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ARCHIVED - RPP 2007-2008
Correctional Service Canada

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The Minister's Message

Stockwell Day The Government of Canada made a commitment to Canadians to keep our country secure and our communities safe. The Public Safety portfolio plays a central role in meeting this obligation to Canadians. As Minister of Public Safety, I am pleased to provide Parliament with this Report on Plans and Priorities for 2007-2008 that describes our efforts to protect Canadian families and build a stronger, safer and better Canada.

Over the past year, the Government of Canada has taken concrete steps to enhance border security by arming border officers and hiring more people so that no officer will be required to work at the border alone.

We have taken a balanced approach to tackling crime by putting more RCMP officers in our communities, providing more resources to our law-enforcement agencies and promoting crime prevention. At the same time, the Government of Canada has been working to improve the effectiveness of our corrections system, heighten emergency preparedness and enhance our national security infrastructure while remaining vigilant to the threat of terrorism.

In the coming year, we will continue to make Canada a safer place for all. We will continue to tackle crime and safeguard our communities. We intend to continue to carefully examine and review current corrections and criminal justice policies to ensure that we are getting the best possible results that protect public safety.

The Government is committed to working with our corrections officers, the law enforcement community as well as with representatives of victims groups as we move forward.

The Report on Plans and Priorities of each of the Portfolio Agencies and the Department lay out the full scope of our plans and key activities that we will pursue in the coming months. Over the past year, I have witnessed both the dedication and discipline of the people who work in the Public Safety Portfolio. I am confident that, with these new plans and priorities, such qualities will continue to define our efforts and that substantive progress will be made in fulfilling our collective mandate to make Canada a safer and more secure country.



The Honourable Stockwell Day, P.C., M.P.

Minister of Public Safety


The Commissioner's Message

In recent years, the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) has been experiencing growing challenges in delivering on its mandate due to a more complex and challenging offender population and escalating costs.

In this context, we established, in our last Report on Plans and Priorities, five very clear key priorities to guide our efforts to deliver the best possible public safety results. This year we will continue to focus on these same priorities:

  • Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community;
  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders;
  • Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders; and
  • Strengthened management practices.

This report outlines the rationale for each priority, the associated challenges we face and the results we expect to achieve, as well as how we plan to pursue our priorities and measure progress over the next three years.

I am confident that with the continued support of CSC's hard-working, dedicated employees, and our many stakeholders and partners in public safety, we will be successful in maximizing the public safety results we achieve with the resources provided, and thus do our part to help ensure that Canadians remain safe.



Keith Coulter

Commissioner, Correctional Service of Canada


Management Representation Statement

I submit for tabling in Parliament, the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities (RPP) for the Correctional Service of Canada.

This document has been prepared based on the reporting principles contained in the Guide for the Preparation of Part III of the 2007-08 Estimates: Reports on Plans and Priorities and Departmental Performance Reports:

  1. It adheres to the specific reporting requirements outlined in the Treasury Board Secretariat guide;
  2. It is based on the department's Strategic Outcome and Program Activity Architecture that were approved by the Treasury Board;
  3. It presents consistent, comprehensive, balanced and reliable information; 
  4. It provides a basis of accountability for the results achieved with the resources and authorities entrusted to it; and
  5. It reports finances based on approved planned spending numbers from the Treasury Board Secretariat in the RPP.



Keith Coulter

Commissioner, Correctional Service of Canada


Statements of Attestation and Recommendation

I, Lynn Garrow, CSC Assistant Commissioner, Performance Assurance, attest that the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities meets the criteria 1, 2, 3 and 4 as indicated above, and recommend to the Commissioner that he certify same.

I, Louise Saint-Laurent, CSC Senior Financial Officer, attest that the 2007-2008 Report on Plans and Priorities meets the criteria 2, 3, 4, and 5 as indicated above, and recommend to the Commissioner that he certify same.



Lynn Garrow



Louise Saint-Laurent


SECTION I: Departmental Overview

This section presents general information about the Correctional Service of Canada (CSC) and focuses on the current strategic context and priorities of the organization.

1.1 Summary Information

Mandate of CSC

The purpose of CSC, as set out in the Corrections and Conditional Release Act (CCRA), is to contribute to the maintenance of a just, peaceful and safe society by:

  • Ensuring that the protection of the public is the paramount consideration in all decisions relating to the custody, treatment and release of offenders;
  • Carrying out sentences imposed by the courts through the reasonable, safe, secure and humane care and custody, and supervision, of offenders with sentences of two years or more; and
  • Assisting in the rehabilitation of offenders and their reintegration into the community as law-abiding citizens through the provision of programs in penitentiaries and communities.

Other Acts, Regulations, policies, and international standards that guide the delivery of CSC's services include: the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms; the Canadian Human Rights Act; the Criminal Code; the Privacy and Access to Information Acts; the Transfer of Offenders Act; and the United Nations Standard Minimum Rules for the Treatment of Prisoners.


  • Administers sentences of 2 years or more
  • Prepares inmates for safe release
  • Supervises offenders on conditional release and Long-Term Supervision Orders (LTSOs)

1.2 Operating Environment of CSC

The Correctional Service of Canada is an agency within the portfolio of Public Safety. The portfolio brings together key federal agencies dedicated to public safety, including the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, the National Parole Board, the Canada Border Services Agency, the Canadian Security Intelligence Service, and three review bodies, including the Office of the Correctional Investigator.

The portfolio is designed to address a wide range of risks to the safety and security of Canadians - from crime affecting the lives of individuals, to natural disasters, to terrorism and other threats to national security. This is achieved through a continuum of service delivery, from prevention to crime response; for example, emergency preparedness, crime prevention, border management, emergency response, law enforcement, corrections, and parole management.

CSC contributes to public safety through the custody and reintegration of offenders. More specifically, CSC is responsible for administering court-imposed sentences for offenders sentenced to two years or more. This includes both the custodial and community supervision parts of an offender's sentence. CSC also administers post-sentence supervision of offenders with Long Term Supervision Orders (LTSOs) for periods of up to 10 years.

At the end of the 2005-2006 fiscal year, CSC was responsible for approximately 12,700 federally incarcerated offenders (excluding 1,200 offenders temporarily detained while on conditional release to the community) and 6,800 offenders actively supervised in the community.1 Over the course of the year, including all admissions and releases, CSC managed a flow-through of 25,500 different offenders.2


  • 58 institutions
  • 16 community correctional centres
  • 71 parole offices

CSC has a presence from coast to coast - from large urban centres with their increasingly diverse populations, to remote Inuit communities across the North. CSC manages institutions, treatment centres, four Aboriginal healing lodges, community correctional centres and parole offices. In addition, CSC has five regional headquarters that provide management and administrative support and serve as the delivery arms of CSC's programs and services. CSC also manages an addictions research centre, a correctional management learning centre, regional staff colleges and national headquarters.

