in maintenance as a percentage of total vessel time)
  • 11% actual maintenance — stable over three years
  Percentage, actual multi-tasking (vessel time performing more than two programs simultaneously)
  • 14% actual multi-tasking — slightly increasing trend over three years
  Effective delivery
  Actual service delivery percentage (actual versus planned)
  • 97% service delivery (31,719 operational days delivered out of 32,700 planned)
  Actual CCG delays
  • 54 days due to ship and equipment breakdown, weather conditions, tides, etc.
  Actual client delays
  • 168 days of client delays
 

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-23.jpg

 
  • The Coast Guard's programs used the largest portion of fleet services, with 72.5% of the total annual operational days; of these programs, Search and Rescue was the biggest user of fleet services at 50.6%; departmentally, Science and Conservation and Protection used the CCG Fleet at 12.7% and 12.5%; other government departments used 2.3% of Fleet services
  • Over the past three fiscal years, there were changes in fleet utilization service trends; Search and Rescue (SAR), Environmental Response, and Maritime Security Fleet utilization increased by 3%, 28%, and 41% respectively, with a corresponding decrease in Fleet services provided to Aids and Waterways (28%), other government departments (17%), Icebreaking (5%), and Science (4%); utilization by other clients remained stable
  • Client demand was one of the major drivers that determined the changes in Fleet Service utilization trends; for example, the introduction of new technologies in Aids and Waterways resulted in fewer requests for traditional Fleet service; lighter ice seasons have lately reduced the demand for icebreaking, while the evolution of the Maritime Security program within CCG necessitated higher Fleet support; in addition, unforeseen events resulted in the increase of ad hoc requests for Fleet services, in particular from the SAR and Environmental Response programs

Program Activity: Small Craft Harbours

The Small Craft Harbours Program directly, or indirectly through Harbour Authorities, operates and maintains a network of harbours, critical to the fishing and aquaculture industries, open, safe and in good repair. These harbours are necessary for the effective operation of the commercial fisheries that contribute to the Canadian economy, directly support employment and indirectly create tens of thousands of jobs, many in rural and isolated parts of Canada.

The Small Craft Harbours program activity has one of the departmental management priorities — Departmental Renewal — and is delivered via three program sub-activities: Operations, Maintenance, and Divestiture.


Financial and Human Resources, Small Craft Harbours, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Operations 3.7 3.8 7.5
Maintenance 89.8 93.1 91.6
Divestiture 2.1 2.1 2.2
Sub-total 95.6 99.0 101.2
Program Enablers 17.6 17.9 16.3
Total 113.2 116.9 117.5
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Operations   0  
Maintenance   124  
Divestiture   0  
Sub-total 125 124 -1
Program Enablers 107 103 -4
Total 232 227 -5

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.

Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.


Expected Results — Small Craft Harbours Results Achieved
A network of harbours essential for Canada's commercial fishing industry that is open, safe, efficient and in good repair
  • Maintained a network of approximately 750 core fishing harbours
Program directions adjusted to place the Program on a more sustainable basis, while addressing evolving program requirements and client needs
  • The Department actively considered all available means to ensure the sustainability of the SCH program, including making the $20M/year Infrastructure Repair Program funding permanent and developing a comprehensive SCH Sustainability Plan to address evolving program requirements and client needs
Major repairs and maintenance to core fishing harbours undertaken
  • Undertook 1,410 maintenance projects and 171 dredging projects for a total of $82.6 million; funding was based on an allocation formula designed to provide a fair and equitable distribution of funds that takes regional priorities and safety considerations into account
Recreational and non-core fishing harbours divested and core fishing harbours modified to better meet demand
  • Divested a total of 14 recreational harbours and 5 non-active fishing harbours
Strong, professional and independent Harbour Authorities operating and managing core fishing harbours
  • Harbour Authorities, client-run volunteer, not-for-profit corporations operating at arm's length from DFO, manage and operate 92% of core fishing harbours

As of March 31, 2006, SCH was responsible for maintaining 996 fishing harbours and 193 recreational harbours. Together, these harbours included 6,000 structures valued at approximately $3 billion. All recreational harbours (193) are targeted for divestiture, as are 196 low-activity and derelict fishing harbours. To date, 652 recreational harbours and 299 fishing harbours have been divested.

Small Craft Harbours faces a number of challenges in delivering its program:

  • An insufficient base budget to maintain the overall condition of all SCH harbours, including core commercial fishing harbours;
  • Congestion at some harbours due to the increasing need to accommodate new commercial fishers and aquaculturists, coupled with changing fishing patterns, more transient fishers and larger vessels; and
  • Harbour Authorities, composed of volunteer user and local representatives, are suffering from fatigue, low turnover, increasing user demands, and pressures to accommodate more users with larger boats.

To place the Program on a sustainable footing and to respond to the evolving needs of industry clients, DFO has been working on possible new directions for Small Craft Harbours, by conducting a comprehensive study of how the Program currently operates and what changes are needed to improve operations; conducting a high-level review of the Program delivery model, the organizational structure and the human resource requirements; and developing options to rebalance resources, to restructure the organization to meet present challenges and future growth, to clarify and define working relationships with Small Craft Harbours and with delivery partners, and to standardize regional delivery and organization to provide clients with a similar and consistent range and level of services.

Highlights

  • Approximately 90% of commercial fishers use Small Craft Harbour facilities
  • Approximately $2B landed value of fish at Small Craft Harbour facilities
  • Small Craft Harbour facilities are often the only visible federal presence in some remote communities, or the only public access to waterways
  • Since its inception, the Harbour Authority Program has become the cornerstone of service delivery for SCH harbours
  • Harbour Authorities' contribution is very significant
  • Over 5,000 volunteers nationally
  • Revenues estimated at $11M are reinvested into the harbour for operations and maintenance
  • The volunteer effort approximates 135,000 hours per year nationally, which equates to nearly 70 full-time people
  • Harbour Authorities engage approximately 125 full-time staff
  • The combination of revenues and volunteer effort is equivalent to approximately $25.5M in savings per year in taxpayer dollars

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-24.png

Small Craft Harbours - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/sch/SCH-program_e.html

Harbour Authorities - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/sch/HA-AP-info_e.html

Management Priority: Departmental Renewal

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Partially met


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Develop new directions for the Small Craft Harbours program to place the Program on a more sustainable basis, while addressing evolving program requirements and client needs
  • SCH investigated alternative delivery mechanisms to improve project delivery and identify and implement strategic opportunities

Program Sub-activity: Operations

Small Craft Harbours operates, in partnership with client-run Harbour Authorities, a national system of harbours critical to Canada's commercial fishing and aquaculture industries. It co-ordinates efforts to maintain and recruit Harbour Authorities and provides support and guidance on harbour management.


Plans

  • Achieve greater economies of scale, for example, by facilitating larger geographic groupings
  • Encourage Harbour Authorities (HAs) to share the costs of harbour administration, operation and professional management
  • Use the existing network of HA Advisory Committees to communicate with HAs
  • Increase the number of existing core fishing harbours managed by HAs
  • Support superior environmental management by monitoring the Environmental Management Plans in place and ensuring compliance with federal, provincial and municipal regulations
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Efficient and effective management of core fishing harbours by Harbour Authorities Percentage of existing core fishing harbours managed by Harbour Authorities
  • 92% of core fishing harbours are managed by Harbour Authorities
Compliance with environmental and health and safety standards Percentage of core fishing harbours that have Environmental Management Plans in place
  • 75% of core fishing harbours managed by Harbour Authorities have Environmental Management Plans in place

Program Sub-activity: Maintenance

Small Craft Harbours provides strategic direction for harbour and facility development, repair and maintenance and the comprehensive program and project planning required to develop and maintain core harbours. It also promotes efficient and effective project delivery mechanisms to ensure harbour safety and optimal management of client needs.


Plans

  • Identify and implement strategic opportunities to improve project delivery by investigating alternative delivery mechanisms
  • Increase the role of HAs in project management
  • Prepare and implement an annual expenditure plan to ensure that current harbour facilities have safe structural and operating conditions and can accommodate changes in client mix over the longer term
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Condition and functional adequacy of harbours essential for Canada's fishing industry that meet client expectations Performance ratings at core fishing harbours
  • 72% of core fishing harbours have a performance rating of fair, good, or very good
Cost-effective and efficient management of maintenance and repair activities Condition of facilities at core fishing harbours
  • 81% of core fishing harbour facilities are in fair, good, or very good condition

Program Sub-activity: Divestiture

Small Craft Harbours divests harbours not essential for Canada's commercial fishing industry. To prepare a harbour for divestiture, it implements safety measures, ensures minimal maintenance, and undertakes repairs or provides equivalent grants to the purchasers after divestiture. Following divestiture, Small Craft Harbours monitors compliance with the terms and conditions of divestiture agreements.


Plans

  • Conduct pre-divestiture repairs or provide equivalent grants, with priority going to the harbours with the most urgent requirements or best opportunities
  • Implement safety measures at non-core fishing and recreational harbours pending divestiture
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Divestiture of recreational and low-activity fishing harbours with minimal negative impact on communities Number of recreational and low-activity fishing harbours divested per year
  • 14 recreational harbours and 5 non- active fishing harbours were divested during the year in review
  Number of harbours divested annually versus total number of harbours to be divested
  • 193 recreational harbours and 196 fishing harbours remain to be divested
Non-core fishing harbours pending divestiture that are safe, and active recreational harbours that remain operational Percentage of facilities at non-core fishing harbours and of recreational harbours that are rated fair, good, or very good
  • 82.5% of facilities at non-core fishing harbours and recreational harbours are in fair, good, or very good condition
  Percentage of fair, good, or very good performance ratings at non-core harbours
  • 49% of non-core harbours have a performance rating of fair, good, or very good

Data source: SCH Information Program, a national database that records current and historical data on the SCH program.

DFO On the Job

Small Craft Harbours — No Small Task

Last November, the Small Craft Harbours (SCH) Program held its 13th semi-annual National Harbour Authority Advisory Committee meeting in Ottawa. Committee members are regional representatives of Harbour Authorities, federally incorporated, not-for-profit organizations for the most part.

Created and managed by DFO's SCH, the Harbour Authorities program is designed to give more control to local communities in the handling of day-to-day operations of their harbours. There are currently 570 Harbour Authorities (composed of approximately 5,000 local volunteers) managing 687 of the 745 core commercial fishing harbours. These organizations are essential to the social and economic life of many communities in Canada that depend on local harbours. They link people to nearby waters by keeping vital harbour facilities in good repair, establishing and enforcing rules and representing the needs of users at the community level.

Present at the meeting were 15 members representing Harbour Authorities from across Canada, representatives from SCH in Ottawa and the regions, as well as Cal Hegge, Assistant Deputy Minister of Human Resources & Corporate Services (HRCS) and Minister Hearn.

(L-R) Osborne Burke, Harbour Authority of Ingonish, NS; Minister Loyola Hearn; Luc Legresley, Harbour Authority of Newport, QC; Cal Hegge, ADM HRCS — at the National Harbour Authority Advisory Committee meeting held last November (L-R) Osborne Burke, Harbour Authority of Ingonish, NS; Minister Loyola Hearn; Luc Legresley, Harbour Authority of Newport, QC;
Cal Hegge, ADM HRCS — at the National Harbour Authority Advisory Committee meeting

During two days of productive exchanges — under the theme "Creating the future together" — participants sought and obtained advice on a number of initiatives undertaken by the SCH Program and aimed at increasing HA capacity and strengthening the HA model. Several working groups on the HA manuals, the recognition program and the new management model were formed as a result and new endeavours are on the way.

In his address to participants over lunch, Mr. Hearn began by thanking the Harbour Authorities.

"It all begins at the wharf," he said. "Without your assistance, the SCH Program simply wouldn't work. Even though we may be fishing different species, using different boats, come from different backgrounds, the bottom line is we are all affected by the fishery and that is why we all need to work together."

The Minister's presence helped the Authorities feel even more empowered to take the messages from the meeting back to their communities. It will be exciting to see the progress on new undertakings such as improved communications and updated business and training tools.

Program Activity: Science

This program provides scientific research, monitoring, advice, products and services and data management to ensure departmental and federal policies, programs, decisions, and regulations associated with safe, secure, and accessible waterways are informed by science advice. The science is provided through a network of research facilities, in collaboration with other government departments, private sector, academia and international organizations.

Science has one of the departmental program priorities — Science Renewal (described in Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture) and two program sub-activities: providing products and services for navigation; and supporting maritime safety and security and Canadian sovereignty.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-26.pngScience - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/main_e.htm.


Financial and Human Resources, Science, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending1 Total Authorities Actual Spending
Providing products and services for navigation 32.8 35.1 51.8
Supporting maritime safety and security and Canadian sovereignty 2.7 3.8 3.5
Sub-total 35.5 38.9 55.2
Program Enablers 11.2 11.7 10.2
Total 46.7 50.6 65.4
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Providing products and services for navigation   264  
Supporting maritime safety and security and Canadian sovereignty   9  
Sub-total 298 273 -25
Program Enablers 62 60 -2
Total 360 333 -27

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.

Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.

1Planned spending does not match that in the 2006-2007 RPP, as there was an addition error in the RPP.


Expected Results - Science Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Science information (oceanographic information and hydrographic products and services) are used to achieve safe navigation and sovereignty and protection Annual distribution of hydrographic charts, publications and information brochures
  • Recreational and commercial mariners purchased or received at no charge approximately 222,400 official marine paper navigational charts, publications and information brochures
  • The number of paper products distributed has continued to decline in recent years as digital chart products have become an increasingly popular alternative to the paper products
  Proportion of service targets met in the following categories: critical charting information, water level and tidal information, availability of publications, currency and availability of nautical charts, status of web information, and timeliness of distribution
  • Over the past two fiscal years, the overall percentage of service targets met has increased from 73% (2005-2006) to 78% for 2006-2007
  Work completed for Canada's claim to the continental shelf under the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea (UNCLOS)
  • Completed approximately one-third of the planned data acquisition in the Atlantic Ocean; data acquisition in the Arctic Ocean has presented a challenge because of adverse weather conditions, shortness of the field season, and the size of the survey area

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-27.png Levels of service - http://www.charts.gc.ca/pub/en/los/


As commercial and recreational traffic on waterways has increased, so has the demand for up-to-date hydrographic and oceanographic information on both charted and uncharted waters. Keeping existing hydrographic charts up-to-date while also creating new ones continues to challenge the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS). In 2006-2007, CHS continued to apply a risk-based approach and the level of service initiative to the management of the hydrographic portfolio of navigation products to ensure that areas of highest risk to safe navigation are addressed first.

