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Results for Canadians

A Management Framework for the Government of Canada

Table of Contents

President's Message

Section A: Introduction

Section B: Four Management Commitments

Section C: Departments and the Management Board

Section D: Inside the Management Board

Section E: The Agenda for Change


Appendix: Further Reading on Management in the Government of Canada

President's Message

The Honourable Lucienne Robillard - PresidentResponsive government means putting the needs of citizens first.

This is, and will always be, the most important priority of this government. It is reflected in the ambitious agenda set out in the 1999 Speech from the Throne. It is also a central theme of the modern management agenda outlined in this document, Results for Canadians: A Management Framework for the Government of Canada.

Two major initiatives, Program Review and Getting Government Right, have set the stage for effective management at the federal level as Canada enters this new century. Another important step was taken in June 1997, when Treasury Board was designated as the Government of Canada's management board. Results for Canadians builds on this foundation to provide a clear framework and agenda to guide public service managers.

While Results for Canadians does not represent a radical shift in public service management, it does integrate the best of current management practices, and priorities for change, into a coherent whole. To enhance performance, departments and agencies need, among other things, to advance the integration of modern comptrollership into the heart of their management practices. And continued attention must be given to the development of a professional, skilled workforce able to serve the public interest and achieve cost-effective, responsive service for Canadian citizens.

Improving management requires continued effort and attention. To implement fully this framework and agenda, the government may eventually need to ask Parliament to modernize and reform the framework of rules and laws that govern management in the public service. Whatever the future holds, as President of the Treasury Board, I am confident that the modern management agenda presented in Results for Canadians will better equip the Government of Canada to provide Canadians with the high-quality, cost-effective programs and services they want, expect and deserve.

Taken together, the elements of this agenda represent a blueprint for change that will improve the quality of life for all Canadians.

Lucienne Robillard

President of the Treasury Board

Section A: Introduction

This document sets out a framework for management in the Government of Canada and an agenda for change in the way that departments and agencies manage and deliver their programs and services. This framework and agenda:

  • recognize that the federal government exists to serve Canadians and that a "citizen focus" must therefore be built into all government activities programs and services;
  • highlight the importance of sound public service values;
  • focus on the achievement of results for Canadians; and
  • promote discipline, due diligence and value for money in the use of public funds.

In June 1997, the Prime Minister asked the Treasury Board - a statutory committee of Cabinet responsible for administrative and resource management since the early days of Canada - to play an enhanced role as the Government of Canada's management board.

This document sets out the Treasury Board's role as a catalyst for management change and improved governance. It describes what the Treasury Board and its Secretariat aim to achieve, and how together they constitute a management board focused on helping departments and agencies to improve management practices across the system.(1)

Responsive and well-managed federal organizations, oriented to the needs of citizens and working in collaboration with other levels of government and with the private and not-for-profit sectors, are critical to the achievement of national goals. Developing excellence in these organizations requires a vision of modern public management, a frank assessment of the gaps between that vision and reality, a practical agenda for change and a motivated workforce to bring it all together.

The management framework and agenda for change described in the following pages have been developed to meet these requirements.

(1) For simplicity, the term 'management board' is used throughout this document to refer both to the committee of ministers (the Treasury Board) that is legally the management board, and to the officials (the Treasury Board Secretariat) that support it. The main underlying principle is clear - Ministers assess the public interest and decide, while officials advise and implement decisions. [Return]


Much was accomplished in the 1990s when the Government of Canada eliminated the annual budgetary deficit and regained the ability to make investment choices for Canadians. However, in many ways, the management challenges of the future are as difficult as were those of the past.

Today's government operates in a complex world. Its operations must adapt to new realities, ranging from economic and political globalization to technology shifts, the knowledge economy, demographic challenges, shifting public priorities and changing structures of federalism.

Among the key factors:

Globalization can no longer be regarded simply as an economic or trade issue. Its impacts are widespread, and they shape choices from the environment to taxes, from social policy to the allocation of resources across sectors.

Information technologies have an impact on all aspects of individual and public life. They dramatically change how the Government of Canada must think of its clients and services. And they require it to ensure that citizens and businesses have the infrastructure they need to succeed.

Evolving federalism demonstrates that governments cannot work in isolation to deal with peoples' needs. The recently negotiated Social Union Framework Agreement with the provinces and territories aims at a more modern relationship between the two levels of government based on principles of partnership that are at the very core of sound public management.

These large-scale shifts change the focus of management. Vastly different relationships are now made possible by technologies that alter the way people and businesses communicate. Citizens and businesses want easy access to government services through a "single window," through self-serve kiosks and via the Internet. They also expect improved traditional access through mail, telephone and personal service. Simply put, citizens want the programs of their national government to be more focused on their needs.

Making the transition from the deficit reduction environment of the 1990s to one of greater choice means that the government must focus on results and value for the taxpayer's dollar, and demonstrate a continuing commitment to modern comptrollership. In the citizen-focused management agenda described in this document, the Treasury Board will continue the evolution of the past several years - helping departments and agencies to sharpen their focus in these areas, while supporting them with the tools needed to become more efficient, effective, responsive and innovative.

The Government of Canada is not starting from scratch in this line of thinking. Successive initiatives, from the Glassco and Lambert Royal Commissions of the 1960s and 1970s to the internal management initiatives of the 1980s and 1990s, have called for more strategic, enabling behaviour from central agencies. And although significant adjustments have been made - today's public sector is more oriented to results than at any time in the past - there is much room for improvement.


Achieving management excellence requires a general management framework and an agenda for change to guide the way.

The framework must describe what the Government of Canada intends to achieve - in effect, the management commitments that the government is prepared to make to Canadians. It must also indicate how those commitments will be met - how departments, agencies and the management board plan to work together to achieve results.