CORCAN, a Special Operating Agency of CSC, provides work and employability skills training to offenders in institutions to enhance job readiness upon their release to communities, and to increase the likelihood of successful reintegration. It also offers support services at 37 community-based employment locations across Canada to assist offenders on conditional release in securing employment. CORCAN's services are provided through partnership contracts internally (CSC and CORCAN) as well as externally with other governments, NGOs and private enterprises.

Approximately 72% of CSC's 2006-2007 annual reference level was dedicated to the provision of care and custody of offenders in institutions and in communities, which includes such fixed costs as security systems, salaries for correctional staff, facilities maintenance and food.  The remaining 28% was allocated to rehabilitation and case management services.


2007-08 2008-09 2009-10

Financial Resources ($Millions)




Human Resources - Full-Time Equivalents3




CSC employs approximately 14,500 staff4 across the country and strives to maintain a workforce that reflects Canadian society. Slightly more than 5% are from visible minority groups, approximately 4% are persons with disabilities, and approximately 7% are Aboriginal.5 These rates are at or above the labour market availability6 of workers in these operational groups for the types of employment offered by CSC.  Just under 45% of CSC staff are women.


  • Approximately 14,500 employees, of whom 87% work in institutions and communities.

Two occupational groups, for the most part exclusive to CSC, represent over half of all staff employed in operational units. The CX, or correctional officer group, comprises 41% of staff, while another 13% of staff are in the WP category, that is, the group which includes parole and program officers who work in the institutions and in the community. The remainder of CSC's workforce reflects the variety of other skills required to operate institutions and community offices - from health professionals, to electricians, to food service staff, as well as staff providing corporate and administrative functions at the local, regional and national levels. All staff work together to ensure that the institutions operate in a secure and safe fashion and that offenders are properly supervised on release.

1 Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Overview: 2006 Annual Report (Public Safety and Emergency Preparedness Canada, Dec. 2006).
2 Source: CSC Offender Management System (as of April 9, 2006). As the 2006-07 fiscal year was not yet complete at the time of this report's publication, data from the 2005-06 fiscal year will be used throughout the document.
3 Includes active full-time, part-time and casual employees, as well as those who may be absent at any given time (Source: CSC Salary Management System).
4 CSC has changed its definition of ‘employee' to be consistent with the definition used by the Public Service Human Resources Management Agency of Canada. Previously, casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees were included. Data as of March 31, 2006 (Source: CSC Human Resources Management System).
5 Source: CSC Human Resources Management System. Employment equity data, March 31, 2006.
6 As per the latest available data from Statistics Canada (2001 Census Data).


1.3 Correctional Approach

CSC uses research-based approaches across the full continuum of the offender's sentence. The following four key activities comprise CSC's correctional strategy and are anchored in this research-based approach:

  • A comprehensive intake assessment process to determine security risk and needs, as well as an initial placement to an institution at the appropriate security level.  The assessment results in the establishment of a multi-disciplinary correctional plan for treatment and intervention throughout the sentence. This assessment includes a review of information on the impact of offenders' crimes on victims, police reports, court transcripts, judges' comments on sentencing and other information, which provides a comprehensive picture of the offenders and the reasons why they committed their crimes.

  • Institutional accommodation and intervention to address the offender's risk for re-offending. This includes adjustments to security level based on the offender's behaviour and performance, and the delivery of rehabilitation programs. A broad range of programs, varying in intensity and subject matter, is available to address those factors that led to criminal behaviour.
  • Risk re-assessment is conducted at specific points throughout the sentence to assess an offender's progress against the correctional plan and recommend any changes to the plan. CSC obtains input from the community, including police and victims, where appropriate, as well as assessments and recommendations from psychologists and psychiatrists, as appropriate. Preparation for transition to the community includes notification to police of all releases from institutions. Victims, who have so requested, also receive notification at major milestones throughout the offender's sentence.
  • Community supervision provides community-based programs and interventions to address an offender's needs and risks and monitor progress.  Community supervision may include a requirement to reside in a half-way house or other community correctional centre. Levels of supervision are adjusted based on the offender's performance. The National Parole Board may impose various special conditions that restrict what the offender may do (e.g., abstain from alcohol, non-association with certain people, individual counseling, required program involvement) or where the offender may go. The Parole Officer maintains regular contact with the offender, as well as with police, employers, social workers, relatives and others who are involved with the offender, in order to assess the offender's progress in reintegrating into the community, the level of risk that the offender represents, as well as to determine whether the offender's conditional release should be suspended, resulting in a return to custody.

1.4 Partnerships

As one component of the larger criminal justice system, CSC works closely not only with other agencies in the Public Safety portfolio, but also with other federal organizations, such as the Department of Justice, the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs, the Department of Citizenship and Immigration, Health Canada, the Public Health Agency of Canada and the Canadian Human Rights Commission.

Citizen groups, such as Citizen Advisory Committees (for each institution and parole district), the Health Care Advisory Committee, the Interfaith Committee, the national and regional Ethnocultural Advisory Committees, national and regional Aboriginal Advisory Committees and the National Elders Working Group provide advice and act as a link between communities and CSC. As well, approximately 8,100 volunteers7 contribute their time to CSC by providing essential operational support.

In addition to federally operated facilities, CSC partners with non-government organizations that manage approximately 200 community-based residential facilities across the country, which provide important programs and services to offenders on conditional release to the community. Specialized correctional services and programs are also provided through a variety of Exchange of Service Agreements with provincial and territorial correctional and justice authorities. CSC also partners with Aboriginal communities to provide custody and supervision of Aboriginal offenders through the establishment of healing lodges under section 81 of the CCRA and through release plans under section 84 of the CCRA. There are currently four healing lodges, operated by Aboriginal Communities in collaboration with CSC, that are the result of section 81 agreements.8 There are also four CSC-operated healing lodges under Memoranda of Agreements with local Aboriginal communities.

1.5 Program Activity Architecture

The Program Activity Architecture (PAA) of a federal department or agency identifies the organization's strategic outcome(s), and describes the activities supporting these outcomes and how the organization is structured to manage them. It establishes activities and sub-activities and groups them appropriately so that the organization can tie priorities, plans and day-to-day operations to resourcing levels and better demonstrate results and value-for-money.