The ratification of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea in 2003 requires Canada to submit evidence within ten years to the United Nations Commission for the Limits of the Continental Shelf in support of its territorial claim to the continental shelf beyond the current 200-mile limit. CHS is responsible for undertaking bathymetric surveys in the Atlantic and the Arctic Oceans as part of Canada's evidence.The Pacific Ocean has no shelf that can be claimed. If successful, the claim will add an area equal to that covered by the three prairie provinces. Although Canada has until 2013 to submit the claim, the adverse weather conditions in the Arctic, shortness of the field season, and the size of area to be surveyed present a challenge.

Canadian Hydrographic Services - http://www.charts.gc.ca/pub/en/

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-28.pngCHS RiBased Approach -http://www.charts.gc.ca/pub/en/los/risk_criteria.asp

United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea - http://geo.international.gc.ca/cip-pic/geo/continental_shelf-en.aspx

Program Sub-activity: Providing Products and Services for Navigation

The Canadian Hydrographic Service contributes to the safety and accessibility of Canadian waterways by surveying, measuring, describing, and charting the physical features of Canada's oceans, seas, rivers, and navigable inland waters and making up-to-date, timely and accurate hydrographic information and products and services available to citizens, mariners, and the Government of Canada.


Plans

  • Continue to apply a risk-based approach and level of service initiative to the management of the hydrographic portfolio of navigational products
  • Undertake additional hydrographic charting in high-risk areas
  • Initiate the development of a model for increased private-sector participation in printing and distributing Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS) navigational products
Expected Results Results Achieved
Improved and more up-to-date charts and other navigational products
  • Increased the number of Electronic Navigational Charts covering northern areas such as the Northwest Passage, Hudson Bay, and Western Hudson Bay, in anticipation of increased vessel traffic
Increased accuracy and detail of navigation products
  • Continued to apply the risk-based approach to managing the portfolio of navigational charts and publications
  • Reviewed 20% of all high-risk charts in accordance with level of service target
Increased access to and use of navigation tools by mariners and industry
  • Consolidated two distribution offices into one location to achieve increased program efficiencies
Increased integration of nautical information and products
  • Recently assumed full responsibility for the production, marketing, sales and distribution of digital charts and data, including the licensing of value-added resellers and dealers

Program Sub-activity: Supporting Maritime Safety and Security and Canadian Sovereignty

The Science program supports safe and accessible waterways by undertaking oceanographic research and monitoring that enables the forecasting of ocean conditions (tides, currents, etc.) and provides useful insight into the impacts of climate change on navigation. Hydrographic data and information is also provided to support territorial claims and international disputes associated with limits and boundaries.


Plans

  • Provide information, data and evidence to support Canada's claim to the outer limits of the continental shelf under Article 76 of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea
Expected Results Results Achieved
Improved ability to forecast ocean events and ice conditions
  • No data available for 2006-2007
More hydrographic and ocean event data available to users to ensure security and safety (e.g., Department of National Defence, Royal Canadian Mounted Police, CCG)
  • DFO and Natural Resources Canada collaborated on Project LORITA (Lomonosov Ridge Test of Appurtenance), a through-the-ice survey north of Ellesmere Island with the Danish Ministry of Science, Technology and Innovation
Increased data to negotiate off-shore Canadian jurisdiction
  • Conducted a bathymetric survey off the Grand Banks of Newfoundland to augment existing bathymetry, which will be used to determine the foot of the continental slope
  • Conducted an initial test seismic survey to evaluate new seismic equipment for measuring sediment thicknesses in the Western Arctic; this will be important information in maximizing Canada's outer limits in this area

DFO on the Job

Charting the World's Longest Coastline

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-29.pngDetail from chart 4765 showing Hebron, Labrador, one of the thousands of ports charted by CHS

Pleasure boaters, commercial fishermen, seafarers on Canadian ships, and others from around the world all depend on the Canadian Hydrographic Service (CHS). CHS supplies mariners with nearly a thousand different navigational charts, covering the world's longest coastline, almost a quarter-million kilometres, in all its sinuosities and with all the details of depths, buoys, lighthouses, and hazards to navigation. CHS charts also cover the Great Lakes and other major lakes and rivers.

At the Ottawa distribution centre, Jeannine Houle and Monique Smith and their regional counterparts field requests by phone, e-mail, and fax from nearly 800 chart dealers in Canada, the United States, and as far away as Japan. The Ottawa centre and a smaller one in Sidney, British Columbia, send out a total of nearly 300,000 charts, tide tables, and other nautical publications every year.

CHS charts are known for their quality. Even lying on the warehouse shelves, they get careful maintenance. Every time the Department of Fisheries and Ocean's (DFO) Canadian Coast Guard issues a Notice to Mariners about a relocated buoy, a new wharf, a new undersea cable, or other such changes, CHS staff at the distribution centres ink or patch in the changes for regular charts. (The small craft charts produced for recreational boaters in some areas are corrected at the next printing.)

Chart corrections are getting easier, with the rising popularity of print-on-demand (POD) production. Instead of staff correcting hundreds of copies of a paper chart, an operator makes one revision on the computer, and all subsequent copies are printed with the latest information.

Electronic plotters at the Ottawa centre can print scores of different charts on request. Last year saw more than 55,000 POD orders. Although most charts still get produced on regular lithographic presses, CHS is looking towards more use of POD, perhaps including charts printed out at the dealership.

Besides the regular paper chart, usually priced at $20, CHS produces jacketed cruising atlases that include several charts covering neighbouring areas. New waterproof charts for some areas have become a big seller among boaters.

Mariners are also making more use of electronic navigation charts (ENCs) on CD-ROMs. The vessel operator slips the disk into a computer and navigates on-screen. Canada has one of the largest ENC portfolios in the world.

Electronic charts can provide even more information than paper ones, giving, for example, the height, length, age, and ownership of a wharf at the click of a computer mouse. The electronic data are available in two forms: the full navigational chart with all the details and a simpler raster version popular on pleasure craft.

Other CHS publications include Sailing Directions, 25 different volumes for the different areas of Canada. Charts depict the surface and bottom, but, says Rick Mehlman, Supervisor of Chart Support and Maintenance, "Sailing Directions tell you what the chart can't show — for example, that a tall church spire dominates a bay, reflects the sun, and can be seen from seven miles offshore."

CHS also prepares and prints tide tables, another major operation. In such areas as the Bay of Fundy, with the world's highest tides, the tidebook is the mariner's Bible. Other publications include the Canadian Tidal Manual, Small Craft Guides, instructional charts, bathymetric (seafloor) maps, Radio Aids to Marine Navigation, the List of Lights, Buoys, and Fog Signals, and the essential Notices to Mariners. Issued in collaboration with the Canadian Coast Guard, the latter publication includes chart corrections, also available through the Internet (at www.notmar.gc.ca).

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-30.jpg Photograph of Hebron from the Sailing Directions. The text notes that "the settlement was abandoned in the early 1960's but is still occupied occasionally for short periods of time by Inuit families from Nain. Many of the buildings were standing in 2003, in particular the large Moravian Mission church and dormitory."

As the CHS motto states, "Nautical Charts Protect Lives, Property and the Marine Environment." Charts are the captain's silent partner. Canada's reliable, comprehensive, high-quality charts are there because CHS is there, working with quiet competence to keep mariners safe.

Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture

The strategic outcome Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture is about delivering an integrated fisheries and aquaculture program that is credible, science based, affordable, and effective, and contributes to sustainable wealth for Canadians.

This strategic outcome is delivered through three program activities:

  • Fisheries Management;
  • Aquaculture; and
  • Science.

As a sustainable development department, DFO works to protect and conserve Canada's aquatic resources, while supporting the development and use of these resources. To do this, the Department depends on sound scientific research and advice and on developing a modernized fisheries management regime that is integrated with the broader oceans management agenda. The pursuit of strong conservation outcomes through the implementation of a comprehensive risk management framework, as well as the precautionary and ecosystem approaches, allows DFO and resource users to better understand the impacts of fishing on fish stocks and fish habitat.

DFO continues to pursue a renewal agenda that addresses many of the chronic challenges faced by the fishing sector — adapting to an increasingly fast pace of industrial change, technological advances, environmental degradation, climate change, and global market pressures — in addition to the particular challenges resulting from dependence on the use of a common-property natural resource. At the same time, DFO remains focused on modernizing the decision-making system and building a new relationship with resource users based on shared stewardship. Efforts have been guided by the principles of predictability, stability and transparency. Steady improvement has been made, particularly in stabilizing sharing arrangements developing a modern management approach, but much remains to be done. DFO needs to continue to clarify and adapt policies and programs to promote flexible fishing enterprises able to adjust to resource, environmental, market and other fluctuations.

The state of global fisheries and aquaculture resources also affect Canadians. The International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy guides Canada's activities intended to improve international fisheries and oceans management. One of the Strategy's objectives is to improve high seas fisheries governance by promoting lasting improvements in international standards and practices and in support of Canadian priorities.

DFO's vision for aquaculture is to create the conditions necessary to enable sustainable and environmentally responsible aquaculture development in Canada. The objective is to establish enduring benefits for Canadians through the harvesting of aquatic organisms while upholding the ecological and socio-economic values associated with Canada's oceans and inland waters. The development of aquaculture in Canada requires a streamlined regulatory environment, harmonized standards and practices, and enhanced public confidence in government's oversight.

The Science program provides scientific research, monitoring, advice, products and services, and data to support the sustainable harvest of wild and cultured fish and other aquatic resources and to contribute to sustainable wealth.

Results Chain

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-31.jpg

What Did DFO Spend?

Approximately 38% of the Department's total expenditures for 2006-2007 — or $631 million — was used to ensure sustainable fisheries and aquaculture.


Financial and Human Resources, Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Fisheries Management 379.5 409.5 364.0
Aquaculture 2.7 2.8 4.9
Science in support of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture 152.9 160.9 151.8
Program Enablers1 121.1 122.6 110.1
Total 656.2 695.7 630.9
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Fisheries Management 1,502 1,436 -662
Aquaculture 27 38 11
Science in support of Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture 1,048 1,016 -32
Program Enablers1 689 665 -24
Total 3,266 3,155 -111

Note: Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.

1 Financial and human resources for Program Enablers have been prorated across program activities. The section Other Items of Interest provides further information on Program Enablers.

2 The difference in FTE utilization under the Fisheries Management Program Activity was the result of lower than expected recruitment of Conservation and Protection cadets. Cadets are hired as employees once they have graduated.

Program Activity: Fisheries Management

The overall goal of fisheries management is the conservation of Canada's fisheries resources to ensure sustainable resource utilization through close collaboration with resource users and stakeholders based on shared stewardship. Fisheries Management is responsible for international fisheries conservation negotiations and relations, shared management of interception fisheries11 in international waters and management of the Aboriginal, commercial and recreational fishing activities in the coastal waters of Canada's three oceans.

The Fisheries Management program activity has two of the departmental program priorities — International Governance, led by the Strategic Policy Sector, and Fisheries Renewal — and is delivered via five program sub-activities: Resource Management; Aboriginal Policy and Governance; Salmonid Enhancement Program; International Fisheries Conservation; and Conservation and Protection.


Financial and Human Resources, Fisheries Management, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Resource Management 101.7 103.5 77.5
Aboriginal Policy and Governance 119.4 136.2 116.0
Salmonid Enhancement Program 26.0 26.6 29.9
International Fisheries Conservation 7.7 7.9 16.6
Conservation and Protection 124.6 135.2 124.2
Sub-total 379.5 409.5 364.0
Program Enablers 63.7 64.3 60.5
Total 443.2 473.8 424.5
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Resource Management   409  
Aboriginal Policy and Governance   99  
Salmonid Enhancement Program   207  
International Fisheries Conservation   17  
Conservation and Protection   704  
Sub-total 1,502 1,436 -66
Program Enablers 414 400 -14
Total 1,916 1,836 -80

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.

Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.


Expected Results — Fisheries Management Results Achieved
Conservation of stocks and habitat
  • Developed a draft policy to address the impacts of fishing on and conservation of benthic habitat; consultations will take place in 2007
  • Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) members agreed to protect four seamounts in the NAFO Regulatory Area by closing them to commercial fishing activities until the end of 2010
  • Agreement within NAFO for significant reforms to the organization's monitoring, control, and surveillance measures; these changes will increase deterrence and reduce rule-breaking on the water
Sustainable resource use for present and future generations
  • DFO is developing Fishery Sustainability Checklists for all of Canada's key commercial fisheries to measure the biological and management aspects of fishery sustainability, and the status of management measures and their contribution to conserving the fish stocks and the ecosystems in which they live

Efforts to improve international fisheries and oceans governance continued to be successful. DFO made significant progress in various international fora on overfishing and illegal, unreported, and unregulated (IUU) fishing. In January 2007, Mr. Loyola Sullivan was appointed as ambassador for Fisheries Conservation to promote awareness in Canada and abroad of the overall strategy to strengthen international fisheries and oceans governance.

An ongoing investment is needed to continue the current momentum for action and change and to address emerging challenges. The International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy is laying the necessary integrated groundwork to strengthen international governance. Results thus far are promising; however, more effort is needed to address upcoming challenges, including the concerns and aspirations of developing countries.