The management framework for the Government of Canada is set out in Sections B and C of this document. Section B describes four core management commitments to Canadians, while Section C describes how departments and agencies and the Treasury Board and its Secretariat can work together to fulfil them. These sections thus integrate core commitments and an operating philosophy into a single framework.

Achieving excellence also requires a well-organized management board with clear priorities to lead change. Section D describes the management board's business lines and how they relate to each of the four core management commitments. Section E outlines the Government of Canada's priorities for improvement - its agenda for management change over the medium term.


The management framework and agenda for change set out in this document fall within the prerogatives and broad responsibilities of the Treasury Board and its Secretariat, acting together as the government's management board.

At the same time, other organizations within the Public Service of Canada, including the departments and agencies that deliver programs and services directly to the Canadian public, exercise important responsibilities in the improvement of management practices. The Clerk of the Privy Council, as Head of the Public Service, sets out key priorities for the Public Service of Canada. Other organizations - among them the Public Service Commission, the Canadian Centre for Management Development and The Leadership Network - also contribute to the improvement of management practices.

In designing and implementing the government's management framework, the management board has worked and will continue to work with these many partners in a sustained, collaborative effort to support modern management practices in the Government of Canada.

Section B: Four Management Commitments

The Government of Canada aims for the highest quality of service to the public. To achieve this, it commits to excellence in four areas critical to a well-performing public sector. These commitments build on work undertaken in the past few years to improve management practices in the government. They will continue to underpin improvement as Canada enters the new century.

chart - citizen focus

First and foremost, the Government of Canada must sharpen its citizen focus in designing, delivering, evaluating and reporting on its activities. It must improve service and expand partnerships with other governments, the private sector and voluntary organizations.

Second, management in the public service must be guided by a clear set of values. Management must respect and reinforce Canadian institutions of democracy and it must be guided by the highest professional and ethical values.

Third, as an integrating principle, management in all departments, agencies and functions must be focused on the achievement of results and on reporting them in simple and understandable ways to elected officials and to Canadians.

Fourth, given the limited nature of public funds, the Government of Canada must ensure responsible spending. The costs of initiatives must be linked with results to ensure value for the taxpayer. Existing programs as well as new spending proposals must be systematically assessed and management frameworks must be in place to ensure due diligence and proper stewardship of public funds. Activities critical to the public interest must be resourced sustainably, over the long term.

Living up to these commitments requires public service employees at all levels and in all regions who put the interests of Canadians first and who demonstrate daily attention to values and results. Employees are critical to improvement. They must be supported by a working culture that values learning, innovation, inclusiveness and diversity, intelligent risk taking and continuous improvement - allowing them to make their best contributions to Canada.

This environment requires managers and employees to apply sound values and standards of public accountability in all their work. It requires strong support from the management board and other central agencies, as well as focused efforts by departments and agencies. This environment favours organizing the services of the Government of Canada around the needs of Canadians, rather than around those of bureaucracies. And it recognizes that success requires a level of excellence that can only be achieved through the development of a well-trained and highly motivated public service workforce.


The Government of Canada is committed to designing, funding and delivering its programs and services, and assessing their results, from the perspective of the citizen.

Accessible, Connected Service

Government services must respond to the needs of citizens, be easy to find, and be available through the mail, by phone, on the Internet or - where populations warrant - at walk-in centres. Too often in the past, government services were designed from the "inside out"; they reflected the structures of government organizations more than the needs and priorities of citizens. This is changing, and it will continue to change in the coming years.

Citizens want the government to respond to their needs and provide choice: one-stop, integrated access via Internet, telephone or mail, or in person.

Citizen-focused government is seamless. It is easy to deal with. Citizen-centred services are brought together in one place to facilitate client access.

Information technology and electronic service delivery are key enablers in meeting these challenges. The Internet is the foundation for one-stop access, allowing the Government of Canada to reflect the many connections that citizens must make in daily life. Canadians welcome the move to electronic service delivery but they also value more traditional channels - telephone, mail and in person. They want a choice of channels and one-stop access that integrates across them, taking advantage of the value of each.

Serving the Public Interest

Governmental authority in Canada rests with ministers who are accountable to Parliament for the decisions they make. Responsibility for advice and implementation of ministers' decisions rests with officials. For both ministers and officials, upholding the public interest means working under the democratically established rule of law to achieve a continuous balance among three things:

  • Ensuring fairness, equity and reasonableness of treatment to protect the broad interests of citizens;
  • Providing effective and responsive service to clients - those who benefit from a Government of Canada initiative, whatever it may be; and
  • Keeping a close eye on program affordability, cost-effectiveness and sound resource stewardship for the taxpayer.

Continuous improvement in client service depends on the capacity of departments and agencies to measure levels of satisfaction, to set improvement targets, to develop plans to meet those targets, to monitor implementation and to report back on progress. Serving the broader public interest means ensuring that the interests of citizens and taxpayers, in addition to those of clients, are protected in all public transactions. When the Government of Canada operates "at the service" of Canadians, it responds to all three dimensions and balances them appropriately.


Citizen-focused management means making the right connections. Managers must seek out partnerships across departmental boundaries, across levels of government, with not-for-profit organizations and with the private sector. These partnerships should be pursued not just in the co-delivery of services but also at the design stage - discussing together what the client, citizen and taxpayers need - and bringing this knowledge together to solve problems.

In the future, knowledge partnerships will be critical to success. No longer do public institutions have a monopoly on relevant knowledge. Rather, their role is to gather it, add value and define choices - all in the best interests of Canadians.


The Government of Canada commits to managing its business according to the highest public service values.

A well-performing public sector is an important national asset and critical to Canada's well-being. Sound public management is essential to the achievement of national goals in every sector of society. But as the demands and pressures on public service organizations change, continuous improvement can only be achieved if activity is grounded, at all levels, on a solid and sustaining base of values. Working with the right values is fundamental to the achievement of results.

As all else changes, values are a foundation to support action and a compass to guide it.