In all CSC activities, and all decisions that staff make, public safety is the paramount consideration. This is captured in CSC's Strategic Outcome which states that "offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian communities with due regard for public safety."9 Three program activities support this Strategic Outcome: Care and Custody, Rehabilitation and Case Management, and CORCAN. Corporate Services--i.e., finance, human resources and similar functions at CSC--support all three Program Activities and resources attributable to Corporate Services have been allocated throughout the PAA.

CSC's PAA is depicted in the following chart.10 It presents the Strategic Outcome, the three Program Activities, their respective Sub-Activities, and, for each Sub-Activity, outlines the key results, outputs and performance indicators.

Program Activity Architecture (PAA)
Select/click on image to view larger version.

7 Source: CSC Human Resources Management System, Manage Volunteers Database, March 31, 2006.
8 See Glossary at the end of this report for more information on CCRA section 81 and 84 provisions.
9 CSC's PAA is currently being reviewed. As part of the review, key results, outputs and performance indicators will be identified at the Activity and Strategic Outcome level.
10 There have been a few changes in wording from the PAA that was presented in the 2006-07 RPP, however the overall structure has remained the same.


1.6 Strategic Context

In recent years, CSC has been experiencing serious challenges in delivering on its mandate, and sustaining its contribution to public safety, due to the changing offender profile and rapidly escalating costs.

The changing offender population is presenting significant security and reintegration challenges for CSC. In recent years, the offender population has been increasingly characterized by offenders with extensive histories of violence and violent crimes, previous youth and adult convictions, affiliations with gangs and organized crime, serious substance abuse histories and problems, serious mental health disorders, higher rates of infection with Hepatitis C and HIV and a disproportionate representation of Aboriginal people. Among other things, between 1997 and 2005 changes to the offender population profile have included:

  • More extensive histories of involvement with the court system -- roughly 9 out of 10 offenders now have previous criminal convictions;
  • More extensive histories of violence and violent offences, with far more assessed as violence-prone, hostile, impulsive and aggressive on admission;
  • An increase of more than 100% in the proportion of offenders who are classified as maximum security on admission -- another of the progressive difficulties facing CSC. Thirteen percent are now classified at this level on admission;
  • An increase of 33% in the proportion of offenders with gang and/or organized crime affiliations -- one in six men and one in ten women offenders, now have known affiliations;
  • An increase of 14% in the proportion of offenders serving sentences for homicide -- it now stands at more than one in four male offenders;
  • An increase of 71% in the percentage of male offenders and 100% increase in women offenders identified at admission as having very serious mental health problems -- 12% of male and 26% of women offenders are now so identified;
  • An increasing prevalence of learning disabilities as well as offenders with low functioning capacities;
  • An increasing over-representation of Aboriginal offenders -- 19% of the institutional population is now of Aboriginal ancestry, while less than 3% of the Canadian population is Aboriginal;
  • An increasing prevalence of substance abuse -- about four out of five offenders now arrive at a federal institution with a serious substance abuse problem, with one out of two having committed their crime under the influence of drugs, alcohol or other intoxicants;
  • An increasing rate of infectious diseases -- inmates now have a 7 to 10 times higher rate of HIV than the general Canadian population, and approximately a 30 times higher rate of Hepatitis C.

For a number of complex reasons, there has also been a trend towards shorter sentences and for CSC this has meant an increase of 62% in the proportion of male offender admissions serving a sentence of less than three years.

The result of this is an increasing polarization of our population, with roughly one in four male offenders and one in three women offenders serving sentences of three years or less, and roughly one in four male offenders and one in five women offenders serving life sentences -- adding greatly to the complexity of the management challenges in our institutions.

The trend lines for the changes in the composition of the offender population clearly illustrate that CSC should expect this transformation to continue for the foreseeable future. Effective management of this more complex offender population requires greater resources, new training and equipment for staff, an increase in specialized services (e.g., mental health care for offenders) and more distinct and targeted interventions. The additional effort and related costs associated with the effective management of the more diversified and complex population present a very significant challenge for CSC.

As stated earlier, compounding these challenges is the escalation of non-discretionary costs that the organization is facing. CSC's expenditures are driven primarily by the Corrections and Conditional Release Act and its regulations, which together prescribe the vast majority of CSC's activities. For example, as the chart below illustrates, salary costs have increased from 54-65% over the past 11 years, as a result of inflation and new collective agreements with key operational staff. Furthermore, 90% of CSC's expenditures are non-discretionary (e.g., salaries, utilities, food, medical services) and are driven by factors beyond CSC's direct control (e.g., inflation, price fluctuations, new employee contracts11). This leaves very limited flexibility for policy and program modifications, or investments that could yield longer-term results.

Percentage of Salary Expenditures/Projections on Total Budget
(Current dollars)

Chart - Percentage of Salary Expenditures/Projections on Total Budget

Another major challenge is the basic maintenance requirements of CSC's institutions. CSC has one of the largest facility portfolios in the Government of Canada, consisting of a variety of institutions, community correctional centers and parole offices in communities across Canada. Together, these represent nearly 200 different sites. These facilities date from the early 1800s up to the present, with most being over 40 years old. To compound this issue, significant portions of CSC's funding for capital and O&M are not adjusted to inflation, and as a result, CSC's capacity to carry out essential ongoing engineering and maintenance activities has been spread very thin.

In order to manage shortfalls in capital and O&M, CSC has had to routinely delay basic maintenance in recent years. As a result, what were once routine maintenance items are now emergency maintenance issues. In addition, many older facilities require updated security equipment to continue to ensure the safety and security of staff, the public and offenders. Examples include outdated detection equipment for drugs and infrared imaging systems, too few ion scanners, security camera systems, staff location systems and portable alarms, and motion detector systems.

In this context, CSC has not been able to make the adjustments to its infrastructure that are needed to manage the current and projected offender population. With the offender population changing over recent years as described above, the reality is that there is now a multitude of sub-populations such as gang members, organized crime offenders, sex offenders, young offenders, violence-prone offenders, offenders with mental health problems, Aboriginal offenders and a growing number of aged and infirm offenders with unique and distinct requirements. The risks and needs posed by these offenders often require separation from the rest of the inmate population, which is a significant challenge for older institutions as the original structures were built to accommodate a homogeneous inmate population, making it extremely difficult to meet the current requirements of separating multiple offender sub-populations. Today, for example, it is not possible for all inmates to share common outdoor, dining hall and programming spaces without threatening the safety and security of staff and offenders, but many institutions were designed and built based on this assumption.