DFO continued to implement the Fisheries Renewal priority to modernize fisheries management in Canada and provide a comprehensive management framework. The focus is on four objectives: Strong Conservation Outcomes; Shared Stewardship; Stable Access and Allocation; and Modernized Compliance. Under this priority, DFO is also developing a new fisheries management governance model by revising the Fisheries Act, which will enable DFO and resource users to meet conservation objectives, and will enable resource users to respond to economic forces that impact their industry.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-32.pngFisheries and Aquaculture Management -http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/fish_man/index_e.htm

Program Priority: International Governance

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Exceeded


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Implement the second year of the International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy (three-year funded strategy)
  • Supported activities designed to lead to more responsible management of high seas fisheries and the sustainability of high seas ecosystems; major achievements include:
  • Advancing global action on overfishing and IUU fishing within such important institutions as the World Trade Organization (WTO) and the United Nations Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Committee on Fisheries
  • Contracting Parties of the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organization (NAFO) agreed to update the NAFO Convention, particularly to incorporate key principles from the United Nations Fish Stocks Agreement (UNFA)
  • The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted a Resolution on sustainable fisheries, which advanced a number of Canada's interests, including the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems
  • See also Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-33.pngInternational Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/overfishing-surpeche/index_e.htm

United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) Resolutions - http://www.un.org/Depts/los/general_assembly/general_assembly_resolutions.htm


Program Priority: Fisheries Renewal

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Met


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Develop a new governance model for fisheries management, including proposals to modernize the Fisheries Act
  • Tabled a renewed Fisheries Act in Parliament on December 13, 2006
Improve conservation outcomes through a new relationship with all resource users based on shared responsibility and accountability for resource management and its outcomes
  • Launched the Ocean to Plate initiative in 2006-2007 to:
  • Establish a more stable access and allocation process
  • Make decisions more transparent
  • Allow stakeholders to focus on improving conservation and fisheries management instead of focusing on securing a share of the resource
Develop options and innovative regulatory and governance approaches to support Fisheries Renewal
  • The tabled modernized Fisheries Act reflects innovative approaches to fisheries management
Ensure business structures and practices complement and enable policy, program and legislative renewal
  • Continued to enhance business planning, performance measurement and risk management processes

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-34.png Fisheries Act - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/infocus/2006/20061213_e.htm

Ocean to Plate initiative - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/backgrou/2007/hq-ac17a_e.htm


Program Sub-activity: Resource Management

This program delivers policies, programs and plans, in partnership with industry, to manage, protect and conserve fisheries resources. The program is necessary to ensure sustainability and provide for the fair allocation and distribution of harvestable surpluses among those dependent on the resource. The program, with input from related Fisheries and Oceans Canada program areas and stakeholders, develops and implements Integrated Fisheries Management Plans for each fishery, which integrate conservation, management and scientific objectives, and spell out the required measures to conserve and manage a fishery, including the enhancement of salmon stocks on the Pacific Coast. Allocations between user groups and fleet sectors are an important aspect of resource management. Fish stocks are managed by allocating quotas to entire fleet sectors which then fish competitively or give specific percentages of the quota to individuals or businesses, and by controlling effort, escapement or by-catch.


Plans

  • Continue to prepare and implement Integrated Fisheries Management Plans for all key fisheries
  • Modernize fisheries management by clarifying policy direction and programming
Expected Results Results Achieved
Integrated management of fisheries resources in collaboration with stakeholders
  • Implemented the Oceans-to-Plate management approach
  • Improved fisheries planning, expanded shared stewardship, and improved relations with stakeholders by:
  • Further stabilizing access and allocation
  • Implementing the policy on Preserving the Independence of the Inshore Fleet in Canada's Atlantic Fisheries
  • Integrating the management of groundfish fisheries in British Columbia
  • Consulting stakeholders on the more than 170 fisheries plans
A modernized fisheries management regime
  • Following extensive consultations with fishers and other stakeholders, DFO rolled out an initial set of initiatives to respond to their concerns, e.g., Oceans-to-Plate approach, measures to preserve the independence of inshore fleets in Atlantic Canada, approaches to encourage rationalization in the fishery; these initiatives, along with a renewed Fisheries Act, are the first steps to a modernized regime

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-35.png Fisheries Act - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/infocus/2006/20061213_e.htm

Ocean to Plate initiative - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/backgrou/2007/hq-ac17a_e.htm -


Program Sub-activity: Aboriginal Policy and Governance

This program provides policy advice on Aboriginal fishing issues, negotiates agreements on the management of Aboriginal fisheries, integrates agreements into overall management frameworks, and advises on land claims and self-government. The program is necessary to build strong, stable relations with Aboriginal groups, to manage fisheries in a manner consistent with the decision of the Supreme Court of Canada in R. v. Sparrow and subsequent decisions, and to promote fisheries-related economic opportunities for Aboriginal communities. The program is guided by a proactive approach in its relationship with Aboriginal groups based on assisting Aboriginal peoples to obtain the capacity to more effectively participate in the multi-stakeholder processes used for aquatic resource and oceans management and building their capacity to take advantage of opportunities to participate in commercial fisheries and aquaculture development.


Plans

  • Negotiate and implement fisheries agreements with Aboriginal groups and Aboriginal communities and promote integrated commercial fisheries
  • Provide policy advice and support in regard to maintaining and enhancing relations with Aboriginal groups
  • Modernize fisheries management by clarifying policy direction and programming
Expected Results Results Achieved
Negotiation and implementation of fisheries agreements with Aboriginal groups
  • Signed agreements with 167 Aboriginal groups
  • Completed 3 Comprehensive Land Claim Agreements in British Columbia
Promotion of integrated commercial fisheries
  • Supported Aboriginal participation in integrated commercial fisheries by:
  • Completing agreements with 31 of 34 eligible First Nations in Atlantic Canada, which fulfilled all outstanding commitments in fisheries agreements signed under the Marshall Response Initiative
  • Implementing 17 At-Sea Mentoring Initiative Agreements
  • Implementing 3 Fisheries Operations Management Initiative Agreements
  • Implementing 146 agreements worth $35 million under the Aboriginal Fisheries Strategy (AFS)
  • Implementing 31 agreements valued at $14.7 million under the Aboriginal Aquatic Resource and Oceans Management (AAROM) Programs for capacity building, collaborative management and economic opportunities; DFO also facilitated the retirement of 51 licences, provision of gear and re-allocation of quota to support Aboriginal participation in commercial fisheries

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-36.png Marshall Response Initiative - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/marshall/marshall_e.htm

Aboriginal Fishing Strategy - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/fish_man/afs_e.htm

Aboriginal Aquatic Resource and Oceans Management - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/communic/fish_man/Aboriginal-Autochtones/AAROM/SOI_e.htm


Program Sub-activity: Salmonid Enhancement Program

This program focuses on fish production to preserve vulnerable stocks and sustain fisheries, increasing public awareness and building community involvement capacity. The program is geared to enhancing and rebuilding salmon stocks and restoring and improving fish habitat in British Columbia and the Yukon. The Salmonid Enhancement Program (SEP) hatcheries fall into three main categories: major facilities (18) managed by government employees; community development projects (21) operated by local community group employees; and public involvement projects (178) ranging from classroom incubators to substantial hatcheries operated mostly by volunteers. SEP plays a pivotal role in maintaining wild salmon populations for the Aboriginal, commercial and recreational fisheries.


Plans

  • Continue fish production at hatcheries
  • Continue fish habitat restoration projects and initiatives
  • Continue community outreach, partnering and education
Expected Results Results Achieved
Strategic enhancement of wild stocks and fish habitat
  • Continued to operate 23 hatcheries and managed spawning channels; contracted with 21 community and First Nations partners to operate community-based enhancement platforms; released a total of 361 million juvenile salmon from enhancement facilities; and supported recovery of six salmon populations of significant conservation concern, including two captive brood programs
  • Supported numerous recreational, commercial and First Nation's fisheries targeting certain stocks
  • Collaborated on 111 habitat restoration projects with various community-based partners in support of enhanced salmon production
Increased awareness and stewardship to conserve and protect fish and fish habitat
  • Supported over 10,000 volunteer stewards who participated in about 300 community-based projects in the areas of small-scale salmon hatchery work, streamkeeper training, stream monitoring, salmon stock and habitat assessment, school education programs, outreach and learning activities, as well as local stewardship and planning activities
  • Collaborated with community groups that were able to lever additional resources (money, volunteer time and materials) from many other sources in support of salmon conservation, awareness, and stewardship
  • Implemented the fourth year of the Stream to Sea Education Strategy

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-37.png Salmon Enhancement Branch - http://www-heb.pac.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/facilities/salmonid_e.htm


DFO on the Job:

DFO and the Adams River Salute to the Sockeye

The swiftly moving waters of the Adams River hold a well-known secret. Every four years, in October, the river rises and swells in a cacophony of red, undulating bodies. It is home to one of the premier sockeye salmon runs in Canada. Fisheries and Oceans Canada staff have been involved in providing interpretation of this natural miracle for over thirty years. In that time, hundreds of thousands of visitors from around the globe have travelled to Roderick Haig Brown Park in the interior of British Columbia to witness the miracle of death and rebirth of the sockeye.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-38.jpgSockeye Salmon (Norbert Wu)

In the fall of 2006, this ancient ritual was repeated and we were there, hosting the 2006 Salute to the Sockeye event. In the three weeks between October 1st and 22nd almost 15,000 school children come to the site to reinforce their understanding of the event, which is a part of the BC curriculum. They were joined by 87,000 tourists who travelled from the farthest points of the globe to experience the grace, challenge and beauty of the run. The run was also featured in extensive international media coverage.

The Salute is a phenomenal example of stewardship in action. Twenty-five department staff worked with provincial, municipal and local governments, First Nations, community partners and many others to host the internationally recognized event. We will be on the ground in the fall of 2007 for a sub-dominant run celebration.

Program Sub-activity: International Fisheries Conservation

This program negotiates and administers international treaties and agreements affecting conservation, allocation, the conduct of bilateral and multilateral fisheries relations with other countries, the settlement of issues related to maritime boundary disputes, and the formulation and presentation of international fisheries conservation advice to the Minister. The program conducts the international relations necessary to advancing Canada's fisheries conservation interests and maximizing allocations to Canadians from internationally managed fish stocks.


Plans

  • Negotiate and administer bilateral and multilateral fisheries treaties and governance agreements related to trans-boundary, highly migratory, straddling and external fish stocks on the high seas
  • Develop and implement a governance strategy on long-term foreign overfishing and fishing on the international high seas
Expected Results Results Achieved
Assertion of Canadian interests with respect to internationally managed fish stocks
  • Protected Canadian fishing opportunities in all tuna Regional Fisheries Management Organizations (RFMOs) and bilateral fisheries agreements, in conformity with scientific advice
Sound international fisheries governance
  • Actively participated in negotiating Kobe Course of Actions, resulting in commitments by a large number of members of tuna RMFOs to strengthen these organizations and to achieve sustainable fisheries
  • Advanced initiatives to modernize and make international fisheries governance more efficient and effective in key regional fisheries management organizations such as the Northwest Atlantic Fisheries Organisation (NAFO)
Protection of Canadian sovereignty
  • Formal and informal bilateral consultations were held with a number of key fishing countries, including the United States and the European Union, to advance Canadian international fisheries management objectives and priorities

Program Sub-activity: Conservation and Protection

This program deploys Fishery Officers to ensure compliance with the legislation, regulations and fishing plans relating to conservation and sustainable use of Canada's fisheries resources, the protection of species at risk, fish habitat and oceans. The program is conducted through promotion, monitoring and enforcement. The program creates a greater awareness of conservation goals and objectives among resource users and stakeholders to enhance compliance. This program is delivered with the support of the Canadian Coast Guard's Operational Readiness sub-activity and support from National Defence.


Plans

  • Deploy Conservation and Protection personnel to promote compliance and deter non-compliance activities
  • Promote compliance and enforcement activities on the Fraser River
  • Modernize fisheries management by clarifying policy direction and programming
Expected Results Results Achieved
A high level of compliance with fisheries legislation and regulation in the delivery of effective compliance programs
  • Carried out a diversified compliance program consisting of about 76,200 hours promoting compliance through schools and stakeholder meetings; about 337,000 hours patrolling (land, air and sea) and verifying compliance with various legislation, regulations and management measures; and another 151,727 hours conducting investigations, carrying out special operations and participating in court procedures related to prosecutions
  Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-39.jpg
A more strategic, integrated, innovative, risk-based compliance program
  • Developed a new compliance framework with a continued emphasis on traditional enforcement activities and increased commitment to compliance education and shared stewardship, major case management and special investigations; this has led to creating new enforcement advisory committees; spending more time in schools and in informal interaction with resource users to educate and promote better compliance, and refining the capacity to deal with organized illegal activity through better training, co-ordination and intelligence gathering, and analysis
  • Implemented a new model to assess risks to compliance and to set more risk-based operational priorities

DFO on the Job

Conservation and Protection in Action

  • In April 2007, the Pacific Region's first conviction under the Species at Risk Act (SARA) yielded a 12-month conditional sentence and a $40,000 fine for one individual and four months of house arrest, a $10,000 fine and 80 hours of community service for two others. They forfeited their pickup truck, boat and scuba gear and are banned from scuba diving. All three pleaded guilty under s.63 of the Pacific Fishery Regulations, s.33 of the Fisheries Act and s.32(2) of the Species at Risk Act. The sentence follows a three-year investigation and a four-day stakeout of the men near Prince Rupert. They were arrested in February 2006 in possession of 1,100 abalone (2500Kg) - the largest seizure in BC. It is believed that the men were part of a larger poaching ring.

    Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-40.jpgFishery officers took nearly 1,130 kilos of abalone off poachers. They began to count the fish but returned them to the water for fear they would die!

  • Conservation and Protection, Maritimes Region, wrapped up an investigation that lasted five long years, stretched worldwide, and led to a $839,734 penalty to seven fishers and the company to which they were linked. The fishers were illegally catching prized bluefin tuna with a value of approximately $1.2 million. Up to 27 Fishery Officers were involved in evidence collection during the investigation. New techniques such as forensic accounting were key to the success. The fine has set a precedent for fishers enforcement in the country. Fishery Officers have effectively brought down a group of high-profit poachers and contributed to the protection of this and other aquatic species.
  • The recreational groundfish fishery in Newfoundland and Labrador was opened for 35 days in 2006, the first in some areas since 2002. Significant effort by Conservation and Protection was dedicated to the monitoring of this fishery to assess participation rates and harvest levels and to achieve optimal levels of compliance with the management measures and put in place. Approximately 6,600 Fishery Officer hours were directed towards this fishery. Fisher and boat inspection rates averaged 5.8% and 6.5% respectively. Of the total 64 occurrences recorded, only 25 involved infractions of regulations. Compliance rates were relatively high. This recreational groundfish fishery was considered successful.
  • Increased Fishery Officer enforcement activities on the Fraser River were conducted to ensure the protection of sockeye stocks. This was accomplished by bolstering existing resources to increase vessel, vehicle and helicopter patrol coverage; monitoring compliance during licensed First Nations, recreational, and commercial fisheries; conducting strategic enforcement activities during conservation closures; and increasing communication and relationship building with First Nations groups and other resource users. Outcomes were very positive as fisheries proceeded in a safer and more orderly fashion, relationships were improved, and monitoring and patrol coverage was very thorough. Sockeye escapement was also very good.
  • A total of 83 new Fishery Officer recruits graduated from the Fishery Officer Career Progression Program classroom training and have now been posted in DFO field offices across Canada. This is the first time in a number of years that over 95% of the Fishery Officer positions in the country have been staffed.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-41.png

Program Activity: Aquaculture

Aquaculture development in Canada benefits Canadians through the production of aquatic organisms (e.g., salmon and mussels) while upholding the ecological and socioeconomic values associated with Canada's oceans and inland waters. Fisheries and Oceans Canada, as the lead federal organization for aquaculture, provides a horizontally managed and integrated intradepartmental approach, to create the conditions for a vibrant and innovative aquaculture industry that is environmentally and socially responsible, economically viable and internationally competitive. The program is delivered in collaboration with other federal departments, provincial and territorial governments, industry, the private sector, non-government organizations, and other stakeholders.