In the generations following Confederation, Canadians have built a prosperous country based on civility, diversity, openness, fairness and the rule of law. These ideas have persisted and matured into a unique set of Canadian values that include, among others, self-reliance, compassion, and respect for democracy and its institutions. Together, these and other values help to frame Canadian society. Canadians expect their national government institutions to be guided by them.

Making the Alignment

As we enter the 21st century, the management of federal departments and agencies will continue to be guided by four basic sets of values:

Respect for democracy recognizes that authority rests with democratically elected officials who are accountable to Parliament, and thereby to the Canadian people. A well-performing public service takes its democratic responsibilities seriously, constantly providing ministers, Parliament and the public with full and accurate information on the results of its work.

Professional values require government employees to provide high-quality, impartial advice on policy issues while committing to the design, delivery and continuous improvement of programs and services to Canadians.

Ethical values (integrity, trust and honesty) are the personal cornerstone of good governance and democracy. They require public servants to support the common good at all times and recognize the need for openness, transparency and accountability in what they do and how they do it.

Finally, people values include courage, decency, responsibility and humanity. In a well-performing workplace they show themselves in respect, civility, fairness and caring. Values-driven organizations support learning and are led through participation, openness, communication and a respect for diversity.

Supporting values requires ongoing attention. The government intends to sustain a dialogue in departments and agencies on public service values. Values are the compass. All policies and systems - as well as interactions among public servants, parliamentarians and citizens - must be aligned with them. Making this alignment, a process of continual dialogue and reinforcement, is a key challenge of the future.


Few things have contributed more in recent years to the development of Canadian public administration than has the focus on results. The Government of Canada intends to enhance this emphasis in the future - a commitment that responds to citizens' concerns about the value they obtain for their tax dollars. Managing for results is fundamental to citizen-focused government.

Focus on Results

Public and private sector organizations that measure and evaluate the results of their work find that this information transforms and empowers them. It allows them to reward success, to learn from experience and to build public confidence. Being able to measure and evaluate results is a prerequisite to delivering the quality programs, services and policies that Canadians deserve.

Historically, governments have focused their attention on resource inputs (what they spend), activities (what they do) and outputs (what they produce). Accurate information at this level is important, but insufficient to achieve the results orientation demanded by this management framework.

A modern management agenda requires managers to look beyond activities and outputs to focus on actual results - the impacts and effects of their programs. Managing for results requires attention from the beginning of an initiative to its end. It means clearly defining the results to be achieved, delivering the program or service, measuring and evaluating performance and making adjustments to improve both efficiency and effectiveness. It also means reporting on performance in ways that make sense to Canadians.

A results-based management approach allows departments to serve Canadians better by distinguishing program strengths and weaknesses and providing guidance on what does and does not work.

The challenge for the future is to apply results-based management to all major activities, functions, services and programs of the Government of Canada, whether they are delivered directly to Canadians or are part of internal administration. This will continue to advance sound management practice and strengthen accountability throughout departments and agencies.

Performance Information

The foundation of results-based management is accurate and timely performance information. Departments and agencies need to implement an information regime that measures, evaluates and reports on key aspects of programs and their performance in core areas; holds managers accountable for achieving results; and ensures unbiased analysis, showing both good and bad performance.

Over time, managers should implement results-based management on a more "borderless" basis: across departmental boundaries or in partnership with other governments, business or the
not-for-profit sector.

The current state of results-based management is still a good distance from the ideal. For this reason, the Government of Canada is committed to continuing its movement toward a results-based approach that can distinguish program strengths and weaknesses, and provide guidance on what does and does not work. The goal is to establish a more productive cycle of planning, measuring, evaluating and reporting of results to citizens, through ministers and Parliament. This in turn will support a culture of continuous learning and adjustment.


Fiscal projections for the early years of this new century make it possible for the Government of Canada to strike a balance between investing in service improvement, maintaining the integrity of existing programs, reducing taxes and retiring public debt.

An integrated view on spending is needed to assess the integrity of existing programs, to support rational priority setting and to get the best value for the taxpayer.

Although the extreme fiscal constraint of the mid-1990s has now given way to an era of greater choice, the lessons of the past highlight the need to make wise and disciplined spending decisions for the future. To this end, the Government of Canada is committed to the continuous examination of its expenditures to ensure responsible spending in terms of results and value for the taxpayer's dollar. It will monitor the management and control of public expenditures in all programs and ensure that effective, immediate and coordinated action is taken to remedy any identified deficiencies.

The Departmental Perspective

Responsible spending means spending wisely on things that matter most to Canadians. It means being able to reallocate resources and restructure programs in response to changing needs and priorities. A program must end when the need ends.

To ensure this, departments and agencies need to produce information on program costs and results required for sound decision making. They must bring together financial and non-financial performance information to link costs with actual or expected results. They need to effectively manage risk and establish a proper environment of control. They must ensure that spending proposals are well-rooted in policy, and are supportive of the department's mission and objectives. They must embrace rigorous public accountability and the best of modern comptrollership practices.

The Whole-of-Government View

To ensure rational priority setting and investment decisions, the government needs integrated, cross-departmental information on expenditures and results. This information serves two main purposes.

First, it allows decision-makers to assess the integrity of the existing program base. Officials must systematically consider whether program results are consistent with current policies and priorities; whether risks are identified and strategies are in place to mitigate them; and whether key investments or alternative ways of delivering programs (for example, through partnerships) might improve performance or productivity, or provide a better way of serving Canadians.

Second, the knowledge gained from the broad-based analysis of expenditure supports rational priority setting. A thorough understanding of what works best in the existing expenditure base allows a sharing of best practices and is essential in considering policy and investment choices for the future.

Beyond this, the Government of Canada requires assurance that management frameworks to support due diligence and stewardship of public resources are in place and working in departments and agencies. This requires active monitoring.