As a result of the factors described above, CSC operations have been significantly impacted over the past ten years. More specifically, CSC is experiencing challenges:

  • to manage different sub-populations in maximum and medium security institutions;
  • to consistently deliver timely, critical and effective programs and other interventions in institutions aimed at enhancing public safety by targeting the causes of criminal behaviour;
  • to effectively supervise and manage offenders requiring higher levels of contact and surveillance in the community; and
  • to manage workload and stress, at all levels, and to address safety concerns.

These challenges have been highlighted in CSC's most recent Corporate Risk Profile.

CSC has exhausted its ability to reallocate existing resources to meet these current and future challenges. During the past few years, existing funding allocations and expenditure patterns have needed to be constantly reviewed and adjusted in order to reallocate to the most urgent funding requirements. More recently, CSC has curtailed its internal expenditures, including suspending non-essential training, equipment purchases, travel, professional service contracts and staffing actions. In short, the changing offender profile and the escalating costs have placed CSC in an ever more challenging position, and CSC will need to focus sharply on its key priorities in order to deliver the greatest possible value for money and results during the next fiscal year.

11 When comparing the annual average cost per offender for 2005-06 ($71,004) to 2004-05 ($68,216), the cost has increased by 4.1% (CSC: Comptroller Branch).


1.7 CSC's Priorities

Last fiscal year, CSC undertook a comprehensive process to identify new priorities. Five priorities were established in response to the changing offender profile, the paramouncy of public safety and the new Government's emphasis on crime prevention. CSC specifically limited the number of priorities and associated plans in order to ensure sustained management focus and results in those areas. This year, CSC reviewed its existing priorities against its mandate and its key risks and challenges, and determined that it could most effectively contribute to public safety by maintaining the same priorities, namely:

  • Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community;
  • Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions;
  • Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders;
  • Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders; and
  • Strengthened management practices.

The following table aligns the above strategic priorities to the Program Activities and provides financial resources information by Program Activity.

Offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into Canadian communities with due regard to public safety
PAA Program Activity
Expected Results
Type Departmental Priority CSC Budget Base
($ Millions)




2007-08 2008-09 2009-10

Care and Custody Expected Result:

Reasonable, safe secure and humane custody









Safety and Security in Institutions

Safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions

Community Transition

Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community

Mental Health

Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders








Rehabilitation and Case Management

Expected Result:

Safe reintegration to the community consistent with the law







Community Transition

Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community

Aboriginal Offenders

Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders









Expected Result:

Assisting in the safe reintegration of offenders by providing employment and employability skills



Community transition

Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community








Corporate Services

Expected Result:

Direction and support so that offenders are safely and effectively accommodated and reintegrated into the community




Strengthened Management Practices

















* Note: CORCAN operates as a revolving fund. The expenses of $77.5M are offset by the revenues of $77.5M and, as a consequence, the net impact on financial resources is nil.

The sections below present the background for each strategic priority, the associated challenges and where CSC needs to go to address these challenges; as well as results commitments and measurement strategies.

1.8 Community Transition


Safe transition of eligible offenders into the community

Every crime committed by an offender, either while incarcerated or in the community under supervision, is of significant concern to CSC.

Of greatest concern are violent crimes in the community. While the three-year moving average of federal offenders supervised in the community convicted of, or charged with, a violent crime has not changed significantly since 2001-02, the level of violent crime committed by offenders (notably 236 offenders convicted/charged in 2005-06) must be reduced.

Supervised federal offenders in communities convicted of, or charged with, a violent offence12


2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

Offenders convicted/charged






Supervised population in communities






% of supervised population






Three-year moving average13






Under current law, over 90% of offenders will one day return to the community. Effective corrections means helping those offenders who have made satisfactory progress reintegrate safely into the community while also ensuring that offenders who may still pose a threat to Canadians and their communities are retained in custody, and that those on conditional release are returned to custody if their behaviour threatens public safety. Of greatest concern to CSC are violent crimes committed by offenders in the community. CSC is also concerned about the commission of crimes by offenders after the end of their sentences. Approximately 36% of federal offenders will be convicted of a new crime within two years of completing their sentence, the majority receiving some type of provincial sentence.14 More specifically, approximately 11% of federal offenders return to federal custody within two years of sentence completion, of which 5% are for new violent convictions.15

Statistics Canada is currently leading a federal-provincial project to improve reporting on recidivism. When complete, this initiative will provide a more comprehensive understanding of federal offenders' involvement with the criminal justice system after the completion of their federal sentences. CSC is working closely with Statistics Canada on this project.

Recidivism results must be improved. The likelihood of an offender leading a law-abiding life on release is greater if the offender is properly prepared for release, having benefited from targeted interventions and correctional programs, and is supervised in a supportive community. In fact, t here is solid evidence that programs based on sound research significantly contribute to the safe reintegration of offenders following release. This is because offender programs are designed to address those risk factors related to re-offending. Examples are: Adult Basic Education, Employment in CORCAN Prison Industries, Offender Substance Abuse Pre-Release Program, Cognitive Skills Training, Anger and Emotions Management, Counter Point, Sex Offender Treatment, Violence Prevention (including for gang members), and Family Violence Treatment. Reductions in re-offending as high as 20% to 60% have been linked to some of these programs. More specific information on the effectiveness of offender programs in reducing re-offending is included in Section 4.

CSC is facing a number of challenges in preparing offenders for a safe transition to the community. Offenders pose a variety of risks and have increasingly diverse needs, requiring more targeted correctional programs and interventions and monitoring of correctional plans.  For example, a significant increase in the number of offenders admitted with sentences under three years requires more rapid interventions that focus on their specific needs, and that address the shorter period of time they are on community supervision.

As well, the number of offenders receiving Long Term Supervision Orders (LTSOs)16 from the courts is increasing. From 2002-03 to 2005-06, the number of offenders in the community who are actively serving their LTSO has increased from 31 to 120.17 An additional 250 offenders have an LTSO designation but have not yet reached sentence expiry.

1.8.1 Where CSC Needs to Go

In light of the above challenges, there is a need to enhance supervision and monitoring tools for higher-risk offenders in the community; adapt case management and programming approaches to provide timely and effective interventions for shorter sentences; and enhance the role of CSC's Community Correctional Centres in managing the transition to the community.

Informed and engaged citizens and communities are also integral to safe offender reintegration. CSC has always been dependent on the communities it serves to provide acceptance of, and support to, offenders in their reintegration, but community capacity is varied and often limited.  This support is in the form of access to community services and programs such as family services, addictions and specialized health services including mental health as well as affordable accommodation. CSC is finding it increasingly difficult to supplement this deficiency and an investment in longer-term community capacity building to deliver programs and to provide support services is critical to assist offenders' safe reintegration efforts and contribute to public safety.