Aquaculture has one of the departmental program priorities — Aquaculture Governance — and no sub-activities.


Financial and Human Resources, Aquaculture, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Aquaculture 2.7 2.8 4.9
Program Enablers 0.8 0.8 0.8
Total 3.5 3.6 5.7
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Aquaculture 27 38 11
Program Enablers 5 5 0
Total 32 43 11


Plans

  • Resource and structure the organization to effectively deliver on DFO's aquaculture responsibility
  • Create an enabling policy and regulatory environment that contributes to the development of a competitive aquaculture industry
  • Develop an integrated national government approach to aquaculture
  • Introduce measures to support the safety of aquaculture products and the environmental sustainability of aquaculture operations
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Informed and objective decision-making Percentage of decisions complying with a risk/evidence/science-based decision-making approach
  • DFO continued to rely heavily on its science, the evidence produced by historical data, and the risks identified through strategic planning when setting the necessary conditions for responsible and sustainable aquaculture development
Sound and integrated governance Percentage of regions with operating federal and joint federal/ provincial/territorial review bodies
  • Progress continued towards establishing agreements with provincial/territorial partners to create and implement additional federal/ provincial/territorial review bodies as part of the aquaculture renewal process
Enhanced environmental monitoring, compliance, and auditing  
  • The Federal/Provincial/Territorial Aquaculture Task Group held a series of technical national workshops to develop an Integrated Risk Management Framework for the environmental effects of aquaculture
Stakeholder/partner engagement Increase in aquaculture production, i.e., growing, competitive, market-focused industry with good environmental and social performance
  • Available statistics indicate that after experiencing a significant decrease in production in 2004, the aquaculture sector is now experiencing a return to 2001 production levels; in 2005, aquaculture production was 154,993 tonnes with a value of $715.1M
A streamlined regulatory environment, harmonized standards and practices, and enhanced public confidence to support the development of aquaculture in Canada Creation of codes of conduct by industry that address federal requirements
  • Continued to work with industry and provincial partners to facilitate the development of industry-led and managed codes of conduct for the various areas of aquaculture production
  • Over the past few years, industry-regulated codes of conduct have been developed and implemented by industry, in partnership with federal and provincial partners, for different productions, such as mussels, salmon, and freshwater finfish; in fiscal year 2006-2007, no new codes were established

Supporting this complex file, with its shared jurisdictions and its shared implications throughout the federal government, remained a challenge for DFO. Nevertheless the Department persisted in its efforts to collaborate with its many partners to create and solidly establish the necessary conditions to renew the Canadian aquaculture industry and enable the realization of its full potential through environmentally responsible and sustainable means. Work continued to develop a comprehensive understanding of the sector and to identify directions for its sustainable development.

Progress continued to be made on priority and emerging issues within the Department's Aquaculture Governance file, particularly through collaboration with other federal and provincial partners towards a framework to guide renewal of the Canadian aquaculture sector. DFO continued to work towards setting the appropriate conditions to enable the sector to realize its potential through environmentally responsible and sustainable means that will generate enduring socioeconomic benefits for all Canadians, particularly in communities that engage in aquaculture and its supporting industries, in coastal and rural environments.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-42.pngAquaculture Management - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/aquaculture/aquaculture_e.htm

Program Priority: Aquaculture Governance

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Met


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Ensure that the regulations for aquaculture are effective and cost efficient, while providing for accountability and transparency
  • Beginning in 2006-2007, DFO worked with other federal and provincial partners in a number of areas to enhance the effectiveness of the current regulatory regime for aquaculture
Develop a more integrated government response to emerging aquaculture opportunities and challenges through stronger collaboration with federal, provincial, and territorial partners
  • Initiated work on a co-ordinated approach to aquaculture environmental regulatory renewal with other federal departments and provinces
Establish a renewed aquaculture management framework
  • The Canadian Council of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministers (CCFAM) accepted in principle the concept overview for a renewed national aquaculture management framework developed by the Federal/Provincial/Territorial (F/P/T) Aquaculture Task Group
Promote increased public and consumer confidence by undertaking and publicizing measures to support the safety of aquaculture products and the environmental sustainability of aquaculture operations
  • Surveys on aquaculture indicate that Canadians continue to support responsible aquaculture development; for example, in the Baseline Public Opinion Survey of Coastal, Northern, Freshwater and Inland Residents in Canada,12 72% of all respondents indicated they supported the practice of fish farming in Canada; of those who did not indicate support, only 12% were opposed and 16% stated they were too unfamiliar with aquaculture to provide an opinion
  • Undertook various initiatives to promote and increase public confidence, including launching a new aquaculture website and conducting proactive, targeted media outreach in British Columbia
  • Conducted a survey of the US domestic supply chain13 (the most significant market for Canadian aquaculture products) to better understand the marketing challenges facing the Canadian aquaculture industry when working to supply the American market; findings include:
  • A strong market potential for Canadian aquaculture products
  • Positive perceptions about Canadian farm-raised seafood, although many participants admitted little knowledge of Canadian aquaculture
  • Mixed perceptions regarding Canadian aquaculture production methods (sustainability, innovation) and quality standards

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-43.pnghttp://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/aquaculture/aquaculture_e.htm


DFO On the Job

Sea Farming Expansion in Quebec

Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Quebec Region, took part in the fifth Rendez-vous de l'industrie maricole du Qubec, which attracted over 180 people to the Gasp region from March 21 to 23.

Representatives from private and public organizations came to this biennial event to hear and share the latest information in the field of sea farming, attend presentations by scientific experts, analyze market trends, and discuss technical problems affecting the industry.

Researchers from DFO's Maurice Lamontagne Institute gave presentations on parasite control, production techniques, feeding, seaweed farming, spotted wolffish culture, and scallop-harvesting methods.

DFO also displayed two booths in the exhibitors' hall. One focused on sustainable sea farming, highlighting federal involvement in scientific research, resource conservation, water quality, and financial assistance for businesses. The other booth featured Harbour Authorities, created by the Department, and stressed their importance to the marine industry.

Sea farming is a growing socioeconomic activity in Quebec coastal communities. The Government of Canada plays a key role in strengthening the industry. It supports the development of sustainable sea farming operations that respect the environment and human health, thereby promoting new knowledge and various uses of the marine environment.

Program Activity: Science

This program provides advice and recommendations based on scientific research and monitoring, as well as products and services and the management of data on Canada's oceans and resources. This ensures departmental and federal policies, programs, decisions, and regulations associated with sustainable fisheries and aquaculture are informed by scientific knowledge. The science is provided through a network of research facilities, in collaboration with other government departments, the private sector, academia, and international organizations.

Science in support of sustainable fisheries and aquaculture has one priority — Science Renewal — and is delivered through six program sub-activities: monitoring and assessing the status of fishery resources; supporting the assessment and recovery of species at risk; researching aquatic invasive species and monitoring aquatic animal diseases; supporting sustainable aquaculture and understanding aquaculture-environment interactions; applying genomics and biotechnology to aquatic ecosystems; and contributing to science management in DFO and the Government of Canada.


Financial and Human Resources, Science, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending1 Total Authorities Actual Spending
Monitoring and assessing the status of fishery resources 68.6 71.4 88.1
Supporting the assessment and recovery of species at risk 11.4 11.7 7.0
Researching aquatic invasive species and monitoring aquatic animal diseases 21.9 22.9 20.4
Supporting sustainable aquaculture and understanding aquaculture-environment interactions 13.1 13.5 13.4
Applying genomics and biotechnology to aquatic ecosystems 3.4 3.8 3.8
Contributing to science management in DFO and the Government of Canada 34.5 37.6 19.1
Sub-total 152.9 160.9 151.8
Program Enablers 56.7 57.4 48.9
Total 209.6 218.3 200.7
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Monitoring and assessing the status of fishery resources   585  
Supporting the assessment and recovery of species at risk   44  
Researching aquatic invasive species and monitoring aquatic animal diseases   126  
Supporting sustainable aquaculture and understanding aquaculture-environment interactions   109  
Applying genomics and biotechnology to aquatic ecosystems   28  
Contributing to science management in DFO and the Government of Canada   124  
Sub-total 1,048 1,016 -32
Program Enablers 269 260 -9
Total 1,317 1,276 -41

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.

1 Planned spending does not match that in the 2006-2007 RPP, as there was an addition error in the RPP.


Expected Results - Science Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Scientific information to support a program vision of sustainable harvest and culture of fish and other aquatic resources and to contribute to sustainable wealth and environment Scientific production by Fisheries and Oceans as measured by percentage of DFO publications compared to Canadian totals in the subfields of marine biology and hydrobiology and oceanology and limnology
  • In 2004, DFO produced 27% of all Canadian publications in marine biology and hydrobiology, and 31% of publications in oceanography and limnology; DFO's performance remains consistent in the discipline of marine biology and hydrobiology, but the volume of publications in the discipline of oceanography and limnology has declined in recent years14
Canadians' confidence in DFO Science to conduct scientific research to monitor and promote the health of fish stocks and the marine environment
  • Over the past several years, Canadians have continued to have a moderate degree of confidence in DFO's Science Program to monitor and promote the health of fish stocks and the marine environment; the most recent data indicates that Canadians' confidence has remained relatively consistent since 2000 (Source: Public Opinion Survey by Pollara, 200015, and Cratec, 200616)
Level of partnering in scientific research
  • Involved in approximately 525 collaborative research projects with other federal departments and agencies, the private sector, other levels of government, universities and colleges, and international governments and organizations
Number of responses to requests for science advice
  • In 2005, approximately 146 publications were produced through the DFO Science Advisory process co-ordinated by the Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat17 in response to advisory needs identified from internal and external DFO clients in support of sustainable fisheries and aquaculture

Science contributes to a number of departmental and Government of Canada initiatives and priorities that are directly related to the Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture strategic outcome. These include Canada's International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy, the Species at Risk Act, Canada's Action Plan to Address the Threat of Aquatic Invasive Species, the National Aquatic Animal Health Program, and the Canadian Biotechnology Strategy. In addition to these priorities, Science supports the Fisheries Renewal and the Aquaculture Framework Agreement by providing information for policies, programs, and regulations.

The Science Renewal priority continued to contribute to an increase in the scope and depth of scientific activity, building Canada's capacity for aquatic science, ensuring the transparency and credibility of scientific advice, and contributing to scientific innovation and commercialization of technology.

These initiatives, supported by strategic investments in areas such as ecosystem science and hydrographic charting in high-risk areas, have continued to move the Science Program in a direction that improves its relevance, effectiveness, and affordability for the benefit of Canadians.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-45.pngScience - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/main_e.htm

Program Priority: Science Renewal

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Met


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Carry out long-term strategic and multi-year planning in collaboration with clients and partners
  • Integrated the Science Management Board into the Departmental Planning Framework
  • Developed the Ecosystem Science Framework in support of Integrated Management and the Five-Year Research Agenda to clarify priority research areas and to ensure that Science products, services, and advice meet the needs of clients
  • Held a workshop with more than 140 representatives from other federal departments and universities to fine-tune the approach to Science renewal and associated initiatives
Provide stability for long-term, public-good monitoring and data management, while maximizing flexibility in the areas of scientific research, advice, services, and products to respond to evolving departmental and federal government priorities
  • Completed plans for most science functions (e.g., research, monitoring, data management, products, and services) to ensure resources are aligned with federal and departmental priorities

Program Sub-activity: Monitoring and Assessing the Status of Fishery Resources

Through monitoring, research, and data management, Science provides an assessment of the status (e.g., growth, abundance, recruitment, distribution, and migration) and conservation objectives for fish, invertebrates, and marine mammals in support of the sustainable management of the fisheries resource. This information is provided to decision-makers to inform decisions on sustainable harvest levels and international negotiations on the management of straddling stocks.


Plans

  • Support Canada's strategy to curb overfishing and strengthen international fisheries governance by improving knowledge of the structure, functioning, and properties of high seas ecosystems, as well as the ecological impacts of fishing
  • Assist Fisheries and Aquaculture Management in applying the precautionary approach, implementing the Pacific Wild Salmon Policy, developing and implementing a Wild Atlantic Salmon Policy, and providing advice on conservation objectives
Expected Results Results Achieved
Increased knowledge of stock-specific conservation requirements and impacts of harvesting for use by decision-makers
  • Held a workshop on qualitative risk assessment of fishing gears and the impact of fishing gear on benthic habitats and communities to advance the understanding of these activities
  • Undertook enhanced scientific activity on issues related to overfishing on the high seas; studies related to high seas ecosystems and the ecological impacts of fishing are under way on the Atlantic and Pacific coasts to support the International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy
Increased knowledge of sustainable fisheries practices for use by industry and fishers
  • Collaborated with Fisheries Management to develop and implement the precautionary approach to the Canadian fishery; this included a decision-making framework based on the precautionary approach, and a sustainability checklist for use in measuring status and progress towards sustainability in individual and groups of fisheries
  • Contributed to the consultation draft of the Wild Atlantic Salmon Conservation Policy
  • Provided advice on conservation objectives for a range of exploited stocks

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-46.png Impacts Of Trawl Gears And Scallop Dredges On Benthic Habitats, Populations And Communities - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_025_E.pdf


Program Sub-activity: Supporting the Assessment and Recovery of Species at Risk

The Species at Risk Act was created to protect wildlife species from becoming extinct. As the Department with authority for aquatic species under the Act, the Science program undertakes targeted research and monitoring to provide advice to decision-makers on the status of aquatic species, the issuance of permits (incidental harm) and agreements, and the recovery of the species at risk, including the identification of critical habitat.