In the end, responsible spending often requires difficult choices between investing in new initiatives and investing or reallocating to maintain the integrity of existing programs or capital assets. While investments in program integrity rarely attract as much attention as new initiatives, they are usually just as important to the needs of Canadians.

This means that a major priority for the Government of Canada in this era of responsible choice is to ensure that fundamental issues of program integrity are fully defined and addressed.

Section C: Departments and the Management Board

To deliver on the management commitments described in Section B, departments and the management board must continue to develop a new kind of relationship, working together as partners with a single purpose, to achieve results for Canadians.

This section describes how departments, agencies and the management board should collaborate in their work. It starts by discussing the need for organizations to be citizen-focused, highlighting the importance of sound human resources management and leadership - the foundation of a strong public service workforce. It then describes the management practices that can help departments and agencies achieve better results for Canadians. Finally, it outlines the mandate of the management board in supporting departments and agencies, and in leading in key areas, among them, the critical area of effective stewardship of public funds.

Taken together, the commitments of Section B and the working relationships outlined here define the Government of Canada's management framework.


As citizens, Canadians have a right to fair, equitable and reasonable treatment from federal government institutions. As clients, Canadians have a right to accessible service that meets their priorities for improvement. And as taxpayers, Canadians rightfully expect cost-effectiveness or best value in the delivery of government programs and services.

Serving the public interest means addressing the needs of citizens, clients and taxpayers in a balanced way.

In any interaction with a department or agency, all three dimensions are often brought into play and the public interest is served when they are properly balanced. Public service employees in any department or agency must be conscious of the needs of their clients. At the same time, the entire federal system must work together to ensure that the interests of Canadians - as citizens and taxpayers, as well as clients - are continually factored into program and service design and delivery.

Emphasizing citizen needs is fundamental. Years ago citizens were rarely consulted in the delivery of programs and services. This has changed and must continue to do so. Canadians now expect to be engaged in assessing program and service performance, and to see improvement. These legitimate expectations must be respected.


Citizen-focused, results-oriented government requires the sustained efforts of a professional and motivated workforce across the public service. Good human resources management achieves results for Canadians by ensuring that the right people are on the job and are well supported.

Public service leaders are required at all levels and in all regions. Their common characteristic is support for people.

This requires sound leadership. In a changing world and workplace, managers need to sustain a climate of trust, to recognize and value good work, to actively promote inclusiveness and diversity in the workplace, to encourage collaboration and to value open communication. They must support partnerships across organizational boundaries - and free people to use their initiative in the best interests of Canadians.

Public service leaders able to operate effectively in this environment are required at all levels and in all regions. Their common characteristic is their support for people. Leaders provide opportunities to make meaningful contributions, to learn, to innovate, to work in either official language in designated bilingual regions, to take acceptable risks and to celebrate the results of their work. In a well-led organization, managers and employees work together to build an exemplary workplace.


Departments and agencies have an obligation not only to consult Canadians on their programs and services, but also to ensure that decision-making authority is located at the right level to achieve results. This frequently requires real decision-making authority at the front line, in regional operations, where a direct citizen focus can be brought to the work.

In today's complex society, one-size-fits-all management as prescribed by a central body does not work. To achieve results, public servants need a sense of ownership of their work. They need to know that what they do will impact positively on Canadians. And they must be able to serve the public interest and respond quickly to the changing needs and circumstances of the public they serve.

Achieving results for Canadians requires delegation to the right level, with a clear framework in place to ensure accountability and due diligence in the management of public funds.

The service and program delivery work of the Government of Canada is done in departmental front-line operations; sometimes operating within a single structure, but increasingly in collaboration with other organizations, in and outside the federal system. Central authorities, whether in the management board or in departmental or agency headquarters, need to recognize that front-line offices in the regions are where Canadians are either well-served or not. To bring a clear citizen focus to the operations of government, the perspectives and realities of the front line must be taken into account in the design and delivery of programs and services.

At the same time, extending decision making to the front line must be accompanied by a framework to ensure due diligence in the management of public funds. This framework must start with clear accountabilities so that managers at all levels understand them and support the accountability of their organizations, through ministers, to Cabinet and Parliament. More generally, a modern approach to comptrollership is required, including effective measurement and evaluation of performance, thorough accounting for the use of public resources, application of sound risk-management practices and reporting of results.

Delegation of either financial or human resource management authorities must also be accompanied by the effective use of internal controls, including audit, to ensure that appropriate systems and procedures to manage and control these resources are in place, understood and working. Departments and agencies must diligently monitor their activities, operations and programs and take corrective action where warranted.

In sum, departments and agencies must support the front line to ensure it has appropriate authorities, clear strategic policies and directions, and effective management systems in place to do the job.

Key Management Responsibilities of Departments and Agencies
  • To deliver effective, citizen-focused services and programs to Canadians and to seek out partnerships where this makes sense.
  • To manage for results, applying sound comptrollership practices, reporting on results to Canadians through Parliament, and engaging Canadians in the process of improving services.
  • To spend in a disciplined and responsible manner, giving consideration to the integrity of programs critical to the public interest.
  • To delegate decision-making authority to the right level to achieve results, but in a way that ensures clear accountability, due diligence in the management of public funds and the capacity to report on actual results to higher authorities in the department.
  • To develop and implement a modern departmental management agenda, working in partnership with the management board to improve in areas such as comptrollership, informatics and service delivery.
  • To promote public service values, leadership and the development of an exemplary workplace characterized by support for the employee, the encouragement of initiative, trust and communication, and a respect for diversity.


In June 1997, the Prime Minister designated the Treasury Board and its Secretariat as the government's management board, with a mandate to work with and support departments and agencies as they improve their management practices. The designation of a management board charged with providing leadership in this area was, and is, a significant force for change.