Finally, in order for staff to effectively supervise offenders in the community CSC must first ensure its community staff are as safe as possible. For that reason, CSC has undertaken a number of iniatitives to improve staff safety for all community employees.

Section 2 will outline the specific plans that have been identified in pursuit of CSC's mandate to contribute to public safety, through ensuring the safe transition of eligible offenders to the community.

1.8.2 Results Commitment and Measurement Strategy

Re-offending, and particularly violent re-offending, by federal offenders, continues to be a significant preoccupation for CSC. While the rate of re-offending for federal offenders under supervision and after sentence completion has remained relatively constant in recent years, the harm of each new crime to the victims, their family and the community, can be devastating.

Due to the changing offender profile as outlined above, and in the context of tight resource constraints, CSC is facing growing challenges in keeping rates of re-offending, particularly violent re-offending, as low as they have been over the past few years. Nevertheless, CSC will continue to focus its efforts on minimizing violent re-offending by offenders returning to the community. More specifically, CSC will focus on preventing an escalation in violent re-offending by federal offenders returning to the community.

To assess performance in this area, CSC will report on the percentage of federal offenders in communities convicted of or changed with a violent offence while under CSC supervision. CSC will also report on the percentage of federal offenders convicted of a violent offence and returning to federal custody within two and five years after the end of their sentence.18 In addition to monitoring, acting on and reporting on violent re-offending rates, CSC will continue to monitor and report on non-violent re-offending.19

12 Source: CSC Offender Management Systems as of April 9, 2006. This table shows the total number of offenders who were convicted of, or charged with, at least one violent offence while on supervision. The percentage is based on the flow-through population and includes all federal offenders who have been supervised by CSC in the community for at least one day during the year. A violent crime is defined as murder of Schedule I offence under the Criminal Code.
13 A three-year moving average is expected to provide a more robust indicator of the long-term trend.
14 Source: CSC 2004-05 Departmental Performance Report
15 Source: CSC Offender Management System as of April 9, 2006
16 An LTSO order can be for a period of up to 10 years and commences at the expiry of the offender's custodial sentence. In general more intensive supervision of the offender is required.
17 Source: CSC Offender Management System (as of April 13, 2003 and April 9, 2006)
18 Re-offending results based on long, fixed follow-up periods-i.e., whether offenders re-offend within two or five years of the end of their sentence-can be observed only after a significant time lag. Hence, the two-year and five-year re-offending rates that will be reported by CSC in the 2007/08 Departmental Performance Report will reflect the results for offenders that were released two or five years prior. It will take a minimum of five years to assess the impacts of the future actions of CSC on five-year offending rates.
19 CSC is currently reviewing its corporate measurement strategies in order to ensure the indicators are as clear, consistent, and meaningful as possible. Any amendments will be explained in future RPPs and DPRs.


1.9 Safe and Secure Institutions


Safety and security for staff and offenders in institutions

CSC is committed to reducing all types of institutional violence in order to create an environment that remains safe for staff and inmates, and establishes the right conditions for maximizing correctional results.

The changing offender population has a direct impact on the safety and security of institutions. Approximately 16% of men offenders report having gang affiliations during their initial assessment, a proportion that has increased since 1997 (from 12% to 16%).20 There has also been an increase in offenders demonstrating poor institutional adjustment, more anti-social behaviour as well as an increase in the proportion of offenders assessed as requiring maximum security at intake.21 Furthermore, the high prevalence of offenders having substance abuse problems means that institutions are potentially at a high risk of violence associated with drugs.

While the rate of major security incidents has remained relatively stable over the past five years, the rate of assaults on staff and inmates has risen in 2005-06 in comparison with 2004-05, and remains a major preoccupation. Many of these assaults result in injuries.

Assaults on staff and offenders (listed above)


2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

# of assaults on staff






# of assaults on offenders












Flow-through rate per 100 offenders incarcerated






Three- year moving average






Source: Security Branch, CJIL, July 9, 2006.


Staff and offenders injured during assaults recorded in table above22


2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

# of staff injured






# of offenders injured












Flow-through rate per 100 offenders incarcerated






Three-year moving average






Data includes "Commit", "Attempt to Commit", " Threaten to Commit", "Suspected of Committing", "Conspire to Commit", and so on.

Source: Security Branch, CJIL, July 9, 2006

The above tables tell only one part of the story. Front-line staff have identified that the climate in institutions is changing, with assaultive behaviour becoming more pronounced and with more incidents of aggressive, intimidating behaviour that is problematic but short of reportable assaults.

The increase in instances of bodily fluids and waste being thrown on staff and verbal assaults such as threats to harm, has only recently been fully appreciated for its impact. These incidents are now better understood as precursors to physical violence and indicative of an ingrained lack of respect for others. They are understood to have lasting and significant impact on staff and offenders' sense of safety and security, and as hampering effective interaction between staff and offenders.

1.9.1 Where CSC Needs to Go

CSC is committed to addressing the dynamics of aggressive behaviour in institutions, and implementing effective measures both to anticipate and manage it.

CSC is engaged in ongoing consultation with its unions on ways to reduce assaults and injury to staff, including enhancing protective equipment for staff and providing specialized training for correctional officers and other staff who deal with violent inmates. Areas of focus include enhancing security and self-defence awareness around inmate movement; increasing awareness of violent tendencies of specific offenders; and applying more effective communication techniques in interacting with violent offenders.

Other measures include introducing a more comprehensive gang management strategy; more effective risk assessment tools for violent offenders; and intensive programs that target violent offenders.

A key part of the effort to provide better safety and security for both staff and offenders will be to increase CSC capability to detect drugs - to reduce the entry, use, as well as the impacts of illicit drugs. A major contributor to institutional violence is drug trafficking, both of street drugs and prescription drugs. Illicit drugs are a problem for correctional organizations throughout the world. They are not only illegal and have a negative impact on institutional security, they also contribute to further criminal behaviour and the spread of infectious disease, and are detrimental to reintegration efforts.

An internal CSC national audit of drug interdiction activities, published in December 2006,23 verified the adequacy of CSC's drug interdiction framework and assessed the level of compliance with related policies and legislations. The audit identified several areas for improvement, including drug interdiction tools, threat assessment, staff searches and monitoring and reporting. The audit also noted that CSC recognizes that more funding is needed in the future to prevent drugs from entering institutions.