Plans

  • Provide information to the Committee on the Status of Endangered Wildlife in Canada (COSEWIC) in support of its efforts to identify and assess species that may be at risk
  • Provide advice on the issuance of Species at Risk Act (SARA) permits and agreements by the Minister of Fisheries and Oceans under Section 73 and 74 of the Act
  • Provide advice on the recovery of species at risk; this includes developing and implementing recovery strategies and action plans, identifying habitats necessary for the survival and recovery of the species, and evaluating the chances of recovery
  • Support consultations on 22 species that are candidates for Schedule 1 listing (Species at Risk Act)
Expected Results Results Achieved
Increased knowledge to support recommendations for SARA listing and for the issuing of permits
  • Contributed advice to listing consultations on eight freshwater species under the Federal, Provincial and Territorial Accord for the Protection of Species at Risk
  • Contributed data and analyses for all Canadian fish (1,400 species), marine mammals (49 species), and marine reptiles (4 species) to the report Wild Species 2005: The General Status of Species in Canada; this report is used by COSEWIC to prioritize species for assessment
  • Provided peer-reviewed advice and data and reviewed all species status reports in support of COSEWIC's effort to identify and assess species that may be at risk
Increased knowledge in support of actions for the recovery of listed species
  • Contributed advice to the development of Recovery Potential Assessments for freshwater and marine species, and evaluated recovery strategies

Wild Species 2005: The General Status of Species in Canadahttp://www.wildspecies.ca/wildspecies2005/index.cfm?lang=e

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-47.pngCOSEWIC -http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/applications/Events/event_e.asp?year_selected-2006

Recovery Strategies -http://www.meds-sdmm.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/applications/Events/event_e.asp?year_selected-2006


Program Sub-activity: Researching Aquatic Invasive Species and Monitoring Aquatic Animal Diseases

Aquatic invasive species are a major threat to aquatic biodiversity, ecosystem health, and the fisheries and aquaculture industries that healthy and productive ecosystems sustain. The objective is to prevent the introduction and spread of invasive species. Knowledge derived through science activities, such as research on pathways of invasion, methodologies to detect new invasions, risk assessments, control measures, as well as the monitoring of established populations, supports the development of regulatory frameworks, control of existing invasive species, and rapid responses to newly discovered introductions. Monitoring, surveillance, detection, and reporting of aquatic animal diseases of national and international importance in wild and cultured aquatic animals is imperative to prevent serious disease outbreaks. Knowledge derived through science informs certification of aquatic animal health status in support of the Canadian fish/seafood trade and the delivery of federal responsibilities under the Health of Animals Act and the Fisheries Act.


Plans

  • Start implementing Canada's Action Plan to Address the Threat of Aquatic Invasive Species by undertaking research to address high-priority species, pathways of invasion, and geographic locations; work will continue on planning activities associated with the rapid response to newly discovered introductions, and the development of the national Aquatic Invasive Species database; methodologies for detecting new invasions, tracking the spread of established populations, and assessing risk will also be examined
  • Support Policy Sector in the development of a national regulatory framework for Aquatic Invasive Species
  • Continue implementing the National Aquatic Animal Health Program; Science will establish a National Diagnostic and Research Laboratory System for delivery of information required to support new aquatic animal health regulations being developed by the Canadian Food Inspection Agency
  • Assist with the development of new aquatic animal health regulations under the Canadian Food Inspection Agency's Health of Animals Act and work with the Agency to ensure delivery of federal responsibilities
Expected Results Results Achieved
Increased knowledge of pathways, controls, and impacts of aquatic invasive species for use by decision-makers
  • In support of Canada's Action Plan to Address the Threat of Aquatic Invasive Species:
  • Continued developing the Aquatic Invasive Species database to enable information sharing among provincial, federal, and university researchers
  • Established a national Centre of Expertise to undertake formal risk assessments on aquatic invasive species
  • Provided advice on the development of Part III of Bill C-45 (the renewed Fisheries Act), which provides for increased power to regulate aquatic invasive species
Enhanced ability to prevent serious disease outbreaks and certify aquatic animal health status in support of the Canadian fish/seafood trade
  • In support of the National Aquatic Animal Health Program:
  • Continued to develop a national laboratory system to expand the scope of laboratory diagnostics, improve quality control and quality assurance, assess information management needs, undertake targeted research to enhance disease detection, validate risk analyses, and finalize plans to mitigate or eradicate outbreaks of exotic disease
  • Worked with the Canadian Food Inspection Agency to strengthen trade-related disease certification and minimize Canada's exposure to exotic pathogens; also conducted initial work on developing new aquatic animal health regulations
  • Consulted and negotiated with key international partners to promote a science-based approach to the harmonization of trade standards, validate import controls, and control aquatic animal disease ports of entry

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-48.png National Aquatic Animal Health Program - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/aquaculture/health-sante_e.htm#1


DFO On the Job

How Much Do Rock Crabs Like Tunicates?

The project had never been tried in Atlantic Canada: a native species caught by commercial fishers got released back into the ocean to help kill off an invasive species. Rock crab is the native species. The invasive species is the vase tunicate, which affects cultured mussels.

Last August, 18,550 kg of rock crab were caught at the mouth of a Prince Edward Island bay. The crabs were then transported to the inner part of the bay and released in the area of cultured mussel leases in the Brudenell and Montague rivers. Will they eat the tunicate, as anecdotal evidence from mussel growers suggests?


Some of the 18,500 kg of live rock crabs being released from a fishing boat onto mussel leases in a PEI river.

Some of the 18,500 kg of live rock crabs being released from a fishing boat onto mussel leases in a PEI river

      Biologist takes samples of tunicates from cultured mussel lines in PEI.

Biologist takes samples of tunicates from cultured mussel lines in PEI


Over the years, growers have reported increasing numbers of rock crab in the area of their mussel leases. The small crabs don't do any harm to the mussel crop. They seem more interested in the tunicates covering the mussel socks.

To help the crabs out, mussel growers lowered hundreds of their vertical mussel socks so their ends would touch the river bottoms. The lines then served as ladders for the rock crabs to crawl up and be able to reach the tunicates covering the mussels.

The project, an initiative of Fisheries and Oceans Canada, the Province of PEI, and the PEI Aquaculture Alliance, is expected to uncover to what extent rock crabs eat tunicates.

The vase tunicate, also known as the sea squirt or Ciona intestinalis, is a commercially worthless, slimy, and very unwelcome invasive species that is attracted to aquaculture sites. It grows on mussel socks and gear, competes for food, weighs down the mussel lines, and makes harvesting a costly, labour-intensive process.

If the hypothesis turns out to be correct and rock crabs do like to gorge themselves on the tunicates, the interactions among these three species could prove incredibly valuable to the PEI mussel industry — one of the largest and most successful aquaculture industries in all of Canada.

The project could in fact be a win-win situation for both industry partners, since the commercially viable rock crabs are getting a surplus of food, which may increase their growth and productivity, while the mussel industry is getting help to reduce the impact of a nuisance species.

As a side note, sonic tags were attached to 50 crabs released on the mussel leases. Over the next year, the tags should reveal to the scientists and the industry just how far the rock crabs travel in the bays.

Program Sub-activity: Supporting Sustainable Aquaculture and Understanding Aquaculture-Environment Interactions

Science has an important role to play in supporting sustainable aquaculture production. Science efforts are directed towards improved fish nutrition, health, production, and an increased understanding of the interactions between aquaculture and the environment. This knowledge is used by decision-makers in the development of aquaculture policies and guidelines, as well as industry in adopting aquaculture practices that improve sustainability.


Plans

  • Develop and operationalize a national integrated aquaculture science framework
  • Provide scientific information and advice on the interactions between aquaculture and the environment, notably on the science underpinning aquaculture performance, monitoring requirements, operational standards, and best management practices
  • Co-ordinate and engage in collaborative research and development in support of sustainable aquaculture and the commercialization of innovations
Expected Results Results Achieved
Increased knowledge for use by decision-makers for the development of aquaculture policies and guidelines
  • Established the Centre for Integrated Aquaculture Science to lead, facilitate, co-ordinate, and implement an inter-regional and nationally integrated DFO aquaculture research program
Increased knowledge of sustainable aquaculture practices for use by the aquaculture industry
  • Directed approximately $4.5 million towards sixty Aquaculture Collaborative Research Development Program projects in 2006-2007; these projects were undertaken to improve performance in fish production, environmental performance research, and aquatic animal health

Program Sub-activity: Applying Genomics and Biotechnology to Aquatic Ecosystems

Both knowledge and its application through technology are vital for fostering the sustainable development of aquatic resources. Adopting leading-edge genomics research and biotechnology tools improves Fisheries and Oceans Canada's ability to protect endangered species, manage the opening and closing of fisheries, avoid over-exploitation of resources, prosecute poachers, improve aquaculture practices, control disease outbreaks, remediate contaminated sites, and develop the knowledge necessary to support regulation and risk assessments of aquatic organisms with novel traits.


Plans

  • Continue to identify genetic markers to improve species and strain identification
  • Develop and apply genomic tools to detect and monitor aquatic animal diseases, as well as environmental stress in aquatic ecosystems
  • Develop bio-remediation technologies to support the remediation of contaminated sites
  • Conduct research on the genetics, biology, physiology, behaviour, and fitness of novel and transgenic fish in support of the Department's regulatory obligations to administer the New Substances Notification Regulations under the Canadian Environmental Protection Act
  • Continue to fulfil a regulatory role through implementation of the New Substances Notification Regulation Program for notifications of aquatic organisms with novel traits, including genetically engineered fish for import or manufacture; also develop new aquatic-specific regulations
Expected Results Results Achieved
Increased knowledge and use of biotechnology by decision-makers managing aquatic resources
  • Used the results of ongoing research to identify and validate genetic markers for species and strain identification, bio-remediation technologies, and genomics-related tools to detect and monitor aquatic animal diseases, to identify species of interest or concern, to aid in the protection of endangered species and the management of various fisheries and aquaculture operations, and to assess biodiversity in support of fisheries enforcement
Increased knowledge and capacity to assess applications for novel aquatic organisms
  • Collaborated with Environment Canada and Health Canada in the continuing implementation of the Canadian Environmental Protection Act New Substances Notification Regulations for aquatic organisms with novel traits, and further progress towards the development of new aquatic-specific regulations
Improved processes for evaluation/approval of novel aquatic organisms
  • Conducted ongoing research in support of the Department's regulatory obligations to administer the Canadian Environmental Protection Act New Substance Notification Regulations for aquatic organisms with novel traits, including the publication of peer-reviewed papers

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-51.png New Substances Notification Regulatory Program - http://www.ec.gc.ca/substances/nsb/eng/home_e.shtml


Program Sub-activity: Contributing to Science Management in DFO and the Government of Canada

Rapidly emerging departmental and federal priorities for science require a flexible and responsive Science program that is aligned with the needs of decision-makers today while being anticipatory of the requirements for tomorrow. Given this challenge, the Science program continuously scans existing and emerging science-based issues requiring science advice to inform decision-making and determine how the program can be mobilized to ensure relevance, efficiency, affordability, and value to Canadians.


Plans

  • Continue to implement the renewal of the Science Program with a view to finishing in the next two to five years
  • Continue to integrate the Department's science and technology efforts with the broader national agenda for science and technology
  • Pursue opportunities to build knowledge and recognition of DFO's scientific achievements through strategic public outreach initiatives with national partners
Expected Results Results Achieved
Effective and efficient use of resources (e.g., financial, human, facilities)
  • Published an annual report of Science Program accomplishments and results
  • See also Program Priority: Science Renewal, page 56
Contribution to interdepartmental federal science and technology initiatives
  • Contributed to Canada's Federal Science and Technology Strategy, Mobilizing Science and Technology to Canada's Advantage

Annual Report - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/annual_report/index_e.htm

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-52.png Mobilizing Science and Technology to Canada's Advantage -http://www.ic.gc.ca/cmb/welcomeic.nsf/532340a8523f33718525649d006b119d/3e7f6374fd018f9c852572de00503b8a!OpenDocument


DFO On the Job

Canadian Expertise a Major Focus in World's Reference on Scallops

Once again, Canadian expertise in marine science leads the way, this time in a 31-chapter reference text on scallops entitled Scallops: Biology, Ecology and Aquaculture. Jay Parsons, of the Department's Aquaculture Science Branch, is co-editor of the new edition with Sandra E. Shumway of the Department of Marine Sciences at the University of Connecticut.

Scallops are tasty, well-known shellfish of great economic importance. They occupy a unique niche in the marine environment, and there is a major scallop fishery in Canada. The publishers, Elsevier, point out that since the publication of the first edition in 1991, commercial interest in scallops has grown globally and this is reflected in the 17 extensive chapters covering both fisheries and aquaculture for all species of scallops in all countries where they are fished or cultured.

Jay Parsons said, "The new edition is a very complete text covering all aspects of the biology of scallops. We think it is essentially the definitive reference for researchers, and for advanced undergraduate and graduate students, and scallop mariculturists. It can also be a resource for an ecosystem approach to management of scallop aquaculture and fisheries."

The book covers scallop biology including anatomy, taxonomy, physiology, ecology, larval biology, and neurobiology. Chapters also address diseases and parasites, genetics, population dynamics, and the adductor muscle, with extensive reference lists provided for each chapter.

Nine current and retired Fisheries and Oceans Canada researchers contributed to the book, including Jay Parsons and Sharon McGladdery in the Ottawa-based Aquaculture Science Branch; Neil Bourne, Susan Bower, and Raymond Lauzier of the Pacific Biological Station in Nanaimo; Peter Cranford and Ginette Robert of the Bedford Institute of Oceanography in Dartmouth; and Shawn Robinson of the St. Andrews Biological Station. Other Canadian contributors were V. Monica Bricelj of the Institute for Marine Biosciences of the National Research Council, John H. Himmelman of the Biology Department at Laval University in Quebec City, Raymond J. Thompson of Memorial University in St. John's, Newfoundland, and Bruce A. MacDonald of the Biology Department and Centre for Coastal Studies at the University of New Brunswick.

Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems

The strategic outcome Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems ensures the sustainable development and integrated management of resources in or around Canada's aquatic environment through oceans and fish habitat management. It also involves carrying out the critical science and fisheries management activities that support these two programs.