Designation as the management board did not supplant the traditional roles of the Treasury Board and its Secretariat: negotiating contracts with unions and acting as the employer of the Public Service; setting the form of the public accounts and establishing financial, accounting, administrative and other corporate policies; approving the design, delivery and resource components of departmental spending initiatives; and performing other resource management functions. Rather, it overlaid these important traditional roles with two additional responsibilities:

  • Leading in the development of information systems and in the integration of government-wide information to aid decision making; and
  • Leading and providing expertise in the development of an agenda to improve management practices in federal departments and agencies.

The Operating Philosophy

In exercising its traditional and new responsibilities, the management board must maintain a balance between the delegation of decision-making authority to departments and agencies, and accountability for results. This balance was given clear definition by an Independent Review Panel on Modernization of Comptrollership in the Government of Canada - a group of respected Canadians asked to recommend practical ways to integrate modern comptrollership into the heart of federal management practices.

The aim is a management regime based on leadership and values, sound standards and risk management with the right systems in place to ensure control.

In accepting the Panel's report, the Treasury Board reinforced recent trends in federal governance - adopting an operating philosophy that requires effective control, but through instruments that encourage initiative and creativity in departments and agencies. This means moving toward a management regime based on leadership and values, well-defined standards, and sound risk management - with the right systems in place at all times to ensure effective control. Consistent with this, the management board must actively monitor the status of controls in departments and agencies and be prepared to intervene with organizations if deficiencies are encountered.

This philosophy underscores an important management balance: flexible enough on the delegation of decision-making authority and on administrative rules to support initiative and common sense - but tight enough on standards and control systems to ensure clear accountability. With the support of well-functioning management systems and an approach based on the commitments presented earlier, delegation and accountability can be seen as essential and complementary elements of citizen-focused management.

Leadership in Government-Wide Analysis and in Management Practices

In order to deliver on its mandate, the management board must be a strong voice for government-wide analysis. It must also have the capacity to lead change on key management issues across departments and agencies.

As a Cabinet committee, the Treasury Board analyzes resource and results information on a whole-of-government basis, ensuring that the cumulative impacts of existing programs are assessed across organizational boundaries. Here the board takes a longer-term, strategic view, ensuring that valuable programs are sustainably resourced, and providing Cabinet with information and advice in setting priorities and making resource allocation decisions.

On management issues, the board leads initiatives in areas such as improved service delivery and human resource management. It communicates with headquarters operations as well as with interdepartmental councils of federal officials in the regions. It works with departments to set realistic standards and management frameworks in functional areas such as informatics and comptrollership. And it provides active support to departments as they work to improve their management practices. This support can range from the simple sharing of best practices to guidance in the conduct of gap analysis in given areas, to the funding of special initiatives aimed at improved management.

Working with departments and with other central agencies, the board pays particular attention to the sound management of people. Here it encourages the development of a management culture that supports initiative and builds an exemplary workplace. Developing this culture will allow the Government of Canada to attract, develop and retain the best possible workforce to serve citizens now and in the future.

Beyond the traditional roles noted earlier, the key management responsibilities of the management board are summarized in the following chart.

Key Responsibilities of the Management Board
  • To act as a catalyst for change and to work with departments and agencies to develop integrated, accessible, citizen-focused service across the Government of Canada.
  • To champion results-based management, linking resources to results on a whole-of-government basis, and ensuring timely and accurate reporting to Parliament.
  • To support responsible spending in the government's program base, including actively monitoring control systems and compiling information sufficient to assess program performance and program integrity across the government.
  • To ensure effective overall control through leadership in the setting of management frameworks and standards, focus on risk management, early attention to control deficiencies, and delegation of authority to departments and agencies commensurate with their capacity to manage resources and report on results.
  • To develop and implement with departments and agencies a Government of Canada management agenda focused on practical improvement in areas such as comptrollership, informatics and service delivery.
  • To work with departments and agencies in the continual promotion of public service values and the development of an exemplary workplace characterized by support for the employee and the encouragement of initiative, trust, openness, communication and a respect for diversity.


Active Monitoring

Departments and agencies have a responsibility to ensure that adequate management frameworks are in place to achieve results and manage resources. This means, among other things, that they must maintain robust environments of internal control and be vigilant with respect to the early detection of any conditions that could lead to a control failure.

Beyond this, the management board must monitor the overall situation in departments and agencies. This monitoring requires Treasury Board Secretariat staff to actively and constructively engage internal audit, evaluation and other departmental and agency managers in order to maintain an ongoing awareness of the effectiveness of control systems. This awareness will allow early action where unacceptable risks or vulnerabilities have been identified.

Remedial Action

Changing operational patterns, program delivery requirements, people and technology - either alone or in combination - introduce the risk of control failures. In the event that the potential for a control failure is detected, or one actually occurs, departments and agencies are responsible to take early and effective remedial action and to ensure that the management board is aware of proposed corrective actions.

For its part, the management board's response must be to satisfy itself that the proposed remedies are appropriate and that there is timely follow-through to completion on all proposed actions. Based on its assessment of departmental or agency remedial action, the management board can and, if necessary, will take broader measures. Its action can range from the provision of additional support and advice to more direct interventions such as the withdrawal of specific authorities or delegations.

In making such assessments, the management board must consider several factors, including the scale of the problem, its root cause, the capacity of the department to respond effectively to the situation, the government-wide and/or external implications of the control failure, and the impact on public confidence and trust.

Section D:  Inside the Management Board

As the management board, the Treasury Board and its Secretariat are dedicated to working with departments and agencies to institute modern management practices. To achieve this, departments and agencies need to know how the management board is organized. This helps them understand why the board engages them as it does. Concurrently, it allows departments and agencies to engage the management board effectively on matters that are important to them.


The Treasury Board Secretariat, in its management board role, has five business lines or centres of management policy. These units work together to bring about management change and reform, to provide ministers with a whole-of-government view, and to support departments in achieving their program objectives. While each business line has its specific objectives, their work is integrated by officials of the Treasury Board Secretariat and by Treasury Board ministers.