In response to the audit, CSC will continue to reinforce many of the drug interdiction practices already in place: a heightened public awareness campaign to communicate the hazards and repercussions of smuggling drugs into institutions; conducting more thorough, non-intrusive searches of personal belongings for everyone coming into an institution, including contractors and staff, and all inmate visitors; conducting more urinalysis and routine searches of inmates and their cells; maintaining better control of prescription drugs in the institutions; and more closely managing inmates involved in the institutional drug trade.

CSC will also work more closely with local police forces and Crown prosecutors to develop a more proactive approach for dealing with situations where drugs are seized.

In the longer term, and dependent on resourcing, anti-drug smuggling efforts may include:

  • Purchasing new technology to better detect illicit drugs hidden within inmate mail;
  • Increasing the number of drug detection dog teams;
  • Continuing to build CSC's security and intelligence capacity; and
  • Looking for new technologies and practices proven successful in other jurisdictions.

Section 2 will outline the specific plans that have been identified in pursuit of CSC's mandate to contribute to public safety, through ensuring safety and security for staff and offenders in our institutions.

1.9.2 Results Commitment and Measurement Strategy

The safety and security of staff, the public and offenders is of primary concern to CSC. Given the changing offender profile and escalating costs, CSC is currently facing growing challenges in maintaining the level of security required within institutitions to make them safe for staff and offenders and to provide the conditions for success in terms of correctional results. However, through focussed management attention and significant effort on behalf of all staff, CSC is committed to continuing its efforts to prevent violent and assaultive behaviour before it starts.

In this context, CSC will continue to focus on preventing violence and assaultive behaviour within institutions. More specifically, given the very significant challenges that CSC is now facing, staff will focus their efforts on preventing any escalation of assaultive behaviour within CSC institutions as measured by the rate of major security incidents, the rate of assaults on staff and offenders, and the rate of injuries to staff and offenders caused by offenders.

20 The Changing Federal Offender Population, Profiles and Forecasts, 2006, CSC Research Branch.
21 Source: CIPS. There has been an upward trend in maximum security designations since 1996-97 (6% to 13%).
22 This includes both major and minor injuries. A major injury is an injury of a serious nature that results in hospitalization or treatment and that prohibits the victim's return to normal routine for any period of time, for example, cuts requiring sutures, unconsciousness depending on the severity, or broken bones. A minor injury is an injury that does not prevent the continuation of the victim's normal routine, nor involves treatment in a hospital; for example, minor abrasions, bruises, superficial cuts, or sprains.
23 audit_druginterdiction2006/druginterdiction2006_e.shtml


1.10 Aboriginal Offenders


Enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders

Aboriginal offenders continue to be disproportionately represented within the criminal justice system. Aboriginal offenders represent approximately 17% of the total federal offender population while Aboriginal adults represent 2.7% of the Canadian adult population.24 The proportion of Aboriginal offenders incarcerated was about 9% greater for Aboriginal offenders (67.5%) than non-Aboriginal offenders (57.7%). Furthermore, Aboriginal women represent 31.4% of all incarcerated women while Aboriginal men represent 18.3% of all incarcerated men. In short, the number of Aboriginal offenders under CSC's jurisdiction is continuing to increase and their over-representation within the offender population persists.

Aboriginal offenders also continue to have higher rates of both violent and non-violent re-offending while they are in communities under CSC supervision, as shown in the chart below: 

Supervised federal offenders in communities convicted of, or charged with, an offence25 Aboriginal vs. non-Aboriginal Offenders
Aboriginal offenders 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06

% of supervised population: violent offence






% of supervised population: non-violent offence






% of supervised population: any offence






Non-Aboriginal offenders






% of supervised population: violent offence






% of supervised population: non-violent offence






% of supervised population: any offence






Gap in re-offending






% of supervised population: violent offence






% of supervised population: non-violent offence






% of supervised population: any offence






Three-year moving average






Source: OMS as of April 9, 2006. Percentage might not add up due to rounding.

Aboriginal offenders are also more likely to return to CSC after the end of their sentence:

Federal Offenders Returning to Federal Custody for any Offence within Two Years after the End of their Sentence26
(Aboriginal vs. Non-Aboriginal Offenders)
Aboriginal offenders 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

% returning to CSC within 2 years






Three-year moving average






Non-Aboriginal offenders 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04

% returning to CSC within 2 years






Three-year moving average






Gap in returning






Source: Offender Management System as of April 9, 2006. Percentages might not add up due to rounding

Clearly, if CSC is to demonstrate its contribution to public safety, the gap in the rate of re-offending between Aboriginal offenders and non-Aboriginal offenders must be narrowed.

Complicating this issue is the fact that Aboriginal people admitted to federal custody are increasingly younger and are more likely to be incarcerated for a violent offence, be affiliated with gangs and have much higher needs (relating to substance abuse, health, employment and education, for example). While many needs of Aboriginal men and women are similar to those of non-Aboriginal men and women, they require different types of interventions to address those needs. Studies highlight unique background, offence patterns and need characteristics among First Nations on reserve, First Nations off reserve, Métis and Inuit offenders.

1.10.1 Where CSC Needs to Go

CSC must work horizontally with other government departments at both the federal and provincial/territorial levels and with Aboriginal communities, to address the issues that contribute to the disproportionate representation of Aboriginal people in the criminal justice system.

As well, CSC must fully develop and implement each of the four components of the "continuum-of-care model" (namely: assessment, intervention, reintegration, and prevention) that are cornerstones of CSC's recently-approved Strategic Plan for Aboriginal Corrections. To this end, CSC needs to develop sufficient capacity in communities to support Aboriginal offenders under supervision and beyond sentence completion, in order to reduce re-offending rates. Continued engagement of Aboriginal communities is critical to developing this capacity.

There is early evidence that initiatives implemented within the continuum-of-care model work with an Aboriginal offender population, which has higher initial risk and needs than the non-Aboriginal population. For example, initial results for Aboriginal offenders who participated in Pathways healing units27 showed a lower rate of re-offending than those who did not participate.28 As well, early data indicates that the completion rate for programs designed for Aboriginal offenders is significantly higher than for programs designed for the general offender population (84% for the Aboriginal-specific violence prevention program and 68% for the general population program29). The fundamental challenge is to expand the provision of these types of interventions, which yield positive results, across CSC, in order to address the specific needs of all Aboriginal offenders in a more timely manner.