This strategic outcome is delivered through three program activities:

  • Oceans Management;
  • Habitat Management; and
  • Science.

Oceans are a finite resource, yet the scale and diversity of oceans-related activities are growing dramatically. Commercial fishing fleets, fish farmers, recreational boaters, ecotourists, cruise ship operators, offshore oil and gas developers, and marine transport companies all seek to use ocean resources. The growth of coastal and marine activities has resulted in ecosystem imbalances, degradation of the marine environment, and the introduction of potentially harmful species.

In January 1997, Canada enacted a law, the Oceans Act, which established an innovative approach to the way our nation will manage its oceans in the 21st century. Canada released its Oceans Strategy on July 12, 2002. The Oceans Strategy provides policy direction, assists in building partnerships, and supports a number of key activities.

As a practical companion piece to the Oceans Strategy, the Government of Canada announced the Oceans Action Plan (OAP) in the 2004 Speech from the Throne. The Oceans Action Plan, announced in the February 2005 budget, focused on improving oceans management and preserving the health of marine ecosystems. It involves working collaboratively across all levels of government in Canada and with Canadians to pursue sustainable development and implement integrated management plans and Marine Protected Areas in Canada's oceans and coastal areas. The Oceans Action Plan Phase I has enabled Government-wide action to develop Canada's ocean resources for the benefit of coastal communities while protecting fragile marine ecosystems. Specifically, Fisheries and Oceans has established six Marine Protected Areas to date and is working on five more. Furthermore, the federal budget 2007 announced that six additional Marine Protected Areas would be established in the future.

The International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy supports the Oceans Action Plan by focusing on the international leadership required to improve sectoral management of ocean resources. Canada promotes improved oceans governance and biodiversity protection by encouraging better use of international tools and mechanisms.

Development projects that occur in and around marine and freshwater ecosystems across Canada can impact fish and fish habitat. These projects can range from simple docks and water crossings to complex aquaculture, mining, hydro, and oil and gas development. Each project must be reviewed to determine its impact and to ensure that it complies with the habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act.

The continuing surge in economic development activities taking place across Canada, particularly in the natural resource-based economic sectors and in the North, has resulted in an increased workload for the Habitat Management Program. In addition, the program has had to deal with more complex projects requiring regulatory review and environmental assessment, heightened expectations for stakeholder consultations, and higher legal thresholds for consultations with Aboriginal communities.

The Science Program provides scientific research, monitoring, advice, products and services, and data management to support the integrated management of healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems for the benefit and enjoyment of Canadians. Science work is founded on the needs of an ecosystem-based approach to the integrated management of Canada's oceans and inland waterways, consistent with the direction provided by the Science Management Board. The ongoing implementation of the Science Renewal priority will also contribute to departmental priorities associated with improved planning and reporting and departmental renewal.

Canada's Oceans Strategy -Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-54.png http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/oceans/ri-rs/cos-soc/index_e.asp

Oceans Action Plan - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/oceans/oap-pao/index_e.asp

Results Chain

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-55.png

What Did DFO Spend?

Approximately 11% of the Department's total expenditures for 2006-2007 — or $183 million — was used to ensure healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems.


Financial and Human Resources, Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Oceans Management 26.0 29.9 17.7
Habitat Management 56.6 58.7 57.0
Science in support of Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems 53.4 58.7 68.4
Program Enablers1 45.8 48.3 39.9
Total 181.9 195.5 183.0
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Oceans Management 114 107 -7
Habitat Management 452 461 9
Science in support of Healthy and Productive Aquatic Ecosystems 493 452 -41
Program Enablers1 225 217 -8
Total 1,284 1,237 -47

Note: Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.

1 Financial and human resources for Program Enablers have been prorated across program activities. Section 4 provides further information on Program Enablers.

Program Activity: Oceans Management

Oceans management involves the conservation and sustainable use of Canada's oceans in collaboration with other levels of government, Aboriginal organizations, and other non-government stakeholders through the development and implementation of objectives-based integrated oceans management plans and the application of marine conservation tools. Modern oceans management arrangements deal with a number of challenges, including oceans health, marine habitat loss, declining biodiversity, growing demands for access to ocean resources, and regulatory and jurisdictional complexities.

The Oceans Management program activity has one of the departmental program priorities — Oceans Action Plan — and is delivered through three program sub-activities: integrated management; marine protected areas; and other oceans management.


Financial and Human Resources, Oceans Management, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Integrated Management 9.0 9.3 6.3
Marine Protected Areas 4.7 4.9 2.1
Other Oceans Management 12.3 15.7 9.3
Sub-total 26.0 29.9 17.7
Program Enablers 7.1 7.2 6.7
Total 33.1 37.1 24.4
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Integrated Management   44  
Marine Protected Areas   13  
Other Oceans Management   50  
Sub-total 114 107 -7
Program Enablers 46 45 -2
Total 160 152 -9

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.


Expected Results —
Oceans Management
Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Increased collaboration between all key stakeholders involved in managing Canada's oceans Oceans Action Plan deliverables completed and used to inform the development of Oceans Action Plan Phase II
  • All deliverables are either completed or near completion; progress on the Oceans Action Plan was heavily used to develop the Budget 2007 proposal on the Health of the Oceans
Establishment of Regional Implementation Committees (RICs) within Large Ocean Management Areas
  • Established Regional Implementation Committees (RICs) or equivalents for all large ocean management areas
Completion of workplan for Canadian Council of Fisheries and Aquaculture Ministers — Oceans Task Group
  • Workplan completed; key deliverables included: a report outlining roles of provincial and territorial governments in the Oceans Sector, a BC study to determine the economic value of marine-related activities, an inventory of all Marine Protected Area sites in the provinces and territories, and a Social, Economic and Cultural Guidance Document developed for Integrated Management
Improved wealth and opportunities for coastal communities Indicator under development
  • Started to develop baseline data on current uses, economic profiles, and social/cultural characteristics
Increased conservation of marine and coastal environments Completion of five Ecosystem Overview and Assessment Reports and identification of Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas
  • Completed Ecosystem Overview and Assessment Reports for all five Large Ocean Management Areas (LOMAs)
  • Developed and applied an operational framework and guidelines for identifying Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) in each of the five LOMAs
Improved health of the oceans Percentage of the 10 potential Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) to be designated by 2009
  • 60% of potential Marine Protected Areas have been designated

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-56.png Oceans Action Plan - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/oceans/oap-pao/index_e.asp)


Last year, DFO focused on strengthening relationships federally, provincially, and territorially. The Department established new national governance bodies and new horizontal arrangements, and partnerships are emerging among federal departments and with partners. The Department also developed collaborative working relationships with coastal communities, provinces, Aboriginal groups, industry, and other interested parties. DFO has established Regional Implementation Committees, which include interdepartmental federal and provincial representatives or equivalents in all Large Ocean Management Areas (LOMAs).

2006-2007 was also a science-focused year. Ecosystem Overview and Assessment Reports (EOARs), technical documents that provide information on marine and coastal ecosystems, including ecosystem and species status and trends, impact assessments, and management recommendations to support integrated oceans management planning and further decision-making, were completed for all LOMAs.

Within the context of oceans health, DFO designated another MPA — Musquash Estuary in the Bay of Fundy, New Brunswick — in line with Canada's Marine Protected Area (MPA) Strategy. This makes a total of six MPAs designated to date, with additional MPAs proposed. DFO also identified numerous Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) and tackled oceans pollution. For example, DFO enhanced aerial surveillance to identify ships discharging pollutants into the Atlantic Ocean. This allowed for improved enforcement actions and early responses to the spills.

Finally, opportunities for new oceans technologies are being explored. For example, the Placentia Bay Technology Demonstration Platform is an OAP commitment that is already showing good signs of progress. A co-operative Oceans Work Plan between Canada and the United States was also developed to support integrated management (particularly in transboundary areas such as the Gulf of Maine), to advance an ecosystem-based approach to oceans management, to improve the efficiency of implementing each nation's oceans actions plans, and to promote advanced planning.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-57.pnghttp://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/oceans/index_e.asp

Program Priority: Oceans Action Plan

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Met


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Establish ecosystem-based approaches to science and develop new oceans technologies to provide essential support for decision-making
  • Developed national guidelines for identifying conservation priorities and phrasing conservation objectives for Large Oceans Management Areas
  • Identified conservation objectives for the five Large Ocean Management Areas, and is reviewing draft conservation objectives for the Eastern Scotian Shelf Integrated Management Initiative (ESSIM)
Develop innovative regulations to prevent marine pollution from ships and to reduce the risk of aquatic invasive species
  • Transport Canada received funding through the Oceans Action Plan to develop and implement Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations
Implement seabed mapping and ecosystem science to support Integrated Management
  • Natural Resources Canada is the lead for this initiative, supported by the Canadian Coast Guard and the Canadian Hydrographic Service; although mapping was expected to be completed in 2006-2007, funding delays resulted in some mapping being rescheduled to 2007-2008
Implement pilot projects in Placentia Bay to demonstrate the potential of new oceans technologies
  • Implemented the SmartBay Buoy Program as an operational "ocean observing system" for Placentia Bay; the program provides up-to-date, readily accessible information, such as custom weather and sea-state forecasts, access to digital multi-beam data, community information, fisheries information, and aquaculture environmental monitoring information

Guidance Document On Identifying Conservation Priorities and Phrasing Conservation Objectives For Large Ocean Management Areas - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/Csas/status/2007/SAR-AS2007_010_E.pdf

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-58.pngCanada's Federal Marine Protected Areas Strategy - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/oceans/mpa-zpm/fedmpa-zpmfed/pdf/mpa_e.pdf

Ballast Water Control and Management Regulations - http://www.tc.gc.ca/MarineSafety/TP/Tp13617/menu.htm

SmartBay Buoy Program - http://www.smartbay.ca/index.php


Program Priority: International Governance

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Exceeded


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Implement the second year of the International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy
  • Supported activities designed to lead to more responsible management and the sustainability of high seas ecosystems:
  • Achieved ministerial endorsement by the Arctic Council for a Canadian co-led initiative to implement an ecosystem approach in the Arctic Ocean
  • Brokered consensus in the United Nations General Assembly and the Convention on Biological Diversity for recommendations on protecting high seas biodiversity
  • The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) adopted a Resolution on sustainable fisheries, which advanced a number of Canada's interests, including the protection of vulnerable marine ecosystems
  • See also Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture, page 40

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-59.png International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/overfishing-surpeche/index_e.htm


Program Sub-activity: Integrated Management

Integrated oceans management involves adopting a spatially based planning and management approach, based on ecosystem-scale management objectives, which provide guidance to all ocean-related regulators. Associated governance structures provide a forum for bringing together ocean users and stakeholders, including provinces, territories, Aboriginal groups, industry, and coastal communities, to plan for activities in Canada's oceans. The development of plans that include ecological, social, and economic objectives is a key requirement of successful integrated oceans management.


Plans

  • Continue the integrated management planning of five priority Large Ocean Management Areas: Placentia Bay/Grand Banks, Scotian Shelf, Gulf of St. Lawrence, Beaufort Sea, and the Pacific North Coast; in the initial phase, the main focus will be ecosystem overview reports and mapping of sensitive marine areas
  • Continue to address governance issues in integrated management planning
  • Develop federal-provincial-territorial agreements on oceans priorities as required
  • Develop agreements with First Nations or other Aboriginal organizations
  • Conclude the Canada-BC Memorandum of Understanding on Oceans
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Regional Implementation Committees established for each of the 5 Large Ocean Management Areas Number of Regional Implementation Committees involved in the implementation of the Oceans Action Plan Phase I
  • All five Regional Implementation Committees (or equivalents) are involved in the implementation of Oceans Action Plan (OAP) Phase I
Active involvement of the Oceans Technology Group to facilitate advancement of integrated management Indicators under development
  • The Oceans Science and Technology Partnership18 hosted four major cross-consultation workshops with ocean industries and academia
  • Prepared a strategy document entitled Global Markets for Ocean Observation Systems
Signing of federal and provincial Memorandums of Understanding and other agreements related to oceans management Provinces, territories, Aboriginal groups, and stakeholders engaged and actively participating in the implementation of Oceans Action Plan Phase I and the development of Oceans Action Plan Phase II
  • Continued to work on finalizing ocean management sub-agreements regarding information sharing, coastal planning, and coastal management under the 2004 Canada-BC Memorandum of Understanding, Respecting the Implementation of Canada's Oceans Strategy on the Pacific Coast of Canada
  • Continued to develop agreements with several Atlantic provinces (PEI, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Newfoundland and Labrador) and stakeholders such as the Fish, Food and Allied Workers in Newfoundland and Labrador and Memorial University
  • Finalized a Memorandum of Understanding with the Newfoundland Department of Fisheries and Aquaculture
Science-based guidance to oceans stakeholders and regulations focused on sustainable development goals Percentage of Large Ocean Management Areas (LOMAs) with Ecosystem Overview and Assessment Reports (EOARs) completed and Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas (EBSAs) identified
  • Completed EOARs for all five LOMAs based on recently completed guidelines for evaluating Ecosystem Overview and Assessment Reports
  • Identified several EBSAs within each of the LOMAs; this work is ongoing

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-60.png The Oceans Science and Technology Partnership - http://www.ostp-psto.ca/

Global Markets for Ocean Observation Systems - http://www.ostp-psto.ca/Files/P382_OOS_Executive_Summary_FINAL_2006.pdf


DFO on the Job

Trading Books for Boats

Peter Smith, of ACAP Humber Arm, talks to students about how to collect water samples and temperature
Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-61.jpg

Forget the books and hop aboard a boat — at least for one day! That's the innovative approach of an educational program that encourages a greater understanding of, and appreciation for, water quality. Aimed at grade nine students, the Trading Books for Boats initiative addresses pollution in the Bay of Islands, located near Corner Brook on the west coast of the island portion of Newfoundland and Labrador.

One day in the fall, students head out in a chartered boat to different sites around the Bay to collect water samples and temperatures.

Conrad Mullins, an Oceans biologist with Oceans and Habitat Management in the Region, played a huge part in initiating the program. He strongly believes that this hands-on learning experience has a lot of impact on students.

"They'll look at their samples under a microscope in a laboratory, analyze the information and produce a report on their results. They can compare the temperature and water quality data from those of the previous year for a particular area, and see if there is an improvement," he says.

Conrad is excited about the opportunities a program like this brings. Not only does it instill coastal planning awareness in youth, it will also help to diminish the pollution problem in the Bay of Islands area.