Expenditure Management and Planning supports government-wide resource allocation consistent with government priorities and the fiscal framework. It analyzes resources on a program, department and sectoral basis and ensures that resource management is integrated with the government's decision-making and priority-setting process.

Comptrollership collaborates with departments and agencies to integrate financial and non-financial performance information, manage risk and ensure control systems that are appropriate to a results-oriented environment. It develops management frameworks and policies for financial management, procurement and asset management and leads the reporting of results to Parliament.

Service and Innovation works with departments to improve access to convenient and seamless service, to increase satisfaction with what is delivered and to promote innovation, partnerships and best practices.

Information Management and Technology provides strategic leadership in the management of federal government information infrastructure and technology, supports program and electronic service delivery, leads an initiative to put government information and services on-line, builds a world-class information workforce in government and ensures that major investments are responsibly managed.

Human Resources Management manages the "employer functions" of the public service (union relations, pensions and others) and helps to develop an exemplary workplace and a workforce that is productive, representative and committed to learning. In addition, it pays special attention to the promotion of values.


The management board will pursue its change agenda through these five business lines. No single unit leads the agenda. Rather, they work together in complementary ways, ensuring that the management board operates as an integrated whole to deliver on the Government of Canada's management commitments. While all business lines contribute to achieving these commitments, each has a particular area of expertise where it provides primary leadership.

Each business line has both a primary leadership role, and a support role, in achieving the government's management commitments.

The effort to achieve citizen focus is led by the Service & Innovation and Information Management & Technology business lines. They work with departments and agencies to improve both electronic and traditional service delivery. Other business lines support citizen-focused government by focusing on improved reporting of results or ensuring that public programs are well-designed and delivered with the appropriate level of resources.

The primary focus of two business lines - Comptrollership and Expenditure Management & Planning - is on results and responsible spending. They work together with departments and agencies to implement modern comptrollership, results-based management and rigorous expenditure analysis across the public service. Their work is supplemented by that of other business lines which measure citizen satisfaction in service delivery and oversee information technology investments.

The Human Resources Management business line promotes public service values, since it is employees who must support and integrate these values in the conduct of their work. Because all public service employees have a role in supporting values-based public service, values are a recurring theme in the work of each of the management board's business lines.

The work of the Human Resources Management business line is central to the achievement of each of the Government of Canada's management objectives. Sound people management goes far beyond ensuring employee satisfaction with the workplace - although that is an important element. Fundamentally it is about creating and sustaining a workforce that is trained and motivated to put citizens' interests first and to achieve results. Human resource strategies should contribute to the achievement of business objectives in each department and agency. The Human Resources Management business line works with departments and agencies, and with other central agencies, to promote modern management practices and the development of an exemplary workplace across the public service.

Section E: The Agenda for Change


The management board's current plans and priorities are detailed in the Treasury Board Secretariat's Report on Plans and Priorities, tabled in the House of Commons every March.

Much of the board's work focuses on continuous improvement - working with departments in the refinement of management policies or standards, approving expenditures, helping to exchange best management practices or improving planning processes. This ongoing work is essential to the development of citizen-focused government.

But beyond ongoing activity, the management board works with departments and agencies to lead major change in areas where the payback in improved results for Canadians is greatest. Work in these areas supports the realization of the management commitments outlined earlier. Although major change initiatives often take several years to design, implement and mature, the results of these initiatives in terms of better services for Canadians or improved management accrue early and throughout implementation.

In the coming period, the management board will partner with departments and agencies to implement major initiatives in the following areas. These initiatives constitute the core of the Government of Canada's medium-term agenda for management change.

  • Citizen-centred Service Delivery
  • Government of Canada On-Line
  • Modern Comptrollership
  • Improved Reporting to Parliament
  • Program Integrity
  • Developing an Exemplary Workplace


Better service for Canadians is central to the management agenda. To achieve it, the Government of Canada plans two major initiatives: one to improve citizen access and the other to focus directly on client satisfaction.

Service Canada

Canadians will receive one-stop access to federal government services in three ways: in person, by telephone and via the Internet. Service Canada will help citizens find government services easily and in both official languages. The goal is to help citizens get the services they are entitled to, in a way that is fast, convenient, seamless and connected.

More than 110 Service Canada Access Centres are opening across Canada on a pilot basis. Each Centre will allow Canadians to access the services of many departments in one place, establishing a basis for Centres to operate in communities across the country. Using the Internet as a platform, access for all Canadians will improve dramatically regardless of where they live. Service Canada and its partners will also improve telephone services through the Government of Canada's national information line.

Consistent with the Government of Canada On-Line initiative described below, the World Wide Web "Canada Site" will be redesigned to make it easier to use. As services come on-line in the future, Service Canada will integrate them into a consistent framework. Whether citizens decide to access services from home (using the Internet or a telephone call centre) or on-site (at an Access Centre), they will receive high quality, consistent service with a common look and feel.

Electronic service delivery will be the backbone of the network. Services will be brought together on a one-stop basis in a way that respects the objectives of each one. As a pilot initiative, Service Canada sites and projects will be evaluated, with citizen feedback being critical to improving the system.

Improved Client Satisfaction

The Government of Canada aims to achieve a significant, quantifiable improvement in client satisfaction with its services, over the next five years. This will be done by adopting client satisfaction as a new focus and measure of success.

The management board will work with departments and agencies to implement a government-wide Service Improvement Initiative anchored in citizens' priorities for improvement. Clients will be surveyed to establish baseline measures of satisfaction using common measurement tools, and to determine improvement priorities and targets for client satisfaction.

On this basis, plans will be developed to ensure that Government of Canada services in both official languages are managed and improved with the needs of citizens at the forefront. Results will be monitored, measured and reported to ensure the achievement of real improvement in Canadians' satisfaction with the services delivered to them.


In the 1999 Speech from the Throne, the Government of Canada committed to giving Canadians on-line access to all its information and services by 2004. This is the beginning of an agenda to offer citizens and businesses faster, more convenient and seamless electronic access to services and programs.