CSC must also prepare for anticipated growth in the Aboriginal offender population and potential shifts in geographic distribution. Statistics Canada projections to 2017 suggest that the disproportionate representation of Aboriginal peoples among newly sentenced offenders will continue to grow in federal and provincial/territorial correctional systems, particularly in the West and in the North.30 Of particular relevance is the projection that the 20-29 age group - the age group that has the greatest potential for criminal activity - will increase by over 40%. This is more than four times the projected growth rate of 9% for non-Aboriginal people. New population management strategies will be required to address the expected growth in these populations.

Section 2 will outline the specific plans that have been identified in pursuit of CSC's mandate to contribute to public safety, through enhanced capacities to provide effective interventions for First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders.

1.10.2 Results Commitment and Measurement Strategy

In the immediate future, given the context described above, CSC will continue to face growing challenges in providing effective interventions to Aboriginal offenders in institutions and communities. Nevertheless, CSC will continue to focus its efforts in this area as one of its key priorities, in order to maximize the results that can be achieved with the resources provided.

More specifically, CSC will focus its efforts on preventing the gap from widening in terms of correctional results between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal offenders. This will be measured by the percentage of Aboriginal federal offenders in communities convicted of, or charged with, a violent offence while under CSC supervision. CSC will also assess performance in this area by the percentage of Aboriginal federal offenders convicted of a violent offence and returning to federal custody within two and five years of the end of their sentence. Finally, CSC will also report on non-violent re-offending.

24 PSEPC Corrections and Conditional Release Statistical Oveview: Annual Report 2006, p. 57. and Statistics Canada, 2001 Census.
25 This table shows the total number of offenders whose parole has been revoked and who were convicted of, or charged with, at least one criminal offence while under supervision comparing the non-Aboriginal population with the Aboriginal offenders. A violent crime is considered to be murder or a Schedule I offence. Offenders are classified according the most serious crime that they have been convicted of, or charged with.
26 These numbers reflect the percentage of offenders who completed their sentence during the year in question and returned to federal custody within two years of that date.
27 A Pathways Unit is a living environment that addresses the cultural and spiritual needs of First Nations, Métis and Inuit offenders.
28 Source: CSC Evaluations Branch (Effective Corrections Initiative: Aboriginal Reintegration. Final Report 2004)
29 CSC Corporate Reporting System data as of December 17, 2006.
30 Projections of the Aboriginal Populations, Canada, Provinces and Territories: 2001 to 2017, Statistics Canada (Catalogue number 91-547-XIE), 2005.


1.11 Mental Health


Improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders


Over the last few years, CSC has witnessed an increase in the number of offenders with mental health disorders reported at admission.

Incarcerated Offenders Reported as Having a Mental Health Disorder at Admission


March 2002 March 2003 March 2004 March 2005 March 2006

% of incarcerated men offenders






% of incarcerated Aboriginal men31 offenders






% of incarcerated women offenders






Source: CSC Climate Indicator and Profile System

Providing an appropriate continuum of treatment from intake assessment to end of sentence to address the mental health needs of offenders is not only necessary for legal and humanitarian reasons, but is also essential in assisting offenders to participate in and benefit from correctional programs, thus contributing to rehabilitation efforts. It also helps avoid future problems and costs if these offenders receive the specialized interventions that they require.

Serious mental disorders are associated with many problems, such as lack of stable housing and employment opportunities in the community, which increases the risk of re-offending. Offenders with mental health disorders are often at higher risk of repeated arrests and incarceration, especially in the first few months following release. They are at a higher risk of failing to comply with treatment obligations and of violating their parole conditions.32

CSC faces several challenges in optimizing mental health care and ensuring that offenders' needs are addressed both while incarcerated and during conditional release in the community.

These challenges include: the increasing costs of providing mental health care; the need for more comprehensive mental health screening and assessment of offenders; the need for enhanced capacity to provide both primary and intermediate mental health care; and the need for staff training specific to the provision of mental health services.

The needs of men offenders requiring in-patient treatment beds are primarily met through the five regional treatment/psychiatric centres. For women offenders with significant mental health needs, small units that provide a higher level of staffing and therapeutic intervention have been established at each of the five regional women's institutions. As well, the Regional Psychiatric Centre in the Prairies and the Institut Phillipe-Pinel in Quebec have units for the intensive treatment of federal women offenders. In regular institutions, psychologists, nurses and others are able to provide only limited mental health support within the constraints of current resources.

1.11.1 Where CSC Needs to Go

Mental health treatment centres require increased consistency in standards and approaches to providing services, including: a need to upgrade the physical condition of some facilities; consistent admission and discharge criteria; consistent interventions; an enhanced and consistent clinical staffing model; and a specialized security approach.

Community support structures are also required in order to enhance the potential of offenders with mental health disorders for successful reintegration. Research has shown that transitional services for offenders with mental health disorders are critical to achieving reintegration success.33 To enhance CSC's ability to provide mental health services, partnerships across jurisdictions need to be strengthened and expanded.

Section 2 will outline the specific plans identified in pursuit of CSC's mandate to contribute to public safety, through improved capacities to address mental health needs of offenders.

1.11.2 Results Commitment and Measurement Strategy

CSC will continue to focus, as one if its key priorities, on addressing the needs of offenders with identified mental health disorders. In the short term, the community mental health initiative is expected to result in some improvement for these offenders. More significant results improvement would require full implementation of the Mental Health Strategy.

More specifically, CSC will focus its efforts on improving correctional results for offenders with mental health disorders as measured by the percentage of federal offenders with identified mental health needs in communities convicted of or charged with a violent offence while under CSC supervision.34 CSC will also assess performance in this area by the percentage of federal offenders with identified mental health needs convicted of a violent offence and returning to custody within two years of the end of their sentence. Finally, CSC will also measure and report on non-violent re-offending.

31 The low number of Aboriginal women offenders who have had a completed Intake Assessment precludes statistically meaningful data with respect to mental health disorders.
32 Lurigio, A. J, et al. The Effects of Serious Mental Illness on Offender Re-entry. Federal Probation Vol 68, No. 2 September 2004.
33 Faenza, M. Statement of the Criminalization of Mental Illness. National Health Association News Release. September 2003
34 The mental health indicator was not available at intake for most of the offenders reaching the end of their sentence five to ten years ago. The few that had a completed intake assessment are not representative of the offender population over the past ten years. For that reason, CSC is not able to report on re-offending for offenders with mental health disorders five years past WED at this time.


1.12 CSC's Management Agenda


Strengthened Management Practices

As an active participant in the broader Government of Canada management and accountability agenda, CSC is devoting considerable attention to strengthening management practices within the organization in order to strengthen accountability, deliver the best possible results and value-for- money while upholding professional public service values.