"This program does three things — one, it serves as an education and public awareness tool for anyone who wants to access the information; two, it is a monitoring tool for us and the stakeholders we're working with to know whether or not their work is actually having an impact; and three, it helps to build relationships among government agencies and community groups engaged in sustainable oceans management," he explains.

The program was developed in 2002 by Fisheries and Oceans Canada and Atlantic Coastal Action Plan (ACAP), and has been so well received that it is now accredited by the Department of Education in the province for grade nine Science and Technology Program, and supports the marine environment outcomes for the course.

The Trading Books for Boats Program is gaining popularity as other schools across the province are hoping to make it a part of their curriculum.

"Over the past four years, all schools in the Bay of Islands have participated, with more than 3,000 students involved. Young people and others learn to become concerned not only about making a living from the marine environment, but also about whether or not the oceans are healthy," Conrad concludes happily.

Program Sub-activity: Marine Protected Areas

Marine Protected Areas (MPAs) support the sustainable management of the oceans resource by providing options to secure critical aspects of the ecosystem from harm. Since healthy and productive ocean ecosystems are the foundation of all ocean-related activities, a number of actions including MPAs are undertaken to protect and manage unique and sensitive ecosystems. Furthermore, Fisheries and Oceans Canada, Environment Canada, and Parks Canada are all mandated to establish MPAs for different but complementary reasons.


Plans

  • Implement the federal Marine Protected Area (MPA) Strategy
  • Communicate a government-wide strategy for MPAs
  • Designate MPAs on a priority basis as approved by the Minister in all three of Canada's oceans
  • Identify candidate MPAs in the five priority Large Ocean Management Areas (LOMAs) as building blocks of the national network
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Increased understanding and protection of the marine environment within the five priority Large Ocean Management Areas (LOMAs) and Marine Protected Areas Implementation of the federal MPA Strategy
  • Developed draft Guidelines for the Establishment of a Federal Marine Protected Areas Network for interdepartmental, provincial, and public review
Designation of new Marine Protected Areas by March 2007 Completion of the designation process for the establishment of identified MPAs
  • Basin Head (2005); Gilbert Bay (2005); Eastport (2005); The Gully (2004); Endeavour (2003); Musquash Estuary (2006)
  Identification of areas of interest in the five LOMAs as components of the national MPA network
  • This work is ongoing

DFO on the Job

Musquash Estuary is Canada's Newest Marine Protected Area (MPA)

Musquash Estuary
Photo: David H. Thompson

Musquash Estuary has been officially designated a Marine Protected Area (MPA) under Canada's Oceans Act. It is the first MPA designated in New Brunswick.

Musquash Estuary is located along the coast of the Bay of Fundy, approximately 20 kilometres southwest of Saint John, New Brunswick. Given its large size and relatively undisturbed condition, Musquash is unique among Bay of Fundy estuaries. It is one of the last ecologically intact estuaries in a region where human activities have modified most of the original salt marshes.

The New Brunswick provincial government has transferred 1150 hectares (or 11.5 square km) of Musquash Crown lands to the federal government.

Formal MPA designation celebrates the substantial and longstanding efforts of dedicated individuals and local conservation organizations to protect Musquash estuary and the surrounding coastal lands.

Program Sub-activity: Other Oceans Management

Other Oceans Management activities include enhancing leadership, federal co-ordination, and collaboration with other levels of government to achieve common oceans objectives in the delivery of the Oceans Action Plan.


Plans

  • Finalize seismic guidelines designed to mitigate the effects of seismic sound on the marine environment
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Co-operation with federal, provincial, and territorial agencies implementing the seismic guidelines Mitigation of seismic sound in the marine environment through development of science-based marine environmental quality guidelines
  • Federal and provincial authorities have approved the draft Canadian statement of practice to mitigate the impacts of seismic sound; First Nations consultations to be initiated in 2007

Program Activity: Habitat Management

In collaboration with others, Habitat Management involves conserving and protecting fish and fish habitat from the impacts of activities occurring in and around fresh and marine fish-bearing waters, and improving (restoring and developing) fish habitat through the administration of the habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act, providing advice on related provisions of the Act, and applying non-regulatory activities. It also involves conducting environmental assessments before regulatory decisions listed in the Law List Regulations of the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and participating in other environmental assessment regimes. These activities are performed in a manner consistent with the Species at Risk Act, the Policy for the Management of Fish Habitat, and other operational policies; consultation with Aboriginal groups; the goals and principles of sustainable development; and the policies and priorities of the federal government.

Habitat Management has one of the departmental program priorities — Environmental Process Modernization — and is delivered through three program sub-activities: conservation and protection of fish habit; environmental assessments; and other habitat management.


Financial and Human Resources, Habitat Management, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars)   Planned Spending Total Authorities Actual Spending
Conservation and Protection of Fish Habitat   23.3 24.0 40.21
Environmental Assessment   19.8 20.8 2.9
Other Habitat Management   13.4 13.8 14.0
Sub-total   56.6 58.7 57.0
Program Enablers   14.1 15.9 13.5
Total   70.7 74.6 70.5
Human Resources (number of FTEs)   Planned Actual Difference
Conservation and Protection of Fish Habitat     323  
Environmental Assessment     23  
Other Habitat Management     115  
Sub-total   452 461 9
Program Enablers   95 91 -3
Total   547 552 6

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.

Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.

1The difference between planned and actual spending is due to a corrective internal reallocation in the Central and Arctic Region in 2006-2007, from Environmental Assessment to Conservation and Protection of Fish Habitat.


Expected Results — Habitat Management Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Healthy and productive fish habitat available to sustain the production of fish species and populations that Canadians value Number of habitat compensation plans developed to create and/or replace fish habitat lost as a result of development projects
  • Developed approximately 435 compensation plans

The Department's Habitat Management Program (HMP) is the key federal environmental regulator for most development projects that occur in and around marine and freshwater ecosystems across Canada. In 2006-2007, HMP received approximately 7,250 proposals, known as referrals, for review of the impact on fish and fish habitat. Based on the review, HMP staff send advice to proponents indicating the requirements for the conservation and protection of fish habitat. These requirements are commonly in the form of a Letter of Advice, an Operational Statement for low-risk activities, or a Fisheries Act Authorization.

DFO was a responsible authority in more environmental assessments under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act (CEAA) than any other single federal department or agency — about 20% of total federal screenings and 30% of all comprehensive studies.

DFO continued implementation of the Environmental Process Modernization Plan (EPMP). Performance information collected through an online engagement process that DFO completed in 2006 and/or recorded in the Program Activity Tracking for Habitat system indicates that DFO achieved results as planned.

Habitat Management Program -http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/index_e.asp

Environmental Process Modernization -Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-63.pnghttp://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/modernizing-moderniser/index_e.asp

Online Engagement Process -http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/measuring-mesures/online-direct/index_e.asp

Program Priority: Environmental Process Modernization

Overall result achieved in 2006-2007: Met


Commitments in the 2006-2007 RPP Progress
Implement a program-wide, science-based risk management framework for identifying projects posing the greatest risk to the environment
  • Implemented a Risk Management Framework and developed additional Pathways of Effects that describe cause-and-effect relationships between specific development activities and fish habitat
Streamline referrals of low-risk projects so that resources can be allocated to higher risk reviews and other priorities
  • Received 1,400 notifications of use of Operational Statements
Improve management of major projects, including new policy guidance and new organizational structures
  • Allocated new resources and established special business units to focus on major projects across Canada
  • Published a series of decision-making guides (protocols) for Habitat Management staff to improve the predictability and timeliness of decisions
Formalize partnerships with industry sectors, provinces, territories, municipalities, conservation groups, and others to enhance understanding, adopt common agendas, and integrate DFO's responsibilities with the interests of key stakeholders
  • Signed a formal partnership agreement with a coalition of nine major national/regional conservation non-governmental organizations (NGOs) focused on public education, monitoring, and watershed planning
  • Established the National Fish Habitat Coordinating Committee (NFHCC) in co-operation with the Canadian Environmental Network to enable advocacy and improve consultations undertaken by the Department
  • Implemented agreements with Canada's natural resource industry sectors, provinces, and territories
Improve the predictability and coherence of decision-making by implementing mandatory training for all staff, and adopting new governance structures and national operating procedures
  • Continued to implement the national Mandatory Training Program (MTP) for all Habitat Management staff:
  • 90% of Habitat staff completed the Habitat Management -101 course
  • 20% of staff completed the Information Management -101 course
  • Adopted a Standard Operating Policy Manual and successfully implemented new internal governance structures for the Habitat Management Program
Clarify compliance rules to improve effectiveness
  • Developed and implemented a National Habitat Compliance Protocol to clarify roles, responsibilities, and accountabilities of Conservation and Protection and the Habitat Management Program in the delivery of an integrated DFO habitat compliance program

Risk Management Framework - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/modernizing-moderniser/risk-risques_e.asp

Operational Statements - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/modernizing-moderniser/epmp-pmpe/index_e.asp

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-64.png Environmental Assessments and Major Projects - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/modernizing-moderniser/eamp-eegp_e.asp

Agreement with major conservation non-governmental organizations - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/backgrou/2007/hq-ac10a_e.htm

Partnering agreements - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/aboutus-apropos/partners-partenaires/index_e.asp?#Partnering

Compliance modernization - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/modernizing-moderniser/modernization-modernisation_e.asp


Program Sub-activity: Conservation and Protection of Fish Habitat

In collaboration with others, this program conserves and protects fish and fish habitat from the impacts of activities occurring in and around fresh and marine fish-bearing waters and improving (restoring and developing) fish habitat through the administration of the habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act and the application of non-regulatory activities.


Plans

  • Implement these aspects of EPMP: risk management, referral streamlining, partnering, and modernization of habitat compliance
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Proponents' projects completed with minimal or no adverse effects on fish habitat Number of Letters of Advice and Authorizations issued
  • Provided proponents and others with approximately 5,000 items of written advice, and issued approximately 435 Fisheries Act Authorizations
Number of partnership agreements/arrangements
  • Finalized fewer than expected agreements with Aboriginal groups in 2006-2007
  • Developed approximately 90 partnerships with other levels of government, NGOs, Aboriginal groups, and Conservation authorities
Percentage of proponents that comply with the requirements of the habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act
  • Received approximately 7,250 habitat referrals for review to ensure compliance with the habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act.
  • This represents a 20% reduction in referral workload compared to fiscal year 2005-2006, consistent with the objectives of the Environmental Process Modernization Plan
Partners and stakeholders aware and supportive of fish habitat management objectives Number of national Operational Statements19 developed and approved
  • Developed and approved five national Operational Statements for a cumulative total of eighteen
Use of Operational Statements for low-risk activities by proponents, industry associations, and provinces
  • Operational Statements were used approximately 1,400 times to address a range of low-risk activities across Canada
Degree to which Operational Statements have been incorporated into industry best management practices; co-ordinated with provincial permitting systems
  • Implemented agreements with three provinces (PEI, NB, NS) for applying Operational Statements to provincial guidelines and codes of practice
  • Continued discussions with provinces and territories to develop an agreement on a co-ordinated delivery system for Operational Statements wherever possible
  • Implemented partnership agreements with the Canadian Electricity Association and the Natural Resources Industry Association (NRIA), consisting of seven major industry associations, to incorporate Operational Statements into industry best management practices

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-65.png Operational statements - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/modernizing-moderniser/epmp-pmpe/index_e.asp

Agreement with major conservation non-governmental organizations - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/media/backgrou/2007/hq-ac10a_e.htm

Partnering agreements - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/habitat/aboutus-apropos/partners-partenaires/index_e.asp?#Partnering


DFO on the Job

Forestry Sector Enthusiastic about DFO Regulatory Streamlining

Launched in 2004, the Environmental Process Modernization Plan (EPMP) is designed to renew the Habitat Management Program of DFO by improving regulatory efficiency and providing for better conservation and protection of fish and their habitat. The Plan is making a difference— here is one company's successful story.

The Weyerhaeuser Company is one of Canada's largest forest products companies with a major presence in Alberta and several other provinces, including British Columbia, New Brunswick, Ontario, and Saskatchewan. In 2000, Weyerhaeuser began submitting applications to DFO for all water crossings in Alberta regardless of size (approximately 300 per year). This was — in large part — a result of DFO's renewed focus on the protection of fish habitat in the inland provinces at that time, and an increased workload in the forest industry for project information to support regulatory reviews under the Fisheries Act. It wasn't long before the volume of paperwork bogged down the planning and approval process for both DFO and the company. Approvals for these routine, low-risk activities were taking months.

A steel stringer, wood deck bridge provides access for forest harvesting, without disturbing the stream channel. Photo: Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada.A steel stringer, wood deck bridge provides access for forest harvesting without disturbing the stream channel. Photo: Forest Engineering Research Institute of Canada.

Streamlining the process through the use of Operational Statements offered a solution. Operational Statements provide nationally consistent advice on measures to apply to specific activities determined to be of low risk in terms of harmful alteration, disruption, or destruction of fish and fish habitat. When a proponent follows the conditions and measures outlined in the Operational Statement, there is no need for a review or referral from DFO.

"The Operational Statements not only serve industry better, but their use frees up some of our resources so that we can increase the review and monitoring of higher risk activities," explains Patrice LeBlanc, Director of Habitat Protection and Sustainable Development.

Habitat Management has developed 18 Operational Statements, available at http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/oceans-habitat/index_e.asp.

As part of the National Resource Industry Associations-DFO partnership initiative (established under the EPMP), Weyerhaeuser worked with other forest product companies to further develop the Operational Statements for low-risk, industry-specific situations. For example, the requirements of relevant Operational Statements have been incorporated into Weyerhaeuser's Environmental Management System guidelines and work instructions. Pat Wearmouth, a Strategic Forester with the company, is enthusiastic.

"I have to say this initiative has been a very positive experience. I give DFO full marks for saying they were going to do this, and then following through."

He estimates savings of about 300 hours annually for Weyerhaeuser.

The Weyerhaeuser story is only one of many that highlight how EPMP is increasing our collective ability to protect fish and fish habitat more efficiently and effectively.

Program Sub-activity: Environmental Assessment

This program involves conducting environmental assessments under the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act and other environmental assessment regimes for proposed projects before making a regulatory decision under the habitat protection provisions of the Fisheries Act (listed in the Law List Regulations).