The management board, working with its departmental partners, is leading the realization of this vision through strategic direction and judicious use of information and technology. It works particularly closely with Industry Canada, a department that promotes electronic commerce and universal access to the information highway.

A Secure Electronic Environment

Getting government on-line in both official languages will require a secure, government-wide information technology infrastructure, a world-class workforce, and effective frameworks to guide investments, manage risks and set standards. The management board is actively involved in each of these priority areas and will adopt a phased approach to its work.

The cornerstone will be an information and technology infrastructure, comprising both technical matters (software, networks, standards) and management policies (privacy, public key infrastructure) applicable in all departments and agencies. This infrastructure will provide a secure and trusted environment to conduct business with citizens and with the private and not-for-profit sectors. As noted above, it will also support single-window service and give Canadians better access to a complete menu of programs and services.

Success with getting government on-line will require effective investments and flexible procurement. The management board will work with departments to implement an Enhanced Management Framework to better manage projects and minimize risks. It is also leading efforts to reform the Government of Canada's technology procurement regime to facilitate program delivery. Finally, given the critical role of knowledge workers, the management board will continue its programs to attract and retain the innovative professionals essential to achieving Government of Canada On-Line.


Because sound resource management and a focus on results for Canadians are critical to the achievement of all federal government goals, the management board is leading an initiative to modernize comptrollership across the system.

This represents a long-term effort to develop standards and practices to integrate financial and non-financial performance information, to properly assess and manage risk and to ensure appropriate control systems. It also represents an effort to improve procurement, real property, asset management and other financial and management policies. Given its scope, this initiative goes to the heart of modern management. Sound comptrollership practices must be embedded in every management activity.

Practical Testing With Departments

The implementation approach is hands on. Treasury Board Secretariat officials are working with departmental and agency partners to apply and test modern comptrollership practices in the workplace. Five pilot departments have completed an assessment of their comptrollership capacity and are implementing positive change. Significant near-term progress is expected in these departments and seven more organizations are at various stages of the assessment process. The management board will expand this assessment and improvement approach to other departments and agencies on a continuing basis.

A broad-based Financial Information Strategy is now being implemented to facilitate managers' use of financial information, including accrual-based information. This will allow costs to be closely linked to activities, operations and results - an essential building block of integrated performance information, stewardship and accountability.

Revised Management Frameworks and Policies

An integrated risk-management framework will be developed and adapted for use by departments and agencies. Best practices will be communicated and training will be provided so that risk management is recognized as an essential part of decision making.

The management board will review and update its procurement, real property, asset management and project management policies to better support modern management practices and responsible spending in these areas. In the implementation of its Financial Information Strategy, the management board will also review all financial management and accounting policies.

Working with departments and agencies, the management board will develop and implement plans to better position and strengthen the program evaluation and audit functions within the broader effort to implement modern comptrollership and results-based management across the government.

The management board will also work with its partners to develop a comprehensive set of comptrollership-related standards that respond to the challenges and circumstances faced in Government of Canada organizations.


Canadians have a fundamental right to know what is achieved through the use of their tax dollars. Strengthening accountability to Parliament and to citizens is an integral part of the management board's change agenda.

The aim is to provide parliamentarians and Canadians with high-quality information about the plans and achievements of the Government of Canada. This information is key to implementing a citizen-focused agenda, since it allows Canadians to engage more effectively in understanding and shaping public policy.

Better Information in Government Reports

Following recent consultations with parliamentarians, the Treasury Board in its management board role developed a new reporting regime that includes annual Reports on Plans and Priorities and Departmental Performance Reports tabled by departments and agencies in Parliament. Treasury Board also provides Parliament with an annual report, Managing for Results, which provides an overview of efforts to strengthen results-based management, highlights best practices and sets the agenda.

Much remains to be done to improve the quality of the information in these reports. Comptrollership projects such as the Financial Information Strategy and accrual accounting - as well as ongoing work to manage for results - will yield improved information for organizations to manage their activities and report to Parliament. This will support transparency, citizen engagement and accountability.

The management board will continue to consult with parliamentarians to tailor information to better meet their needs, to improve channels of access and the timeliness of information, and to strengthen the financial accountability framework through which costs are related to operations, activities and results.

In addition, the management board will work with departments and agencies to strengthen reporting in areas involving interdepartmental, intergovernmental and other partnerships. This is necessary to deliver on the accountability and reporting provisions of the Social Union Framework Agreement. To provide context for understanding other performance information, the board will work with departments and agencies towards a more comprehensive reporting regime that includes societal indicators.


As citizens well know, public resources are limited and the Government of Canada must be prudent in its budgeting. In order to serve citizens well, programs must be structured, managed and resourced to function effectively. The distribution of resources between existing programs and potential new initiatives must be balanced, so that the overall program mix achieves the right results for Canadians.

The Whole-of-Government Perspective

Ensuring the integrity of programs that are critical to the health, safety and well-being of Canadians is a primary function of the Treasury Board in its management board role.

Recently the management board has made program integrity the focus of an ongoing appraisal of the state of departmental and agency operations. This considers whether results are being delivered consistent with priorities, identifies critical risks to the continued achievement of results, determines whether strategies are in place to mitigate those risks and, where appropriate, helps departments in managing risks. This includes funding support when that is a justified solution.

The management board now also considers spending within broad policy sectors, on a whole-of-government basis, assessing whether the program mix is effective in providing results at reasonable cost. Here, key questions include the existence of appropriate policy frameworks and whether institutional, policy or human resource gaps exist and are being addressed. Analysis may look at the investments, improvements and risk-management methods necessary to increase productivity or to mitigate the pressures and risks being experienced. And it may consider alternative delivery methods - whether partnerships could improve performance or productivity, or provide better service to Canadians.

This knowledge supports the Government of Canada's priority-setting process. Knowledge of performance in the existing expenditure base is important, as policy and investment choices are being made for the future.