The challenge of strengthening management practices is particularly acute given the operational realities of the organization. CSC has approximately 14,500 employees35, operating 365 days a year and 24 hours a day. CSC operates in all geographic regions of the country and employs staff across many disciplines. Given the large, decentralized nature of CSC's operations and Canada 's aging labour force, it is not surprising that CSC, like many other government departments, is facing serious labour shortages and retention challenges. CSC is anticipating shortages in several areas including, to name a few, health professionals, wardens, skilled trades people, and HR specialists in the near future.

In addition to serious recruitment and retention challenges, CSC has also undertaken focussed efforts to address the issues identified in the 2005 Public Service Employee Survey. Perhaps most notably, an action plan to improve in key areas identified by the survey was co-developed with all of CSC's unions and this action plan is now in the early stages of implementation. It focuses on harassment, grievances, respect, trust and accountability. This is the first initiative of this kind within CSC. The detailed action plan has been communicated to all employees and implementing this plan is now a priority for CSC's management team with the full support of the leadership of all unions.

This past year, a Values and Ethics Unit was created to support all CSC managers and staff in improving their work environment. Focus groups were conducted, involving 60 separate sessions and covering 43 operational units and over 400 staff representing the majority of the occupational groups employed by CSC. The data compiled pointed to six key themes: work environment, organizational culture, communication, leadership, consistency/fairness, and recognition. These themes will form the basis for a comprehensive multi-year ethics strategy. An ethics index has been developed which will allow senior management to assess progress and results in this area in a consistent and transparent manner.

A key component of the Values and Ethics Unit is Informal Conflict Management System (ICMS) and foundational work has been done in this area. This has resulted in a comprehensive action plan. Recent steps to move forward have included extensive consultation within CSC, and development and approval of a policy framework, as well as approval of six regional ICMS positions. Appropriate training has been and will be built into the regional and national structures within CSC.

In addition, CSC worked hard to improve its practices around the management of corporate risk. As an organization committed to public safety, CSC staff excel in the assessment and management of risks posed by offenders on a daily basis. While a definite strength, focussing on day-to-day crisis can easily overshadow the need to identify and address corporate risks pertaining to the long-term sustainability of CSC's public safety results. Most recently CSC has established its corporate risk profile and will continue to refine relevant mitigation strategies. CSC's Audit Committee reviewed the risk profile and is supportive of the approach that is being taken.

Finally, as part of CSC 2006-2007 commitments, Human Resources Management was strengthened through the establishement and implementation of a clear governance framework of the HRM function in CSC and; of clear roles, responsibilities, and processes to ensure HR planning is fully integrated into CSC business needs.

1.12.1 Where CSC Needs to Go

Strengthening management practices is a key priority for CSC to ensure that there is a robust and effective organization that is able to deliver on its key operational priorities and other activities in a cost-effective manner and to do this in a way that is consistent with public service values that are essential to a healthy workplace and to the confidence and trust of Canadians. Specific priorities and plans are based on CSC's most recent Management Accountability Framework (MAF) assessment and Corporate Risk Profile. The MAF establishes the standards for management in the Government of Canada and is the basis for management accountability between departments/agencies and the Treasury Board Secretariat (TBS), and the Public Service Human Resources Management Agency (PSHRMAC). The 10 elements of the MAF collectively define "management" and establish the expectations for good management of a department or agency.

CSC's most recent Management Accountability Framework and Corporate Risk Profile assessments point to the need to:

Respond to the Public Service Employee Survey (PSES)

Three major areas of concerns were identified in the 2005 PSES results: harassment; grievances; and respect, trust and accountability. To respond to these results, CSC co-developed an action plan with its six bargaining agents. Each area of concern has planned actions, followed by next steps. Actions include increased training and awareness; clarifying roles and responsibilites; monitoring processes and trends; improving communications across all levels; ensuring that issues are resolved at the lowest level possible; and improving internal communication. CSC is confident to be now positioned to make the changes needed to address the concerns identified by its employees and move forward to create a better work environment for all staff.

Promote Values and Ethics

Promoting an organizational culture that actually integrates values and ethics into all decision making and that makes greater use of informal resolution of conflicts will be a major priority for improving CSC's management practices and operations.

The goal of these efforts will be to improve decision-making, lowering the cost of resolving conflicts, support productive working relationships and improve trust within the organization, consistent with government-wide objectives.

CSC will be identifying selected operational sites to further develop and validate key elements in this strategy.

Improve Internal Communications

CSC is now well on the journey to improve internal communications. CSC is committed to sustaining these initiatives. Improving internal communications represents a culture change for our whole organization, and it will require sustained effort in the coming year and beyond.

In April 2006, a detailed framework and action plan was approved by senior management. This plan includes supporting initiatives related to the PSES results. More recently, CSC's Mid-Year Progress Report outlined key internal communications milestones that had been reached in fulfillment of our commitment to strengthen management practices.

Improved internal communications will help CSC better achieve our public safety mandate overall.

Strengthening Human Resources Management

Attracting and retaining an innovative and representative workforce with the appropriate skills to meet CSC's business needs at all levels of the organization is fundamental to the sustainability of correctional results today and into the future.

Given Canada 's changing demographics and projected labour shortages in key areas of the organization, CSC will concentrate its efforts on implementing its national strategic human resources plan that will support the organization to systematically address this challenge. This plan focuses on recruitment, retention, succession planning, leadership development and on knowledge transfer to ensure CSC's business needs will be met. In addition, it will include strengthening HR management practices, building HR community capacity and modernizing HR processes.

1.12.2 Results Commitment and Measurement Strategy

If CSC is to be successful in the coming years in achieving correctional results in the priority areas identified earlier, it will have to develop the strongest possible management practices. Good delivery and good management practices go hand in hand. Within the broader context of the Management Accountability Framework, CSC will therefore continue in its efforts to improve management practices.

CSC will aim to strengthen management practices as reflected in improved results in the areas of harassment, staff grievances, respect, trust and accountability as measured by future Public Service Employment Surveys. CSC will also assess performance improvements in the areas of ethics, resource, integrity, fairness, inclusiveness of the workplace, and respect through its recently approved Ethics Index.36 Finally, CSC will report on improvements in its management practices as measured by the annual Management Accountability Framework assessments conducted by the Treasury Board Secretariat.

35 CSC has changed its definition of "employee" to be consistent with the new definition used by the Public Service Human Resources Management Agency of Canada. Casual employees, employees on leave without pay and suspended employees are no longer included in the total.
36 CSC's values and ethics index consists of 10 questions from the 2005 Public Service Employee Survey in the areas of ethics, recourse, integrity, fairness, inclusive workplace and respect.