Plans

  • Participate with other federal government departments to improve the efficiency and effectiveness of the Environmental Assessment (EA) process
  • Implement the aspect of EPMP dealing with improved management of environmental assessment for major projects
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Environmental effects considered in a timely, co-ordinated, and effective manner before regulatory decisions are made under the Fisheries Act Number of Environmental Assessment screenings, Comprehensive Studies, Panels initiated, ongoing, or concluded
  • Number of Environmental Assessments (EAs) where the Habitat Management Program has a Canadian Environmental Assessment Act trigger:
  • Screenings: 364 initiated, 401 ongoing, and 305 concluded
  • Comprehensive Studies: 6 initiated, 14 ongoing, and 2 concluded
  • Panels: 3 initiated, 12 ongoing, and 1 concluded
  • This is a 15% reduction from 2005-2006, which continues the downward trend20
Number of projects requiring CEAA review that incorporate Habitat Management Program requirements and advice
  • Managed approximately 300 Environmental Assessment Screening projects requiring CEAA review; no Environmental Assessment Comprehensive Studies were undertaken
Number of Environmental Assessments for major projects that are co-ordinated with provinces and other federal responsible authorities
  • 140 major projects across Canada under review; of those, 60% were in either the Pacific or Central and Arctic Region21

Program Sub-activity: Other Habitat Management

This program involves developing and implementing the Mandatory Training Program; information management applications; public awareness and education; performance measurement; and reporting and evaluation plans, and tools. This program also involves developing and implementing policies, programs, plans, and tools for the effective and efficient application of the Species at Risk Act and Fisheries and Oceans Canada's Expert Support Program (under the Federal Contaminated Sites Action Plan), in support of the Conservation and Protection of Fish Habitat and Environmental Assessment program activities.


Plans

  • Implement the aspect of EPMP that focuses on improving the predictability and coherence of decision-making
Expected Results Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Awareness of habitat management concepts, objectives, principles, and practices by Habitat Management Program staff Percentage of staff who have completed individual training under the Mandatory Training Program
  • Approximately 90% of Habitat staff successfully completed the Habitat Management -101 course; this is a 50% increase over the previous year
  • 20 % of staff completed the Information Management (IM) -101 course; the IM-101 completion rate was lower than expected because of a delay in the roll-out of the course until early 2007
  • Approximately 90% of all Habitat Practitioners have completed a training course focused on the Risk Management Framework and Pathways of Effects

Program Activity: Science

This program provides research, monitoring, advice, products and services, and data management to ensure departmental and federal policies, programs, decisions, and regulations associated with the integrated management of Canada's oceans and fish habitat resources are informed by science advice. The science is undertaken through a network of research facilities, in collaboration with other government departments, the private sector, academia, and international organizations.

Science in support of healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems has one priority — Science Renewal (reported under Sustainable Fisheries and Aquaculture) — and is delivered through three program sub-activities: assessing the impacts of development on aquatic ecosystems; assessing aquatic ecosystems and supporting integrated oceans management; and monitoring, understanding and predicting variation and change of ocean climate.


Financial and Human Resources, Science, 2006-2007
Financial Resources (millions of dollars) Planned Spending1 Total Authorities Actual Spending
Assessing the impacts of development on aquatic ecosystems 18.8 20.8 17.2
Assessing aquatic ecosystems and supporting integrated oceans management 31.3 33.9 44.4
Monitoring, understanding and predicting variation and change of ocean climate 3.4 4.0 6.8
Sub-total 53.5 58.7 68.4
Program Enablers 24.6 25.2 19.7
Total 78.1 83.9 88.2
Human Resources (number of FTEs) Planned Actual Difference
Assessing the impacts of development on aquatic ecosystems   152  
Assessing aquatic ecosystems and supporting integrated oceans management   244  
Monitoring, understanding and predicting variation and change of ocean climate   56  
Sub-total 493 452 -41
Program Enablers 84 81 -3
Total 577 533 -44

Note: Planned FTEs by sub-activity are not available for 2006-2007.

Because of rounding, figures may not add to the totals shown.

1 Planned spending does not match that in the 2006-2007 RPP, as there was an addition error in the RPP.


Expected Results - Science Performance Indicators Results Achieved
Science information used to support the integrated management of healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems for the benefit and enjoyment of Canadians Scientific production by Fisheries and Oceans as measured by the percentage of DFO publications compared to Canadian totals in the subfields of marine biology and hydrobiology and oceanography and limnology
  • For results, see page 54
Canadians' confidence in DFO Science to conduct scientific research to monitor and promote the health of fish stocks and the marine environment
  • For results, see page 54
Level of partnering in scientific research
  • Results not available for 2006-2007
Number of responses to requests for science advice
  • In 2005, approximately 44 publications were produced through the DFO Science Advisory process co-ordinated by the Canadian Science Advisory Secretariat in response to advisory needs identified from internal and external DFO clients in support of healthy and productive aquatic ecosystems22

Under the umbrella of healthy and productive aquatic environments, the Science Program continued to provide advice on a diverse range of marine initiatives and priorities in direct support of the Department and Government of Canada. These initiatives include Offshore Energy Development, Environmental Process Modernization Plan (EPMP), Canada's Oceans Action Plan, and important horizontal initiatives such as Building Public Confidence in Pesticide Regulation, the International Fisheries and Oceans Governance Strategy, Improving Access to Pest Management Products, and International Polar Year. These initiatives were all supported by sound science advice to help inform associated policies, programs, and regulations.

Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-67.png http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/science/main_e.htm

Program Sub-activity: Assessing the Impacts of Development on Aquatic Ecosystems

Activities such as oil and gas exploration, development and production, forestry, mining, hydroelectric power generation, and agriculture, which operate in or around marine and freshwater aquatic environments, have the potential to impact fish and fish habitat. Long-range transport and point-source introductions of contaminants and toxic substances also pose significant threats to aquatic ecosystems and their resources. The Science program provides scientific advice on the potential impacts, mitigation measures, risks, and regulations in support of the habitat management authorities identified in the Fisheries Act, the Policy for the Management of Fish Habitat, Species at Risk Act, Oceans Act, Navigable Waters Protection Act, and the Canadian Environmental Assessment Act.


Plans

  • Provide advice on the Mackenzie Gas Pipeline Project to support decisions related to the environmental impact assessment, regulation (Fisheries Act), and monitoring; this will include delineating critical fish habitat in rivers and lakes draining into the Mackenzie River and undertaking a study of sensitive fish species
  • Delineate and map the habitats of the coastal Beaufort Sea and Mackenzie Delta, assess beluga whale habitat requirements in the eastern Beaufort Sea, and study the impacts of oil and gas exploration on ringed and bearded seals
  • In support of the Environmental Process Modernization Plan (EPMP), conduct a peer review of advice on the evidence linking the effects of human activities on fish habitat; also provide advice on the scientific foundation for the application of risk-management principles to the management of fish habitat
Expected Results Results Achieved
Increased use of scientific advice and supporting information related to the impacts of industrial activities on the aquatic environment
  • Provided scientific information and advice on critical fish habitats in support of the Environmental Impact Assessment for the Mackenzie Gas Project
  • Completed a final report of the effects of exploratory drilling on seals in the near-shore Beaufort Sea; deferred the assessment of beluga whale habitat because of insufficient external funding support
Increased science-based mitigation measures for human and industrial activities
  • Conducted a peer review to examine the evidence linking changes in river flow and fish habitat in support of the Environmental Process Modernization priority
  • Delivered a discussion paper to Habitat Management, outlining the scientific basis for applying risk management models to the management of natural resources, particularly fish habitat

Program Sub-activity: Assessing Aquatic Ecosystems and Supporting Integrated Oceans Management

Multiple and sometimes conflicting use of oceans necessitates that the integrated management of resources be informed by sound science advice. The Science program provides advice, information, and data management services to support the government's integrated management of aquatic ecosystems, such as the delineation of Marine Protected Areas through ocean mapping, preparation of ecosystem overview and status reports on Large Ocean Management Areas, and frameworks of ecological and biologically significant ocean areas.


Plans

  • Provide advice to support knowledge requirements associated with the Oceans Action Plan (OAP); this will involve developing Ecosystem Overview and Assessment Reports and identifying Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas for each of the five Large Ocean Management Areas
Expected Results Results Achieved
Increased use of Science advice (e.g., data and modelling) by decision-makers in the integrated management of Canada's oceans
  • Developed guidelines for identifying Conservation Priorities and phrasing Conservation Objectives
  • Identified draft Conservation Objectives for each Large Ocean Management Area
  • Identified and mapped Ecologically and Biologically Significant Areas in each Large Ocean Management Area
  • Developed criteria for identifying ecologically significant species and community properties
  • Identified ecologically significant species and community properties for each Large Ocean Management Area
  • Completed Ecosystem Overview and Assessment Reports for each Large Ocean Management Area

Guidelines for Identifying Conservation Priorities and phrasing Conservation Objectives - Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-68.png http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/csas/status/2007/SAR-AS2007_010_E.pdf

Criteria for identifying ecologically significant species and community priorities - http://www.dfo-mpo.gc.ca/csas/csas/status/2006/SAR-AS2006_041_E.pdf


Program Sub-activity: Monitoring, Understanding and Predicting Variation and Change of Ocean Climate

Interactions among the oceans, ice, and atmosphere are a fundamental part of the earth's global climate system. As a nation that borders on three interconnected oceans, Canada, together with the international community, has a vested interest in understanding the role of oceans in global climate and the impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems. Science efforts are directed towards enabling prediction of ocean responses to climatic change, and the assessment of potential impacts on marine environments, ecosystems, fish, and marine mammal populations.


Plans

  • Deliver a co-ordinated program for providing the data needed for oceans ecosystem assessments
  • Conduct research to understand the effects of climate change and climate variation on aquatic ecosystems
  • Apply operational models to the prediction of variation in ocean climate
  • Participate in International Polar Year with the objective of building on and supporting the Department's and the Government of Canada's knowledge requirements associated with climate change impacts and adaptation
Expected Results Results Achieved
Decision-makers make increased use of forecast impacts of climate change on aquatic ecosystems
  • Continued to participate in a number of key long-term data collection programs, including the Atlantic Zone Monitoring Program, Argo profiling floats, Line P, and partnerships such as ArcticNet for northern marine observations; the data and information collected is essential for tests of the accuracy of measurements, for process studies, and in the analysis of climatic variations in regional aquatic ecosystems
Policy-makers make increased use of knowledge of oceans' influence on climate and climate change
  • Contributed to a number of climate research programs such as the Canadian Arctic Shelf Exchange Study, the Surface-Ocean Lower-Atmosphere Study, and the Enhancement of Greenhouse Gas Emissions Program
  • Continued predictive modelling of oceanographic variables such as sea level, currents, and ice concentration and thickness in the Gulf of St. Lawrence
  • Leading seven International Polar Year projects and engaged in others to better understand the Arctic Ocean's role in global climate and the impact of climate variability and change on Arctic marine ecosystems

DFO On the Job

Discovering New Marine Species

Imagine a coral colony with its fantastic shapes in pinks, yellows, oranges, and reds — all those hot tropical colours gently riffling in the current. Some of the corals tower to three metres, and they have been there for hundreds of years. You can see shrimp and fish drifting in and around the colony. But wait! If you're picturing these corals in a warm sunlit turquoise sea, you are completely mistaken. These particular colonies are living in the frigid dark, a kilometre below the surface of the Atlantic Ocean off Canada's East Coast.

Sea corn (Primnoa resedaeformis; to left and centre) and the thicker-stalked bubblegum coral (Paragorgia arborea) colonize a telegraphy cable laid down in the 1870s. These corals were found in the Coral Conservation Area in the Northeast Channel at a depth of about 300 metres.
Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-69.png

For the past five years, a Fisheries and Oceans Canada team from the Centre for Marine Biodiversity, located at the Bedford Institute of Oceanography in Dartmouth, Nova Scotia, has been on an exciting voyage of discovery to locate and learn about these deep-water coral colonies. Their existence was known — just barely — as early as the 1870s because of the Challenger Expedition, the world's first global oceanographic research expedition. During the course of its work, expedition members dredged a few buckets of samples from depths of two to three thousand metres off Nova Scotia. The coral specimens retrieved were damaged by the primitive method of collection. Now, well over a hundred years later, scientists are able to study the colonies in situ using sophisticated marine technology. The research gained a huge impetus this year when the team obtained the use of a remotely operated underwater vehicle called ROPOS, which is equipped with cameras and can take tiny samples without damaging the coral colony.

The research is part of the Centre's overall program to look at non-commercial species and understand their role in the ecosystem. Corals are especially important, as they create a habitat that is used by many other species. They provide a place of refuge from ocean currents and larger predators, a feeding ground, and, in some cases, a nursery. Protecting these habitats off our East Coast is of critical concern now, what with increased interest in the deeper ocean regions by both the fishing and oil and gas industries. Corals, which are particularly vulnerable to any physical disturbance, are, in fact, the focus of conservation and management efforts around the world. Lead scientist Ellen Kenchington explains that even though "we're in an early exploratory stage for the deep-water corals," her team's work has already led to the establishment of two Coral Conservation Zones.

Sea corn (Primnoa resedaeformis; to left) and differently coloured colonies
of bubblegum coral (Paragorgia arborea; to right) colonize a boulder
900 metres below the surface in the Northeast Channel.
Image: Pix/DFO DPR 06-07 %28E%29 for HTML-70.png

Even at this early stage, the team has identified eight species believed to be new to Canada and five other species new to the study area. Underscoring the need to refine the geographic distribution of the coral colonies is the fact that most of the new coral discoveries came from outside the existing Coral Conservation Zone. The team also discovered dense stands of bubblegum coral and sea corn at depths of between six and nine hundred metres in the Conservation Zone.

Apart from their role as habitat builders, these corals have intriguing possibilities for the pharmaceuticals of the future. For example, some of the new cancer drugs have come from marine molluscs, and deep-water creatures such as these corals have unique attributes that are well worth exploring.

The deep-water coral researchers are pushing forward with their work. In 2007, they hope to be able to use ROPOS to carry out work in other areas with known coral colonies: in The Gully, which is Canada's largest Marine Protected Area and home to the endangered bottlenose whale, and in the Stone Fence Coral Conservation Zone in the Laurentian Channel.

For more information, visit the Centre of Marine Biodiversity's web site at: http://www.marinebiodiversity.ca