Recently, the management board has focused on areas where departments needed funding to help them manage critical risks. Capital investments to deal with health and safety issues were a major consideration. Analysis considered questions as diverse as whether the Royal Canadian Mounted Police were technologically equipped to deal with the globalization of crime; whether the Department of Public Works and Government Services had the capacity to maintain its stock of capital assets; whether there were gaps in the Government of Canada's search and rescue capabilities; and whether departments and agencies were properly resourced to manage immigration admissions and the increasing number of illegal entries into Canada.

These are important issues and the management board intends to continue its system-wide analysis of program integrity. It was inevitable that initial attention would be focused on the funding necessary to restore critical programs. Over the longer term, the management board will work with departments and broaden the scope of its analysis to consider alternative ways to deliver programs and structure resources as well.


The management board will support departments and agencies in making the federal public service an exemplary workplace - one in which employees are able to make their best contributions to Canadians.

Laying the Groundwork for Change

Several recent initiatives have helped lay the groundwork for change. Collective bargaining with unions was resumed after a lengthy suspension. In response to a private sector advisory group, a performance measurement program linking executive pay to performance has been introduced. An action plan for the promotion of official languages in the workplace has been developed. And a first-ever public-service-wide employee survey was carried out to assess the quality of management in the workplace, identify specific problem areas and help direct positive change.

Achieving the Government of Canada's exemplary workplace objective will require the sustained efforts of many stakeholders and the management board will lead on a number of fronts. In collaboration with departments, unions and others, a gender-neutral Universal Classification Standard will be implemented. The standard will modernize the classification of work and bring about much-needed administrative improvements. This initiative is more than just a technical exercise. By applying a common standard to the value of work, it will promote fairness and equity. By reducing over 70 job classification standards to one, it will simplify the system. The standard will provide a platform for significant, positive changes in public service human resources management.

The management board will continue efforts to strengthen relationships with unions and other stakeholders. A major task force established to recommend ways to improve labour-management relationships is expected to table its report early in 2001. Recent changes in pension legislation have led to the establishment of advisory groups to increase consultation with staff members of the Canadian Forces, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police and public service unions on a wide range of pension issues, including design, funding and administration.

The management board will follow up on issues identified in the recent public service employee survey. Initiatives identified will support departments and agencies in improving conditions of work and workplace well-being. Union representatives at both the departmental and corporate levels will be involved in the identification of follow-up activities. Progress in achieving expected results will be measured in various ways, including another survey in two to three years.

Demographic analyses of the Public Service indicate the likelihood of a large number of retirements over the next five to ten years. Accordingly, the management board will work with departments, agencies, the Public Service Commission, the Privy Council Office and others to implement recruitment, retention, learning and career development strategies. Particular emphasis will be placed on critical skill areas and on improving the representation of employment equity groups. A task force addressing issues specific to the representation of members of visible minority groups within the public service will issue its report in 2000 and its recommendations will guide efforts in this regard. In addition, a task force on an inclusive public service will advise on how to achieve a federal public service that reflects the diversity of the Canadian labour force and the general population. This work, which promotes a culture where differences are valued, will further contribute to the development of an exemplary workplace.


Canada is an outward-looking country with a productive, trade-based economy and a population drawn from every corner of the globe. This country has a reputation internationally for good governance, diversity, hard work and success.

National public institutions are vitally important to Canada's well-being. They must be managed to the highest standards.

By regaining control of its federal finances in the mid-1990s, Canada took an important step. The vision for the early years of the new century is of a country able to make choices and investments in the kind of society it wants to build and maintain. In this vision, Canada's national institutions of public administration will continue to be among the best in the world. Government of Canada programs and services will be citizen-focused and will benefit from continuous improvement and the use of modern management practices.

The management framework and agenda outlined in this document are no quick fix. Ongoing effort will be required. Just as we can see no end to the globally-induced changes that affect Canadian society, there is no end point to the adaptations government managers must make to continue to serve Canadians well. This management agenda is both sustainable and adaptable.

Working together and guided by collective experience, departments and agencies and the Government of Canada's management board - the Treasury Board and its Secretariat - will continue to collaborate to make federal institutions values-based, results-driven and consistently focused on the needs of Canadians.

Appendix: Further Reading on Management in the Government of Canada

The reader interested in learning more about management issues in the Government of Canada may wish to consult:

A Strong Foundation - Report of the Task Force on Public Service Values and Ethics
Canadian Centre for Management Development

Annual Report to the Prime Minister on the Public Service of Canada
Privy Council Office

Assessment Framework for Modernizing Comptrollership
Treasury Board Secretariat in association with pilot departments.

Citizens First
The Citizen-Centred Service Network,
Canadian Centre for Management Development

Financial Information Strategy Learning Framework
Treasury Board Secretariat

Framework for Good Human Resources Management in the Public Service
Treasury Board Secretariat

Managing for Results 1999
Treasury Board Secretariat

Modern Comptrollership - Moving Forward
Glen McDougall
FMI Journal, Fall 1999, vol. 11, no. 1.

Modernizing Accountability Practices in the Public Sector: A Joint Paper by the Office of the Auditor General of Canada and the Treasury Board Secretariat

Privacy in an Electronic World - It's Possible
Michael de Rosenroll
Canadian Government Executive, 3, 1999, pp. 4-7.

Report of the Independent Review Panel on Modernization of Comptrollership in the Government of Canada
Treasury Board Secretariat

Strategic Directions for Information Management and Information Technology: Enabling 21st Century Service to Canadians
Treasury Board Secretariat

The Enhanced Management Framework for Information Management and Information Technology "Solutions: Putting the Principles to Work"
Treasury Board Secretariat

Treasury Board and Business Planning Principles
Treasury Board Secretariat

Update for HR Professionals on Business Planning and Reporting in the Government of Canada
Treasury Board Secretariat